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The lowland area is capable of creating many problems for its owners. In the waterlogged soil the foundation of the house is quickly destroyed, the roots of the plants decay from lack of air. Fertile soil in a short time turns into unusable clay for agriculture, because the lighter humus is washed into reservoirs. Similar problems are solved by the device of drainage of a site.
The installation of such an ameliorative system is not complicated, but all the work is laborious enough, so first make sure that the problem lies precisely in the high level of passage of groundwater, and not in other errors agrotechnics.
How to determine the level of groundwater
The dehumidification system is needed in the following cases:
- The plot is on a slope. Thawed or torrential water will wash away the soil, taking with it a layer of humus. The problem is solved by the trenching of the transverse drainage ditches.
- The site is located in the lowlands. In this case, moisture accumulates directly on it. With prolonged rains or amicable melting of snow, the soil will be swamped and sour, and structures will deteriorate from mold. In this case, it is necessary to install drainage channels along the entire perimeter of the site and around the basement.
- On the site there is no obvious difference in altitude, but in the flood and rainy weather it still has water. It has nowhere to drain, so moisture is slowly absorbed and occasionally comes to the surface in the form of long-drying puddles.
The latter variant is typical for lowland lowlands with a branched network of large and small rivers. He is well acquainted with the owners of land in the floodplains of rivers.
If the obvious signs listed above are not available, but plantations and buildings still suffer from increased humidity, it is worth paying attention to the state of the lawn and trees. If the lawn periodically bothers, and the adult trees die for no apparent reason, the problem is likely to lie in high-standing waters.
Dig a hole deep, m and after a while check that water is not getting into it. If you saw the water, then its level of occurrence is less than 1 meter, and drainage of the suburban area will be required unequivocally.
Types of drainage
Drainage is called a system of shallow ditches for tapping groundwater. Installed by all rules, the drainage system is able to significantly reduce their level. After its arrangement, there are no problems with decaying the roots of trees, the appearance of mold in the underground and the water in the cellar.
There are two types of drainage systems - surface and deep.
The first option is the easiest way to drain sediments. It is a complex of interconnected trenches excavated along the perimeter of a land plot under a slope. With their help, it is possible to transfer the melted and rain runoff to a special water collector, which is arranged in the lowest part of the site, relatively quickly and with minimal costs. Sewage from the header is taken to the storm sewer, or used for irrigation. Small amounts of liquid quickly evaporate themselves.
The installation of a deep system is more complicated, but surpasses the surface system in the following cases:
- Groundwater rises above half a meter from the surface;
- the site is on a slope;
- soil is clayey.
Deep drainage differs from surface drainage by the presence of drains - pipes with frequent holes through which water is collected, as well as wells, sand catchers and other technological elements.
The deep drainage of the site is completely hidden beneath the ground and does not spoil the landscape.
Installation of deep type drainage system
The system of water drainage from the site is not difficult to do independently, but it is necessary to plan its installation before the stage of construction of the foundation and the bookmarking of the garden. First carry out the preparatory work. Prepare the project and note in it:
- elevation differences on the site;
- the location of the lowest point;
- drainage grooves;
- places for wells;
- depth of stacking.
It is necessary to carefully calculate the height of the horizontal pipes in advance.
For effective drainage operation, the minimum slope should be at least one centimeter per running meter of pipe.
After the completion of the preparatory work, you should prepare all the necessary tools, materials and calculate their number. Standard set includes:
- pipes with perforations of suitable size;
- drainage wells;
- accessories for drain connection - various couplings and fittings;
- sand and crushed stone.
On sale there are pipes for laying drainage on the site with their own hands. Appropriate asbestos cement, polyvinyl chloride, ceramic. Popular made of modern porous materials - plastobeton, expanded claydite. Through the pores water seeps, and fine solid particles do not pass, that is, do not clog the system.
Also in advance prepare the tools: bayonet and shovel shovels, wheelbarrows for the ground, a hacksaw for cutting pipes, a building level.
Next, mark the location of all elements on the ground. Then in the marked places they dig in trenches with a depth not less than, m and about half a meter in width. When all channels are excavated, you should make sure that they have the necessary bias all along. Places where the wells will be located, deepen more.
When all trenches are ready, the bottom of the grooves and wells is rammed, covered with a layer of sand and compacted again. Then they lay geotextiles in such a way as to wrap it around the pipe with a margin.
On the geotextile, pour rubble and lay the pipes so that the holes are at the bottom. The whole system is connected, the slope is checked again and finally covered with rubble. He must cover the pipes completely. Then the free edges of the fabric are wrapped inside. As a result, you should get a kind of roll with a pipe in the center.
Layers of fabric, sand and rubble prevent siltation of the system, significantly prolonging its service life.
Drainage (inspection) wells are installed in the connection points of the pipes. They are designed for monitoring the condition and cleaning. Mounted just below the level of the pipes. At the top for easy maintenance have a removable cover.
After the assembly of pipes and wells into a single complex, a collector well is installed in the lowest part of the plot. It is the main reservoir of drains. Most often, the collectors are made of reinforced concrete rings, but if desired, they purchase and install finished plastic. From the reservoir it is necessary to provide drainage to the storm sewage system or a reservoir.
How to hide the drainage under the ground and simultaneously decorate the plot
At this installation work for the drainage device in the country house with their own hands can be considered complete. Now the whole system should fall asleep in order to hide it completely underground. The covered trenches are covered with turf. In the future, flowers are planted here or any garden crops with a shallow bedding of the root system. Interesting look grooves, covered with large marble chips. Such elements of landscape design will decorate the site and will not allow you to forget the location of the pipes in the event of repair work.
The drainage system of water is usually combined with drains. To do this, mount a gutter connecting the drain with the nearest well, or put a rainwater receiver.
The device of drainage of closed type in the suburban area is not the simplest, but the most effective way to lower the level of groundwater. Some actions may seem too laborious or painstaking, but the result in the form of a dry foundation and a healthy garden will please for many years.