A comfortable bathhouse on your site is a dream that can always be translated into reality on your own. One of the key moments of its construction is the solution of the problem of removal of wastewater.
How do you set up sewage for a bath with your own hands and what points to take into account when designing and installing the system, let's take a closer look.
The content of the article:
- Type of sewer system
- Determination of terrain conditions and soil type
- Choosing a place under the sewage treatment plant
- Sewage scheme design
- Options for arrangement of water seal
- Selection of necessary materials
- Installation of the system during the construction phase
- Laying of sewage in the already finished building
Laying of the external sewerage
- Photo-installation guide sewage station
- Construction of sewage treatment plant
- Trenching and Pipeline
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Type of sewer system
The device of a properly designed waste water disposal system is being pushed not only by aesthetic norms, but also by the current requirements aimed at maintaining the safety of the environment.
According to standards 30-02-97, collection and testing of wastewater from a bath and shower should be carried out with the help of cleaning and filtering facilities in which sand and gravel dumping is provided.
Constructive solutions of autonomous sewers erected during the construction of the bath, there can be many.
By type of action, independent systems are divided into two types:
- Free-flow system - involves the movement of sewage through it by gravity. This effect is achieved through a properly maintained angle of the pipeline.
- Pressure system - provides for the forced transportation of waste with the use of pumping equipment.
A sewage system for a bathhouse is constructed, regardless of whether the water supply system is connected or not. In any case, the very nature of the object involves the abundant use of water that must be disposed of.
At arrangement of the gravity system line angle determined by pipe diameter.
According to clause 18.2 of SNiPa 2.04.01-85, the slope of the sewage system, depending on the diameter of the pipes used, should be about 15 millimeters per each running meter
The gravity system is non-volatile, but it is quite problematic to correctly design it with difficult terrain.
The pressure system is volatile and costs more expensive than non-pressure. But she easily solves problems that can not cope with gravity. In order to be able to transport wastewater over long distances, when installing a pressure system it is important to take care of the insulation of technical elements in the cold season.
The scheme of arrangement of pressure independent sewage with the connection of pumping equipment in the basement of the building when the septic tank is located above the pipe leaving the building
The service life of the pressure sewer system is not calculated for more than a decade, and the cost of its device is more than paid for. The main thing is to use pumping equipment equipped with grinderwhich grinds solids into the drain.
Connecting the pipeline to a centralized sewer system is less labor intensive, but at the same time more troublesome. Since only a few bath owners can put it into practice, we will not study its features in detail.
Regardless of the type of sewage system chosen for the bath, it is extremely important to observe the straightness of the highway. If turning points are provided for laying the pipeline, then inspection wells will need to be built in the places of their arrangement.
Determination of terrain conditions and soil type
The first thing that needs to be done when constructing a sewage system in a bath is to determine the condition of the soil on the site.
At this stage it is important to identify:
- Groundwater level.
- The point of soil freezing in winter.
The depth at which the pipes of the external sewage system should be laid and equip the septic tank directly depends on this.
Knowing the level of groundwater and taking into account the freezing point of the soil in the winter, you will ensure trouble-free operation of the sewer system
You can get information on the depth of soil freezing from building reference books, for example, from the “Building Climatology”, or after talking with neighbors who have already performed similar work.
You can find out the type of soil by performing simple manipulations and checking the figures with the data in the table below. To do this, in the place where you plan to lay the pipeline, you need to dig a hole with a depth of 25-30 cm below the mark of freezing.
Sample for the study taken from the bottom of the excavated pit. The rock sample is first ground between the fingers, and then rolled into a ball.
A piece of land taken on trial is evaluated visually and studied tactilely, comparing its observations with tabular data and making the appropriate conclusions based on this.
Dealing with loams and sandy loams, which belong to the category of heaving soils, when laying the external sewage system, the bottom of the trenches will have to be equipped with a sand "cushion". Acting as a damper, the sand will prevent damage to the pipeline during the spring movement of the ground.
According to the type of organization of sewage drains, the sewage system is divided into organized and unorganized:
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Organized sewer system involves the laying of pipes connected to water intake devices and plumbing. Piped water collected by devices is transferred outside the bath to a septic tank or gutter.
In the baths with unorganized sewer systems, the so-called pouring floors, water through the gaps between the boards goes directly into the ground. This is the easiest and cheapest way, but involving the use of baths exclusively in the summer season.
In the case of the partial organization of sewage in the floors perform waterproofing, and for the collection and removal of water install drain. If a sewer pipe is not connected to it, water is drained into the soil under the bath; if it is connected, water is diverted to a septic tank or to a drain.
In an organized sewage system, the internal piping connects to an external branch that leads dirty water to a septic tank or gutter.
Pipes for the device organized flow
Unorganized version of the water flow
Drain hole in the wooden floor
The outer part of an organized sewer system
Choosing a place under the sewage treatment plant
To unpleasant odors do not annoy the owners and guests of the site, it is important to correctly calculate the location of the facility.
Regardless of the type of wastewater treatment plant being built, in determining its location should be guided by current sanitary norms
The distance of the waste point should be:
- to the basement of the bath - 4-7 m;
- to the point of water intake - from 10 m;
- to green spaces - from 2 meters;
- to the road - 5 m.
AT SNiP 2.04.03-85 the points also spelled out the minimum allowable distance that should be maintained from the septic tank to the border with the neighboring section. It should be at least 3 meters.
For the processing of drains transported from the bath, various types of treatment facilities are used:
A photo of
The most common option for arranging a cleaning station for a bath is a septic tank made of concrete rings. This may be a single-chamber well with a filter bottom or a two-chamber system, the second chamber of which will be absorbing
If the toilet will be organized in the bath, then to collect the waste it is better to install a storage tank - an airtight container that needs to be pumped out as it is filled.
For frequently visited baths with a toilet, a volumetric drive arranged with the help of a ready-made reinforced concrete structure would be the best choice.
Recycling and disposal of gray wastewater not connected to faecal masses will be perfectly performed by a brick two- or three-chamber cesspool, the extreme compartment of which will be arranged with a filter bottom.
For cleaning gray drains from a small cottage bathhouse, a self-made absorbing well with a filtering bottom, assembled from used tires, plastic barrels or Eurocubes, is suitable.
The highest level of purification will be received by sewage processed at the sewage station operating according to aerobic technology.
The sewage station requires regular supply of oxygen pumped by compressors, and electricity is required for their operation.
For stations operated only during the summer period, compressors are installed in the station body. If the system is supposed to be used all year round, the compressors are placed in a heated room in the house.
Septic for a bath of concrete rings
Plastic reservoir tank
Hermetic concrete structure
Cesspool with brick overflow
Budget version of the cleaning point
Complex expensive equipment
Efficient volatile system
Location of compressors in the box station
Sewage scheme design
Design and installation of autonomous sewer system includes two mandatory parts:
- internal - includes communications laid indoors;
- outdoor - combines communications outside the construction.
The project of laying of sewer system at desire can be executed and own forces.
The scale plan of the structure, taking into account the thickness of the bearing walls and interior partitions, is easiest to draw on graph paper or checkered notebook sheet
To simplify calculations on the plan, you must specify:
- Places of installation points of sanitary devices.
- The dimensions of the premises and the distance from the points of discharge to the partitions.
- The place of withdrawal of the main highway.
- Installation fun pipe (if the toilet is provided).
On the plan, the plumbing fixtures are connected to the main pipe at the shortest and at the same time convenient path. The main task is to minimize the number of turns of the highway.
After that, sum up the length of the communications, not forgetting to add an allowance for the thickness of the outer wall, and proceed to the drawing up of the layout of the external wiring.
The basic rules that should be considered when designing outdoor wiring:
- At the junction of the internal and external sewage settle observation hatch.
- At the turning points of the line and the places where the lateral branches of the pipeline branch out, they build manholes.
- The first inspection well is placed no closer than 3 meters from the bath and no further than 12 meters.
According to the prescribed norms of SNiP, when laying the external sewage with pipes D 100-150 mm every 15-30 meters of a straight line, it is necessary to build viewing wells.
If there is a toilet in the room, and the building itself is erected in a relief area with a large angle of inclination, you need to build a multi-stage system, involving the use of differential wells
Dealing with a relatively flat area, when laying the outdoor network throughout its length for ensure the smooth operation of the system, you only need to withstand an angle of 10-15 mm for each meter.
Options for arrangement of water seal
Distribution of fetid odor where there is sewage is not uncommon. To get rid of it helps the installation of a trap. The design is an improvised water plug, which is always in the cavity of the pipe, even during periods when the bath is temporarily not used.
The main purpose of the device is to separate two adjacent gaseous media, cutting off unpleasant odors coming from the septic tank.
The simplest version of the water seal is to connect a U-shaped siphon to the pipeline, which is constructed of three shaped elements in the form of taps.
Simple design has one drawback - with rare operation of the system, the liquid evaporates over time.
For such rarely used systems, it is better to install a “dry” water seal.
"Dry" water seal is a complex structure, equipped with an elastic membrane and a spring mechanism that blocks the exit from the pipe
This design is convenient because when a liquid enters the system under the action of the created pressure valve drops, opening the way for the flow, and after its passage it returns to the initial position.
In the absence of the opportunity to purchase a finished product, you can build a similar structure on your own.
The basis for the manufacture of home-made "dry" hydraulic shutter made plastic pipe D50 mm, which is equipped with an adapter 50/110 mm
For the manufacture of hydraulic seal wide edge of the adapter is cut at an angle of 30 °. A circle of D 110 mm is cut out of dense rubber and fixed to the cut point. The finished design is placed at the exit of the pipe from the septic tank.
Selection of necessary materials
Before you make a reliable sewage system for the bath, you must select the quality elements of the pipeline.
For laying the internal and external network in the modern market there are several types of pipes.
The main ones are:
- Cast iron – such pipes durable, but at the same time heavy, and therefore extremely inconvenient to install. The price for them is quite high.
- Asbestos cement - inexpensive products whose operating parameters are inferior to plastic and cast-iron analogues. Due to the fact that they have a rough inner surface that has a lot of tiny recesses, they should not be used in the construction of a free-flow system.
- Plastic - the universal option suitable for arrangement of any type of sewer system. They are inexpensive in price, easy to install and durable in operation. In addition, there are many options on the market - it remains to choose the right one, and how to do this, read in this material.
When laying autonomous sewage in suburban areas, plastic pipes are the most common.
For a bath with a steam room, when laying a line of a self-flowing system, pipes D 100-110 mm are allowed to be used, and pipes D50 mm are used to connect plumbing to the main line.
They are available with or without sockets. To simplify the installation of long products, fittings and other fittings are produced for them.
For laying a horizontal pipeline in the walls of the building, choose pipes of gray color D110 cm, for vertical cuttings when installing receivers - pipes D50 mm and D110 cm.
When laying the external pipeline - PVC pipes of yellow-red color of the same size. Adapters are used to connect elements of different diameters.
The most correct arrangement of sewage is to perform even at the stage of building a bath. But there are situations when it is necessary to equip already finished exploited buildings. The volume of work performed and their sequence in each case will be different.
Installation of the system during the construction phase
After the foundation is erected, the connection points for gangways, sinks and other plumbing elements are determined.
In places where the main branches of the system are laid, trenches are dug up to a depth of 50-60 cm relative to the level of the soil, the bottom of which is leveled taking into account the angle of inclination towards the septic tank
The depth of the pipe from the earth's surface to the top of the laid pipe should be:
- for the southern regions - 70 cm;
- for the middle band - from 90 to 120 cm;
- for the northern regions - from 150 to 180 cm.
If the height of the basement reaches 30-40 cm, then the depth of the laid trenches should be about 80-100 cm relative to the top point of the raised base.
Laying the pipeline in accordance with the scheme of sewage should begin with the installation of the main pipe, not forgetting to observe the slope. It will depart from large nodal elements and side branches, made of elements of the same or smaller diameter. In the final form, all the plums provided for in the steam room should be connected to a single pipeline.
Under the end of the outlet pipe digging a hole for the arrangement of water flow. To check the correct slope of the pipes do a test drain. To do this, alternately in all the drain holes pour small portions of water.
In the bucket placed at the end of the outlet pipe, the same amount of liquid should be poured as it was poured into the holes.
At the points of connection of sanitary equipment, they install vertical pipe slips, which are covered with plugs to prevent clogging with foreign objects.
The height of the vertical layers is done with a margin. After filling the floor and installing trapikov they will be easy to cut. At the same stage, mount the vent riser.
If the sewage device in the bath is performed on the site, which is located in a region with a cold climate, you should take care of the insulation of pipes.
For insulation, you can use:
- foam semi-cylinders;
- fibrous materials;
- polyethylene foam rolls.
We also recommend reading about how to choose insulation for sewer pipe. To reduce the volume of the sounds created by the functioning system, the pipes can be additionally wrapped with noise absorbing material.
A film is lined up on top of the laid pipes, providing a reliable layer of insulation, after which they form a sand “cushion” with a height of 10-15 cm
Flooring in the bath can be organized in two ways: by creating a leaking floor, which involves laying boards with a gap of 5 mm, or by creating an inclined surface.
When choosing the second method, it is important to ensure that when laying the finishing coating, the slope in the direction of the ladle is maintained so that the used water does not accumulate, but immediately flows into the drain.
Laying of sewage in the already finished building
Dirty water drainage system can be installed in rooms that have already been put into operation. To do this, you also need to draw up a wiring diagram, denoting connection points. In places of laying the pipeline will have to open the floor.
Installation of sewer branches is carried out at the level of the foundation, and for the withdrawal of the main highway in one of the walls of the house a hole of the appropriate diameter is drilled
When installing the ladders in the steam room and washing it is important to observe three basic requirements:
- Drainage ladders in the steam room and bath have a flush with the floor.
- The gaps of the system are treated with moisture-resistant smoothing compounds.
- Tiles lined only after the installation of the ladder.
For connection of a toilet bowl and arrangement of ventilation in a toilet establish the tee.
To reduce the risk of formation of deposits on the walls of the pipeline, which leads to blockage bore diameter and clogged drainage well, install in the shower and on the drain hatches in the bath filter grid. It will catch the bath leaves and small debris.
Laying of the external sewerage
The key element of the outdoor wastewater disposal system is a septic tank. It can be a structure in the form of a drainage well or two-chamber cleaning design.
Photo-installation guide sewage station
If a deep cleaning station is selected for wastewater treatment before disposal, in addition to connecting to the sewer system, an electrical wiring device is also required.
Otherwise, the stages of work on the arrangement of all types of sewage treatment plants of autonomous sewer systems are carried out in a similar manner.
A photo of
After purchasing the sewer station of the required volume and type we need, we deliver the equipment to the site
In the place chosen for installation of sewer station we dig a ditch. From the bathhouse to the pit, we develop a trench with a slight bias towards the septic tank
The bottom of the pit is poured with sand, leveled and rammed. It should be absolutely flat surface, ideally it is better to pour concrete slab
Sanding the bottom of the trench with the rammer and leveling it with a gradient of 2-3 cm per linear meter, directed towards the treatment plant
We install in a ditch a sewer station. After the dive, we check its horizontal position with a building level, applying it to the neck in different directions.
In the trench lay the sewer pipeline from the bath to the station and the power line in the cable channel
We connect the ventilation pipe to the station, fill the tank with water and install the hatch. Layers fall asleep pit sand
We check the power line by connecting the compressors to the power supply. If everything is in order, we fill the trench with sand with communications laid in it
Stage 1: Purchase and delivery of the station to the site
Stage 2: Development of a trench for pipes and a ditch
Stage 3: Preparing the bottom of the pit for installation
Stage 4: Dumping and leveling the bottom of the trench
Stage 5: Immersion of sewer station in a ditch
Stage 6: Communications routing to the station
Stage 7: Assembling the station and filling the pit
Stage 8: Filling the trench with communications sand
Construction of sewage treatment plant
If the bath is designed for a family of 2-3 people, it doesn’t provide a toilet and do not use it so often, you can limit yourself to building a primitive output. For this purpose, having maintained the distance specified by sanitary standards, they dig out drainage well.
But it can be installed only on soils characterized by a high level of moisture permeability. These include sandy, finely detrital and coarse soils.
Having decided on the place of arrangement of the drainage pit, perform the marking of the site and choose the way of laying the sewer line to it
The construction of the sewage treatment plant is performed in the following sequence:
- In the marked area, a excavation is dug, the depth of which is 1–1.5 meters higher than the mark of soil freezing.
- The bottom of the pit lay out a 10-centimeter layer of clay.
- Lined ceramsite or crushed stone-sand dumping from above, forming a layer 40-50 cm in height. It will perform the drainage function.
- To prevent crumbling of the earth walls of the excavation, they are lined with bricks, laying out rows in a staggered pattern, or with ready-made concrete rings.
If desired, the walls of the drainage well can be laid out with tire covers. To do this, dig a pit, the diameter of which allows you to fit 4-5 laid out on each other used tires.
The bottom of the excavation is leveled and covered with coarse gravel, forming a layer of 25-30 cm thick, on top of which tires are laid row by row
To prevent the tire from moving after the first tier has been laid, it is advisable to drive four stakes along the circumference. To increase the strength of the structure, the place of contiguity of tires can be treated with bitumen. When laying each tier to eliminate silting and improve drainage on the sides of each tire fall asleep rubble and pieces of broken bricks.
In order to learn how to properly equip a septic tank of tires - go on reference.
If the soil of the site on which the bath is located, does not let the water flow well, you should think about installing a ready-made polymer septic tank or about acquiring a deep cleaning station.
The required volume of polymer septic tanks and deep cleaning stations is determined from the calculation of the total three-day norm of wastewater, not forgetting to make a stock of 10-15%
The main advantage of such systems is environmental safety. Accumulated sewage will not be able to leak through the walls of waterproof materials, and therefore just will not harm the rocks and groundwater.
Due to the vital activity of aerobic or anaerobic bacteria, solid waste is decomposed into simple elements, thereby decreasing in volume by dozens of times. With accumulation, it is only necessary to periodically pump out the contents of the septic tank, resorting to the services of vacuum trucks.
Trenching and Pipeline
To lay a trunk, dig a trench, giving it a U-shape. Its depth should be below the ground freezing point. The bottom of the trench is thoroughly tamped and leveled, not forgetting to withstand the bias towards the drainage system.
On top of the tamped bottom, they lined a crushed stone “cushion” at the same angle and laid pipes.
At the turning points of the highway, there are viewing wells - pits with concreted bottom and fortified walls.
In order to protect the sewage through the main line from freezing during the winter period, the openings of the manholes should be covered with double covers
To enhance the effect, the inner walls of the manhole are lined with heat insulating material, and the outer walls are covered with sawdust and earth.
The pipe is led to the drain hole at an angle, having previously made a hole in the wall under it. If the drainage well is made of tire covers, the drain pipe is taken out between the first and second tires or through a hole made in the upper tier.
The cover for a septic tank can be executed from a wooden board or a cut of sheet metal. To ensure the flow of oxygen in the lid, a hole is made for the installation of the pipe.
At the final stage, it remains only to make a test discharge in order to check the correctness of the slope of the sewage pipes and tamp the area around the walls of the upper part of the sewage treatment plant.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The material presented in the videos will help to put the theoretical foundations into practice and avoid mistakes when installing the sewage system.
How to lay sewer pipes:
How to build a septic tank of tires:
In the future, to ensure the stability of the sewage system for the bath, it is important to regularly clean the walls of the storage facility. This will reduce the risk of clogging of soil filters with sludge and silt deposits that pollute the flow paths.
If you have personal experience in arranging a sewage system for a bath, please share valuable tips or subtleties that you know with visitors to our site. This can be done in the block below. You can also ask questions about the topic of the article.