13. Plasterboard of the chims of the vamans of 2008e - irreplaceable thing, especially if you are used to do many things with their hands. With this simple tool, you can perform not only the usual operations for us, for example, to hammer a nail, but many other works, because today there is a very many different in various applications. We will understand what types of hammers are, what is their purpose, and try to decide how to choose a hammer.
1. Construction of the hammer and basic materials
The first hammer appeared a long time ago. We can say that this is the first tool that people used for their needs. We all saw the hammer, held it in our hands many times and know that the simplest hammer consists of
of two basic elements : the handle and the head.
The head has an asymmetrical shape, one part of it has a point, which is called a wedge, and the other part is flat or slightly convex, it is called a head. This is the main hammer part , which accounts for the main work. It has sufficient strength and area to withstand repeated shocks on hard surfaces. The wedge-shaped part of the hammer serves for splitting something or when minting. Its shape allows you to develop a large impact force due to the smaller area of the contact surface.
In the center of the head there is a special hole for fixing the handle, which is called .Usually it is made in the form of a round or oval hole, which smoothly turns into a cone. After attaching the head to the handle, a part of it that protrudes from the hole is wedged so that it completely occupies the internal cavity of the vsad. Such a mount prevents the head from dropping.
In order to ensure high strength and durability of the head, it is made of of high-strength metal by forging, casting or milling, followed by heat treatment. Special hardening modes allow to achieve a high surface strength with a viscous core. Reinforced surface layer reaches 3-5 mm. Such a structure provides high hardness, but at the same time protects head from fragility. For protection head against corrosion, it is coated with electroplated coating or use special types of paints.
Universal material for making handle hammer has always been a tree. It is very durable, does not slip in the hand and has a long period of service, and if you break the handle in the process of use, it is very easy to replace it or even to make it yourself. It is very important that the fibers of the wood from which the handle is made are perpendicular to the head. In this case, if you break it, you will not get hurt. Breed of tree must be of a certain type .For these purposes, well beech, birch, ash, oak, hornbeam, maple or mountain ash. Not suitable species are pine, aspen, alder and spruce.
There are handles made of metal or plastic , and more modern hammers are available with fiberglass handles. This is a new material that proved to be very well in use. It does not slip in your hand and helps reduce the recoil force on impact. Metal handles are hollow inside, have the shape of a circle in cross section, and for convenience of work, are covered with rubber. Plastic handles are also covered with a layer of rubber. Plastic, metal or fiberglass handles have two advantages over a tree: they do not crack with time and are not subject to swelling when in contact with water. Choose depending on what material you are more comfortable and more pleasant to work with. The main thing is that the handle was much lighter than the head and had the appropriate length.
2. Bench hammer and its purpose
The construction of the hammer hammer is described in detail in the first paragraph. This is the easiest and common type of working tool. He designed for driving, breaking, bending or straightening parts. The pointed edge in the form of a wedge allows you to hammer in a nail with a small cap and perform work in an inaccessible place where the widest part of the head cannot fit.
A hammer drill can have not only square but also round shape in cross section. The square type has one lack of - if at the moment of impact you twisted the hammer and the oblique angle fell on the surface of the material being processed, a dent will certainly remain on it. Such defects are especially grieving when assembling new furniture.
Since the hammer is designed for applying multiple blows, it must be made by from very strong material .Perfectly suitable chrome-vanadium steel , which has a high hardness that will help avoid the deformation or destruction of the striker. The weight of the hammer machine ranges from depending on its number. In total, there are five numbers, weight No. 1 - 200 g, No. 5 - 800 g. Choose the weight of the hammer depending on the type of work and physical strength of the worker. The length of the handle , on average, is 300-400 mm.
joiner's hammer The design of the joiner's hammer has a distinctive feature of .At one of its ends, a special slot is made, which can have a different angle of cultivation and slightly curved edges. This bifurcation serves to extract nails from the required surface. Hammers with a large angle of cultivation of the groove called Californian, and with a smaller angle - European. But not all joinery hammers are made as a nail puller at one end. There are tools with a regular wedge at the end and a perfectly even striker.
The handle can be made of wood, metal or plastic with rubber coating, which serve to prevent slipping in the hand. Such hammers are considered rather not percussion, but precise instruments. The has its head in the range of 100-800 grams in 50 g increments.
The joiner's hammer can look extremely simple - the impact part made of tool steel and a wooden handle, or have a more ergonomic shape and some additional functions. For example, its handle can be made of from high-strength material fiberglass or carbon, and the impact part - from titanium or other high-strength steel with special anti-corrosion coating and passed a special heat treatment. As an additional function, there may be a holder for nails, which will allow you to work with one hand. And its design can be folding or team, which makes it very compact and easy to store.
This is the largest , powerful and heavy type of hammer. The weight of the of such a tool can reach 4-10 kg, but there are more serious tools that have a weight of the working part and up to 16 kg. Their s use for work that requires high impact force, but low accuracy, for example, dismantling partitions, old tiles, crushing concrete or stone, driving poles into the ground, driving wedges, and other hard work.
The head of this tool is made of from high-strength forging steel, followed by heat treatment in the form of quenching to the required hardness and can be in the form of a parallelepiped or a conventional hammer. By the way, the depth of the hardened layer of after quenching reaches 30 mm. The handle has a larger diameter and length in comparison with previous models, which means working with two hands.
The length of the handle is directly proportional to the weight of the working part of the sledge hammer: the higher it is, the longer the handle is and can reach 120 cm, but usually ranges from 80-90 cm. The cheapest sledge hammer has a wooden handle, but it can be all-metal.
The hole into which the handle is inserted, is conical, and the handle itself is inserted from above and does not need to be wedged. This assembly method completely prevents the from slipping off the massive head. When working with a sledgehammer, you must be extremely careful, because it is considered a traumatic tool. The species of the sledgehammer are somewhat , but the most used one is a blunt-nosed sledgehammer weighing 2-16 kg, longitudinal or sharp-nosed, and weighing from 3 to 8 kg. The preferred version of the handle is rubberized, it is more expensive than wooden, but the tool will be held securely in your hands and dampen the vibration upon impact.
This type of hammer can also include leveling hammers .They are designed for leveling iron products, which have undergone deformation, drainage systems, roofing and other works that are associated with the use of sheet metal .
This tool has one very interesting feature of the .The impact part of the leveling hammer is made with an internal cavity, which is filled with sand or fine shot. Such a structure made it possible to completely extinguish the inertia of the hammer during the impact. When working, it does not bounce off the surface and practically “sticks” to it. Such hammers received the name without inertia .They are made of rubber or polyurethane, and some models are made of metal with interchangeable heads of a softer material.
Kiyanka designed for plumbing and carpentry work, namely for straightening, leveling or fitting large items made of soft metals or wood. The impact part of an tool is made of from rubber or hardwood , for example, birch or elm. Rubber can be both black and white. White males of the are preferable, since dark stripes can remain on the light surfaces from the blow of black rubber.
uses wood, plastic or metal as the material of the handle, usually the handle has the shape of a circle in cross section. Depending on the purpose of the , males may have a different shape of the hammer part. The tool for carpentry work is cylindrical or barrel-shaped, while in the metalworkers, one side is wedge-shaped. The advantage of these types of hammers is that they do not leave dents and marks on the treated surface.
When choosing an mallet, you need to focus on the type of work performed. If these are more accurate actions, then you need a tool of low weight from 220 to 450 g, if you need a large impact force, then pay attention to tools weighing from 900 to 1000. The price policy of of this type of hammer is very different, but notIt is worth choosing the most expensive mall. Differences from the average pricing tool you are unlikely to find, which means that you will overpay for the "name".
6. A pick or a pick
This hand tool is used to work with hard materials , namely stone or rocky ground, to dismantle old masonry and many other hard work. The construction of picks is very simple. It consists of a drum and a handle. The impact part can be double-sided or single-sided .The second option will look like a long spike, on the end of which there will be a rounding or a normal hammer. A two-sided pick has either two symmetrical long tenons, or a tenon and a narrow blade. In any embodiment, the spikes will be slightly curved, and arc .This design is more productive and reduces the recoil force during a strike.
A quality pick should be made of high quality tool steel. The handle of a pickaxe has a thickening at the end, on which the hammer part is attached, which makes it impossible to gather. As material for a handle more often became used fiberglass or metal covered with two-component rubber. This is due to their ability to dampen vibrations upon impact, the material’s insensitivity to moisture and chemicals, and anti-skid properties. The weight of this tool may be different. For example, a pickaxe for domestic use weighs 500-600 g, and for more serious work - 2.5-3 kg. In the same way, dimensions picks are also distinguished. If the length of the spikes is in the range from 20 to 30 cm, then this option is more suitable for domestic needs, if from 50 to 70 cm, then for professional ones.
design of this type of hammer is very successful for perform construction or installation work , namely installation of paving slab to remove the excess stone and give it the desired shape, to remove old layers of plaster andmany other jobs related to hard materials.
The impact part of the hammer has two different surfaces .One is a square smooth face, and the opposite has a flat, pointed nose. The material for the manufacture of the head is tool steel , which is very strong, hard and practically not subject to deformation or destruction. The handle of such a hammer can be made of wood, which is the cheapest option, all-metal handles are less common, and more and more often, they began to produce tools with fiberglass handles.
We mentioned the merits of the material in the first paragraph. In order for to protect the impact part of the hammer from for the occurrence of corrosion , it is coated with special varnishes or paints, or protective electroplated coating is used. In order to give it increased hardness, is carried out with a special heat treatment, which consists in quenching and subsequent tempering. This allows you to maintain a high indicator of hardness and remove the internal stress of the metal, thereby reducing its fragility. Such hammers have low weight and affordable price .
The automatic mason’s hammer was developed specifically for the ease of masonry. He has not yet gained enough popularity, but he has very significant advantages. The design of the automatic hammer consists of two laser levels, a pneumatic element that creates a shock moment and a laser receiver that is able to “understand” and receive signals from other laser beams. The use of such a tool is very simple, but effective.
Suppose you have completed a piece of brickwork, but you doubt that its main parameter was observed - strict perpendicularity to the base. That for leveling masonry and bring it to the ideal and serves as an automatic hammer of the mason. It is installed directly on the last row of bricks, its laser levels create a mark on which you need to navigate, then each brick is adjusted to one level. Very simple, understandable, and most importantly, really functional.
If earlier the quality of the masonry was determined by the skills of the worker, and one had only to hope for his consciousness and qualification, now such a difficult job can be done independently. Especially since labor productivity when using this tool increases almost 5 times , and its high cost will pay off after a couple of months of use.
8. Roofing hammer
The name of this tool speaks for itself, this type of hammer was designed specifically for roofing .The purpose of the hammer is to make holes for fasteners, to hook boards or nails, even to chop soft materials or to crate the sheathing. And all this thanks to the correct construction of the tool. One of the sides of its striking part is made in the form of an ordinary striking striker, while the second, which performs the basic functions, looks like a pointed forked claw, one end of which is shorter than the first by about 2/3.
To select the robust roofing hammer, you need to pay attention to the material of which it is made. It should be only chrome-vanadium steel. Due to the fact that it is alloyed with such a component as vanadium, which is considered to be one of the most refractory materials, its strength reaches significantly greater values than ordinary steels. In addition to the material, must be treated with special thermal treatment in the form of high-temperature hardening, and to protect against corrosion, the impact part is coated with special varnishes or paints.
The handle can be made from either wood or fiberglass or be all-metal. The weight of the roofing hammer should be chosen depending on the intensity of the work you are planning to carry out. If it will be heavy installation work that requires serious effort, then you should choose a heavier tool weighing from 600 to 900 g. If it is more accurate and simple tasks, then give preference to a lighter hammer weighing 200 to 500 g.
Perhaps not everyone knows about the existence of this type of hammer. His is used in welding of varying complexity. It serves to remove slag from the surface of the weld. So that after welding, the worker could check the integrity of the seam and the correctness of its performance, performing slack blows with a welding hammer, it cleans the surface, thereby ensuring itself a good visibility.
With this tool you can remove scale and spatter of hot metal, which are formed during electrode welding. The design of the welding hammer is a bit like the construction of a pickaxe. It is also made in the form of a chisel on one end and a thin sting on the other, only it does not have arcuate bends. Just with the help of the stinger and removed the remnants of slag in the weld. The weight of this tool is very small, no more than 300-350 grams, but more is not required, because it is more accurate than power work. The most common material for the handle is wood, less often it is made of all-metal , and the impact part is made of durable tool steel with subsequent heat treatment in the form of hardening.
10. Tinsmith's hammer
This type of hammer is designed for assembly or installation work , roofing, straightening of thick sheet metal surfaces or laying paving slabs. The impact part of such a hammer is made in the form of a barrel-shaped or cylindrical shape with convex ends. It is usually made of special rubber, which leaves no on the surface. With the help of this hammer, you can bend or, conversely, level or give various forms to materials without damaging their integrity. Therefore, it is often used by motorists. The weight of this tool ranges from 300 to 700 g. The handle is usually made of viscous tree species such as ash or birch.
11. Breed hammer
Many people confuse this type of hammer with a sledge hammer due to its size and design. They are really similar, but there are differences. breed hammer has solid forged and very strong .One end of it has a flat square shape, and the other is made in the form of a tip, flattened from two sides. Thanks to this design, this tool is successfully used by for working with building structures, hard rocks, as well as for their splitting. Existence of an edge also distinguishes this hammer from a sledge hammer.
From the field of application it is clear that the material for the impact part must be made of high-strength steel and undergo special hardening to obtain a hardened surface. In order to transfer a large impact force to the desired surface, the tool must have sufficient weight and a long handle. It is these differences that are inherent in the rock mallet. Its weight reaches 1.5 - 2.5 kg, therefore, the greater the weight, the longer the handle should be.
For convenience, the handle is made in the form of an oval in cross section, and some manufacturers additionally make it curved. This allows the to avoid slipping of the during operation. The cheapest material for a stick is wood. But fiberglass or fiberglass handles are in great demand because of their ability to dampen vibrations. Less common are all-metal handles covered with rubber.
12. Tiled hammer
This is the smallest type of hammers. With the success of , it is used by tile finishers. With it, you can very accurately split off the necessary piece of tile, apply marking or make a hole, while not contributing to the appearance of cracks. The weight of this hammer does not exceed 80 g. Its shock part of the is very small and has two sides. One is made in the form of a pointed cone, and the second has a square shape. The handle of this tool is mostly wooden. Such small dimensions allow the to make very fine work of the .So, if the repair is your way to profit, do not forget to get yourself this assistant.
13. Drywall Hammer
How often have you had to work with drywall? At least once in a life, probably, precisely. After all, this is almost universal material from which you can make many design elements with your own hands. To facilitate your work, they invented a special hammer to work with this material. Its design has one end, made in the form of an hatchet , and the other end is rounded. With it, you can chip off the extra parts of drywall.
For example, you face the task of making an arch. You have already completed the main part of the task - you made a frame, it remains only to sheathe it. All the necessary elements have already been cut, you already hold a screwdriver in your hand, apply a fragment with your second hand and start the installation, and at the last moment you notice that there is clearly an extra piece that protrudes beyond the required limits. Do not unscrew the entire fragment back to trim, right? Here and useful hammer on drywall .And if you need to drive something into the drywall, then the rounded impact part of this tool will not leave the dents on a soft surface.
Copper Hammer The advantage of this type of hammer is that it does not produce sparks on impact. This feature allows you to perform work in hazardous areas .The impact part usually has a rectangular shape and, accordingly, is made of copper — a non-ferrous metal of red color. Copper is known for its high corrosion resistance, it does not change its strength characteristics even at very low temperatures, is not influenced by chemicals, so the copper hammer will serve you for many years . The handle of this tool is usually made of wood. The weight of the lies in the range from 200 g to 2 kg.
15. glazier's hammer
This hammer applies rather rarely , which we consider an unfair omission. It performs one single, but very convenient function. With it, you can clog window shtapiki .Indeed, in cross section, its impact part has the shape of a trapezium, which narrows towards the end. This way you will hit the stud precisely and not the glass or frame. After all, surely this is what happened when you tried to do it with an ordinary hammer. The weight of this hammer is not more than 125 g. It is because of the small size of the special form of the striker, it is very convenient. The handle is made of wood, and the shock part of their tool steel.
16. What to look for when choosing a hammer
Due to the of a considerable number of types of hammers , which we have examined in detail, you should be very careful when buying .Whatever hammer you need, always pay attention to the . The quality of its performance is .Carefully inspect it.
wooden handles must not have knots or separate long fibers. They should be perfectly smooth and even without cracks. Plastic , fiberglass or fiberglass handles should not be cracked. Rubberized handles must have uniform coating without blistering and detachment. The color should also be uniform. If there is a bright spot somewhere, this indicates a thin layer of coating.
Do not buy hammers with full metal handles without special thickenings on the handle or without coating. Such a tool will constantly slip and transmit strong vibrations upon impact. The fastening point of the handle to the impact part should not have gaps and backlashes. It should sit firmly in place and even after the application of force should not be shifted. Now it's time for to test for the strength of material , from which the percussion part is made. Since you are in the store, the only thing you can do is to take the second hammer and to hit with them on the surface of the hammer you liked. The seller is likely to be unhappy, but you will immediately understand whether to make a purchase. There should be no dents or scratches on the on the surface of the .
Also note the weight of the .If you buy a hammer for home use , then 350-450 g tools will suffice. For heavier jobs, a weight of at least 600 g is needed. If the test for impact and visual inspection is passed successfully, then you can safely get your new assistant .