If you are lucky to own a private house, or you intend to build it, it is very important not to to skip the slightest detail, so that after the end of construction nothing could affect the comfort and warmer at home. That is why, in the process of finalizing the interior decoration of the house, considerable attention should be paid to thermal insulation.
- The choice of insulation, advantages and disadvantages ↓
- Basement floor ↓
- Ground floor ↓
- Attic floor ↓
- Interfloor overlappings ↓
- Concrete floor insulation ↓
- Warming of a wooden floor ↓
- Tips & Tricks ↓
The choice of insulation, advantages and disadvantages
There are several ways to warm the floor: polystyrene, polystyrene foam, expanded clay, ecowool or mineral wool, foam, chipboard, sawdust and other organic materials:
Styrofoam - a foaming product for plastics, consists of 90% air. It is used not only for internal, but also for external insulation. Advantages of foam insulation: ease of installation and use, excellent moisture resistance, which means that it does not it will grow with fungi and mold, it retains heat perfectly and does not lose shape throughout the entire period operation. Of the minuses - low fire resistance, when burning emits toxic fumes and an unpleasant odor.
- Expanded polystyrene - also works great for retaining heat, does not absorb moisture, similar in properties to polystyrene foam. But it has the same minus - flammability. When heated, it emits toxic vapor, so it is better not to use such a material. It costs about half the price of polystyrene.
- Expanded clay - one of the types of clay that undergoes heat treatment at high temperatures, is widely used not only in insulation work. It is fire resistant, easy to use, environmentally friendly, does not respond to temperature changes, provides noise isolation and is relatively inexpensive. But there are also disadvantages - expanded clay is very fragile and quickly absorbs moisture.
- Ecowool - costs approximately like glass wool. It has many acceptable properties: made from cellulose, which means that it is environmentally friendly and non-toxic. But do not forget that this is still cotton wool, because it also absorbs moisture and is easily ignited.
- Mineral wool - a product of molten rocks, with the addition of a connecting component. Now it has become very popular in the construction market. Minvata is environmentally friendly, it has excellent refractoriness, moderate moisture absorption, and also, it does not precipitate during operation. Of the shortcomings - it can get heavier from a large amount of moisture, a low level of hygroscopicity, and installation difficulties can also arise, so this should be done by a specialist.
- Penplex - heat insulating material for various designs. Consists of foamed polyester. Of the properties - low thermal conductivity, good sound insulation and moisture resistance. When using penopleks, you can be sure of its durability. It can serve as an excellent alternative to polystyrene foam.
- Chipboard, sawdust and other organic materials are not refractory and are far from ideal as a heat-insulating material, although they do not emit toxic gases during combustion.
If your house has a basement, insulation should start from there, because 20% of the hot air comes out through it.
The inner surface of the basement is cleaned of stains, dirt, and especially thoroughly from fungi and mold. This can be done by chemical means. After cleaning, the base is leveled with plaster, after which it is treated with a moisture-proof primer. Further, the material is attached - to dowels or adhesive mixtures. Then external work is already carried out - plastering, whitewashing and so on.
After warming the basement, you can proceed to the insulation of the floor in the room. The guarantee of a warm floor surface will be given to you by a multilayer system. All layers of the floor covering are completely disassembled (some can be put back after warming), then the floor is cleaned and restored.
This is a special design, the weight of which is transferred directly to the ground and does not exert pressure on the foundation. But! Such a coating is constantly in contact with the ground and may succumb to the influence of groundwater. In order to avoid this and protect the house from huge losses of moisture and heat, you need the correct design and implementation of insulation rules. The floor on the ground is insulated mainly only with plates.
It can be:
- polystyrene foam boards (withstands heavy loads, stores heat);
- slabs of extruded polystyrene foam;
- slabs made of polyurethane foam (homogeneous and solid slabs);
- mineral wool boards;
- foam glass.
These options are not suitable for everyone, it all depends on the soil, its moisture and rock hardness. For help and individual selection of material, it is advisable to contact a specialist.
This process should not be delayed, because numerous heat losses can occur through the roof. Common insulation for the attic:
- expanded clay;
- mineral wool or ecowool;
- polyurethane foam.
From the inside they are covered with construction paper or foil, for added protection. If you want to equip the attic as a living room, then the insulation must be laid on the walls, floor and roof, then sheathed with plasterboard and laid on the floor with solid wood slabs. Equally important is the availability of ventilation so that excessive moisture does not accumulate in the room.
Needed to divide the building into floors. Support the weight of people or objects located on the upper floors. Accept wind loads, provide sound and heat insulation, etc.:
- Type 1. Wooden floors. Used in the construction of wooden houses and used for low-rise buildings. Comfortable, durable and cheaper. Wooden blocks should be treated with fungus and mold with an antiseptic. Their advantages are ease of installation and low cost. But they have a low level of sound insulation and gas permeability. Highly flammable. In addition, the tree may begin to rot or crack open and crack.
- Type 2. Prefabricated reinforced concrete coatings. They are used in the construction of stone, brick, concrete and slag concrete floors. Advantages: durability, strength, highest refractoriness. They can be monolithic, or they can be assembled as a structure in parts. The simplicity of the installation of such coatings, reliability, speed of installation, as well as reducing the time required for installation, makes them a leader in the construction market.
Concrete floor insulation
The lowest layer should be film materials, mastics, liquid primers. They should go on the walls, about a couple of tens of centimeters. At a distance of about half a meter, a wooden beam is laid, which should be treated with a moisture barrier.
Fill the gaps with insulation (your choice). The top layer is sturdy plywood (boards, chipboard, OSB). And the last layer is the floor covering (carpet, linoleum, etc.). To extend the service life, each layer should be treated with moisture-proofing compounds.
Warming of a wooden floor
It is carried out in several stages:
- The surface is processed and cleaned, a beam is mounted;
- Laying insulating material;
- Vapor barrier procedure;
- Laying durable boards or moisture-proof plywood;
- Laying flooring;
Polyethylene may be suitable for waterproofing, but it is easy to pierce, so it is better to use mastic. If the film coatings are stacked on top of each other, then the boards and chipboard are made joint to the joint, so you need to carefully seal the joints with mounting foam, putty or construction tape.
It was said above that the insulation material can be attached with dowels and adhesive mixtures. Do not save on the quality of materials, as cheap materials will not last you long and problems may arise with them.
Tips & Tricks
If you decide to do high-quality insulation for years, then you should not save on resources. Regarding the choice of materials, it is best to seek the advice of experienced professionals. Also, before warming the floors with your own hands, you need to carefully study all the nuances in order to perform the job efficiently.