During the ripening of the crop, raspberry bushes are often bent by the load of fruits or strong wind, which complicates the picking of berries. For the convenience of work during harvesting, one particular agricultural application is used - fixing plants on supports, made in the form of a horizontal or vertical plane. For this purpose it is best to use a special trellis, although some gardeners tie bushes to separate stakes. How to make a bed for raspberries and a trellis with your own hands, you can find below.
Contentsraspberries on the trellis, preparing the beds
Purpose and advantages of the trellis for growing raspberries
a look at the purpose of the tapestry. The fact is that most modern, high-yielding varieties of the described berries have a considerable height, about 1.6-1.8 meters, so some plants do not withstand the load of the crop. All of them have sufficiently developed lateral fruit branches, which, when ripe, tilt down.
poles The advantages of using a trellis in raspberries are obvious:
- if you tie up bushes, the lower branches will not touch the ground , therefore the surface of berries and leaves will not be contaminated by soil;
- on the fruits there are no traces of dirt after heavy rain;
- raspberry rows are well blown by the wind , which prevents the development of various diseases;
- raspberry bushes receive a sufficient amount of sunlight , which will contribute to a more uniform ripening of the crop.
The use of a trellis in the garden also simplifies the maintenance of the raspberries and serves as a barrier. After the garter of the bushes, it is much more convenient to carry out such agrotechnical measures as pruning of crops, removal of damaged and fruit bearing shoots. It is easier to water and mulch the plants, clean ripe berries, prepare the bushes for the winter.
Construction options for an
trellis. The raspberry trellis is a special design that consists of a series of pillars. Between them, at a certain height, several rows of metal wire or a reinforced rope are stretched, and reinforcement can also be used. In practice, two basic types of trellis are used: single-sided or double-sided .According to experienced gardeners, the first type of trellis is better to use on small-sized areas.
Single-strip trellis, ways of tying berries
The main purpose of the described support structure is to hold the raspberry shoots on a taut wire or string. In this case, the berry harness is carried out in the following ways: :
- in the vertical direction;
- under a certain bias;
- free placement of fruit branches.
All the described methods of garter are possible on one type of trellis, when the branches of the plant are fixed in a certain order between the rows of wire.
In this case, during the installation of a trellis in early spring, branches from the last year are bent to the ground and fixed horizontally. During the growing season, the fruit branches will begin to grow upwards, but dormant buds will remain on the main shoot near the base. A similar method of forming a bush simplifies the work on the shelter of a raspberry plantation for the winter .The disadvantage of the described method is the need for securing and garter every bush. On a small raspberry field, such works will not cause much trouble to the gardener, but if there is a large plantation, the need to garter each plant is considered a disadvantage.
For large areas of plantations, it is recommended to use two-lane supports. Such constructions can be divided into several varieties:
- in the shape of the letter T;
- hip horizontal;
- as a symbol V;
- in the form of the letter Y.
The considered supports are made in the form of two rows of wire parallel to each other. The height of the placement of the rails may be different. The bottom row is located at a distance of 50 centimeters from the surface of the earth. The upper tier of the wire can be installed at 3 meters, it depends on the height of the bushes. Such a construction prevents the thickening of stands , makes it possible to orient the fruiting shoots in different directions, which speeds up the ripening of the crop.
As the name implies, the design described is designed as T-shaped supports. The main material for the device racks such a trellis are wooden bars, metal pipes, as well as trimming fittings. Usually such elements in the upper part are fixed perpendicular to each other. Wire rows must be fastened along the protruding edges of the rail. During the formation of the bush shoots are laid on different sleeves of the trellis. In this case, in the center of the plant, young growth begins to form, which is almost not obscured by the main fruiting plants.
In this construction, two working planes lean from the middle of the bushes to the sides. In this regard, such a trellis is often referred to as a double-lane oblique .The formation of plants occurs according to the previous scheme, but the distance between the edges of the working planes should not be larger than 2 meters.
Y shaped trellis
This is the newest trellis version for tying and caring for raspberry bushes. A special feature of this design is the use of hinges and blades , which helps orient the working plane of the trellis in a convenient direction at a certain angle. In summer, the blades are raised, lowered for winter or spring, which allows you to build a shelter to protect plants from the cold.
How to make a trellis with your own hands, the dimensions of the supports
As we described above, all types of trellis are made of wooden or metal supports of various shapes between which a wire is stretched at a certain height. Moreover, wire tiers can be single or paired , it depends on the type of trellis.
For the manufacture of a trellis in the form of a vertical plane on the site in a certain direction, drive in wooden pegs and pull the cord. After that, digging holes every two or three meters with a shovel or a special garden drill. In the pits to a depth of 0.7 meters set wooden posts, and then stretch and fix on the supports several rows of wire( usually three). The first row of guides is fixed at a distance of 40-50 centimeters from the surface of the earth , the second in the central part of the shoots of the bush, the last row of wire should be located 20 centimeters below the raspberry tops.
When building a T-shaped trellis, the individual lanes are T-shaped. In this case, the main stand of wooden bars or metal should have a height of about 1.2-1.3 meters. The cross-bar is attached to the base with nails( for wooden products) or by welding( for metal pipes).On the main trellis column install two rows of wire and two more sides of the top. Thus, the during the ripening of the berries, the fruit branches will lay on the wire, but the middle part of the bushes will not sag from gravity, because the stalks of the plants will be fixed on the lower rows of the wire.
Scheme of planting raspberries on the trellis, preparing the beds
To obtain good yields of raspberries on the trellis, it is necessary to prepare the land in time for planting crops. In this case, raspberries are planted in one row of , which will simplify the care of the culture. First, a shallow trench is pulled up, about a spade of a spade up to 50 centimeters wide. At the site of planting plants loosen the soil with garden forks. At this point, water is poured at the rate of 10 liters of fluid for every meter of the row, the ground thrown out of the groove is thoroughly mixed with complex mineral fertilizers and wood ash( for every meter of the row, take a liter jar of ash and 200 grams of nitroammofoski).
The prepared raspberry seedlings are laid out 25 centimeters from each other, after which they straighten the root system of the plants and sprinkle them with nutritious soil. To improve the contact of the roots with the ground, the soil is compacted and then irrigated with .When planting plants in early spring, the bushes are cut so that the upper part of the shoot protrudes above the ground by about 20-30 centimeters, followed by mulching the soil using sawdust or broken straw.
During the growing season, as the shoots grow, raspberries are tied to the rows of the trellis .As we have said, the individual columns of the trellis are installed at a distance of 2-3 meters from each other( using powerful supports, the distance can be increased to 4-5 meters).To increase the life of wooden poles, their base, which will be located in the ground, is coated with hot resin or fired. Note that the diameter of the pillars should not be less than 15 centimeters, the height is about 2 meters. To install the columns usually use a shovel, less often a special drill. Rows of wire or reinforcement are installed between the columns every 50 centimeters.
Raspberry care: feeding, watering and pest control
Basic raspberry care begins during the first fruits. During this period, should be periodically irrigated, loosening the aisles, destroy weed plants .A layer of mulch will help keep moisture in the ground during the growing season.
The first feeding of raspberries is carried out with the use of complex mineral fertilizers in early spring. In this situation, the water that is released after the snow melts will dissolve the granules of nutrients and will contribute to their penetration into the soil before the root system of the plants.
The second feeding of berries is carried out during the formation and ripening of the crop. The third enrichment of soil with nutrients is carried out in the autumn. When preparing raspberries for winter, it is important not to fertilize it with nitrogen, because this element stimulates the development of plants. In this regard, for the winter raspberries are fed with a mixture of potassium and phosphorus .Increase the amount of fertilizer during the growing season is not necessary. More nutrients in the soil will contribute to the development of green mass, but will not increase the yield.
With pests and diseases begin to fight with the spring .To begin with, cultures are examined for damage. The leaves damaged by the chapel are cut and burned. The remaining stands are treated with a Bordeaux mixture of 4% concentration. This drug is used to prevent fungal diseases. For the destruction of insecticides on the landings of raspberries are used insecticides.
Another measure of care for the considered berries is considered timely trimming .During these operations, the most developed stems are left at the site, the rest are cut. Proper care of the described crop, timely watering, feeding and pruning, tying shoots to the wire will allow you to harvest a rich harvest. In our article, we learned how to make a raspberry trellis and care for this culture. I hope that the information provided will be useful, good luck and good harvests to you.