In recent decades, homeowners have a fairly large selection of heating systems. It is not necessary to connect to centralized networks and use traditional sources. You can choose equipment that runs on alternative energy, but its main drawback is the high cost. Do you agree?
However, if you build a heat pump yourself from the old refrigerator, the system can be significantly cheaper. And we will tell you how to do it.
In the article we selected the simplest solutions and provided them with detailed drawings and diagrams. Therefore, for the home craftsman to understand them is not difficult. In addition, here you will find step by step instructions for the manufacture of heating equipment. And the posted videos will tell about the design features of the heat pump and the features of its connection.
The content of the article:
- How profitable is the use of a heat pump?
- 5 main benefits for plant owners
- Types of heat pumps for home heating
Step by step instructions for the manufacture of equipment
- Stage # 1. Preparation of the scheme and drawing
- Stage # 2. Selection of the necessary parts
- Stage # 3. Installation of system components
- Stage # 4. Connection to the intake device
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How profitable is the use of a heat pump?
Theoretically, any person has a large selection of energy sources. In addition to natural gas, electricity, coal, it is also the wind, the sun, the temperature difference of the earth and air, the earth and water.
In practice, the choice is limited, since it all comes down to the cost of equipment and its maintenance, as well as the stability of work and the payback period of the installations.
Each of the energy sources has both advantages and serious disadvantages that limit its use.
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Burning wood is the very first way to generate heat. The advantage of this energy source lies in its availability and efficiency. There are many more disadvantages: it takes a lot of energy to maintain heat, toxic products of combustion are released into the environment, and deforestation has long become a serious environmental problem.
Gas is a cheap fuel. Heating buildings with gas boilers is the most profitable option. However, not every locality has the opportunity to connect to the centralized gas supply network. Another disadvantage: the cost of energy grows every year.
An alternative to connecting to a gas pipe is to install a gasholder. Household appliances (heating boiler, water heater, stove for cooking) run on liquefied gas. This is a good solution for a house if there is no other possibility to provide a house with gas. The disadvantage is the high cost of equipment, its installation and maintenance
Electricity is considered an ideal source of energy - relatively safe, clean, easy to use. However, it is expensive to heat a house with electricity, so it is used for additional or alternative heating systems.
The advantages of liquid fuel boilers are safety, high efficiency, long service life, autonomy of operation. To install them do not require permission and approval of documents with the relevant authorities. The disadvantage is one, but significant - the high cost of liquid fuel for the boiler
There are many types of heat pumps, and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. The advantages include environmental friendliness, economy, safety, durability and uninterrupted operation of the equipment, and minus - the high cost. The only way to reduce the cost of heating is to make a heat pump with your own hands.
The sun is a great source of electricity. It is environmentally safe, inexhaustible, and solar panels require minimal maintenance. However, such equipment is not notable for either high efficiency or stable operation. In addition, it occupies a large area
The main advantages of wind energy - renewability, inexhaustibility, environmental friendliness. Wind turbines are often installed in areas where it is not possible to connect to centralized electricity or gas supply networks. To stabilize the work of wind turbines are often used in combination with solar panels. Disadvantages - serious initial investment, noise during rotation of the blades
Firewood as a source of heat
Heating with natural gas
Installation of gas tank on the site
Electric heating boilers
Fuel oil boilers
Ground heat pump
Solar panels as an energy source
Use of wind turbines for energy
Installing a heating system with a heat pump is beneficial in terms of ease of operation. During the operation of the equipment there is no noise, odors, installation of chimneys or other auxiliary structures is not required.
The system is volatile, but for the operation of the heat pump you need a minimum amount of electricity.
Heat pump - a good alternative to the usual heating systems. To reduce initial equipment costs, you can do it yourself.
Thermal installations themselves are extremely economical and do not require special maintenance costs, but their initial cost is very high.
Not every owner of a house or cottage can afford to buy such expensive equipment. If you assemble it yourself and use parts from the old refrigerator, you can save a lot.
Heat pumps industrial road production. It is believed that their installation pays off on average for 5-7 years of work, but this period depends on the initial price of the structure and can be much longer.
Self-made installation cost literally a penny, and their use allows you to significantly save.
The only caveat: the performance of homemade low, and they can not be a full replacement for traditional heating systems. Therefore, they are often used as additional or alternative heating options.
5 main benefits for plant owners
The advantages of heating systems with heat pumps include the following:
- Cost effectiveness. At a cost of 1 kW of electrical energy, you can get 3-4 kW of heat. These are average indicators, since heat conversion coefficient depends on the type of equipment and design features.
- Environmental Safety. During the operation of a thermal installation, combustion products or other potentially hazardous substances do not enter the environment. Ozone-safe equipment. Its use allows you to get warm without any harm to the environment.
- Versatility. When installing heating systems operating from traditional energy sources, the owner of the house becomes dependent on monopolists. Solar panels and wind generators not always cost-effective. But heat pumps can be installed anywhere. The main thing is to choose the right type of system.
- Multifunctional. In the cold season, the units heat the house, and in the summer heat they are able to work in the conditioner mode. The equipment is used in hot water supply systems, connected to the contours of warm floors.
- Operational safety. Heat pumps do not require fuel, while their work does not emit toxic substances, and the maximum temperature of the equipment does not exceed 90 degrees. These heating systems are no more dangerous than refrigerators.
Ideal devices do not exist. Heat pumps are reliable, durable and safe, but their cost is directly dependent on power.
High-quality equipment for full heating and hot water supply of a house of 80 sq. M. will cost about 8000-10000 euros. Homemade low-power, they can be used to heat individual rooms or utility rooms.
The efficiency of the installation depends on the heat loss at home. It makes sense to install equipment only in those buildings where a high level of insulation is provided, and the heat loss indicators are not higher than 100 W / m2.
Heat pumps can last 30 years or more. Especially cost-effective is their use for hot water supply, as well as in combined heating systems, including underfloor heating.
Equipment reliably and rarely breaks. If it is self-made, then it is important to choose a high-quality compressor, best of all, from a refrigerator or a conditioner of a proven brand.
Types of heat pumps for home heating
There are compression and absorption heat pumps. Installations of the first type are the most common, and it is such a heat pump that can be assembled from a refrigerator or an old air conditioner using a ready-made compressor.
You will also need an expander, an evaporator, a condenser. Absorbent-refrigerant is required for the operation of absorption units.
Heat pumps are most often collected from air conditioning units and refrigerators. Such designs of handicraft production are simple, effective, and if the master has the skills of such work, they can be done in just a few days.
By type of heat source installation are air, geothermal, and also using secondary heat (for example, sewage, etc.).
In the input and output circuits use one or two different coolant, and depending on this there are such types of equipment:
The system can be effective only if it consumes less energy than it gives. This difference is called the conversion factor. It depends on many factors, but the most significant one is the coolant temperature of the inlet and outlet circuits. The greater the difference, the better the system works.
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The heat source is the air from the street. Installations are connected to water heating systems. They are able to work effectively as long as the outside air temperature is above -25 degrees. The water temperature in the heating system can reach 63 degrees.
The equipment is intended for heating buildings at the expense of water resources. It is installed in areas located near natural reservoirs. Horizontal heat pumps of this type take energy from bottom layers of water, and vertical ones are designed to extract heat from groundwater and groundwater.
Professional installation of a geothermal pump is an expensive service, but the costs are repaid due to low maintenance costs. Installations differ in the increased reliability and safety. They are weather-dependent and designed to connect to low-temperature heating systems, which include heated floors
Installations generate heat while freezing water. When turning into ice 100-200 liters of water, you can get enough energy for 1 hour of heating a house of medium size. The system requires solar collectors and a reservoir with plenty of clean water.
Air-to-water heat pump
Block diagram for multiple heat pumps
Geothermal heat pump for home
Ice-water heat pump
There are no reliable formulas for calculating the performance of heat pumps. their work depends on many factors.
When self-assembling a heat installation, one cannot expect it to be as effective as industrial production equipment, but it is quite enough to create an economical additional system heating.
Step by step instructions for the manufacture of equipment
Before you figure out how to make a heat pump out of a refrigerator, you need to decide on the source of heat and the device’s operation scheme. In addition to the refrigerator compressor, other components will be required. You will also have to buy or rent some tools.
Such a homemade product can be connected to a heated floor, hot water supply system or to water heating, if low-temperature radiators are used.
Even if you have to buy a compressor and other components, a home-made installation will be much cheaper than industrial ready-made equipment.
Stage # 1. Preparation of the scheme and drawing
The source of energy must be located underground. To install the heat pump will have to drill a well, or at least dig a trench to a depth where the temperature of the soil is not below 5 degrees. You can also use ponds of natural or artificial origin.
The proposed scheme is suitable for any heat source. In order to assemble a home-made product, it is necessary to adapt the scheme itself to the operating conditions of the future equipment and develop a drawing
Regardless of the heat source, the heat pump designs are similar, so almost any circuit that can be found in the network will do.
After selecting it, you should prepare detailed drawings, which will indicate the exact dimensions, distances and points of connection of the installation units.
To make the heat pump, you have to disassemble the refrigerator and remove the compressor. This is the main element of the design. It will pump water and freon through the laid pipeline, ensuring the operation of heating.
Although the calculations of plant capacity are difficult, you can focus on the average. So, for a house with increased heat efficiency indices, a heating system with a power of 25 W / sq.m is needed. This is ideal if heat loss is minimal.
For a well-insulated house, this figure is 45 W / sq. M., And for a building with relatively large heat losses - 70 W / sq. M.
Stage # 2. Selection of the necessary parts
The compressor can be removed from the old refrigerator. If it is defective, it is better to buy a new one. Do not repair: it is unprofitable, and the performance of home-made will be questionable.
A thermostatic valve is also required to assemble the structure. It is desirable that all components were from the same system and easily combined.
This is the main part of the refrigerator. The task of the site is to pump coolant through the tubes, which takes heat from the working part. For a homemade heat pump is better to take a low noise compressor
For installation of the heat pump will need 30-centimeter L-shaped brackets.
You will also have to purchase some details:
- high-quality hermetic tank of stainless steel of 120 l;
- large plastic tank with a capacity of 90 liters;
- 3 copper pipes of various diameters;
- polymer (preferably metal) pipes.
To assemble the system, you will need a standard set of tools, and for cutting and joining metal parts - a grinder and a welding machine.
Stage # 3. Installation of system components
The compressor is mounted on the wall using brackets, and then proceed to the manufacture of a capacitor. For this metal tank cut grinder in half. A copper coil is installed in one part, after which the container is welded and threaded holes are prepared in it.
The heat exchanger for the heat pump is practically no different from the same node that is made for a bath stove. 2.5 mm thick stainless steel tank is best suited.
For the manufacture of a heat exchanger on a 120-liter steel tank, a long copper pipe is wound, fixing the ends of the turns with rails. Connect plumbing junctions to the terminals.
A coil is also attached to a plastic tank and used as an evaporator. It does not overheat, so it is not necessary to take a metal container. The finished evaporator is attached to the wall with brackets.
When choosing a compressor and an evaporator, the power calculation should be done with a margin of 20%, otherwise the capacity of the finished heating system will be lower than desired.
When the main components are prepared, a suitable thermostatic valve is selected, the design is assembled, and freon R-22 or R-422 is pumped into the system. If there are no relevant skills, it makes sense to invite a specialist, because procedure is unsafe.
Stage # 4. Connection to the intake device
The type of the intake and the connection of the heat pump to it depend on the scheme:
- "Water-land". The collector is installed below the level of soil freezing. Pipes of the system should be located at the same depth.
- "Water-air". Systems of this type are relatively easy to install. no earthworks required. To install the collector fit a convenient place near the house or on the roof.
- "Water-water". The collector design is collected from polymer pipes, and then lowered into the center of the reservoir.
Installation of the combined (bivalent) heating system is possible. In this case, the heat pump is connected in parallel with the electric boiler. It performs the function of additional heating.
Installing a bivalent heating system allows you to achieve the optimum temperature in the house, even during severe frosts, and its energy consumption will be minimal.
In the process of assembly, installation and connection of the heat pump, you need to closely monitor the quality of welds, joints and joints. The system must be completely sealed.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Our heat pumps are not yet very common, but you can already find craftsmen who can share their experience in self-production. similar systems. We offer a selection of useful videos.
The design of the heat pump, especially the assembly system:
Features of connection, operation of a homemade heat pump:
Video review of the homemade heating system from the air conditioner:
Heating schemes with heat pumps are not always cost-effective and convenient, so be sure to weigh the pros and cons of this type of heating.
If you come to the conclusion that such a system is suitable for your home, do not rush to spend huge sums on a ready-made installation and assemble the structure yourself. This is not so difficult, requires much less cash investment, and the effect can exceed all expectations.
Are you going to assemble the heat pump yourself, but do not know where to start? Or maybe it was already possible to collect such a construction and there is the necessary knowledge that you can share with our readers? Please leave comments, ask questions in the box below.