Few of the owners of apartments in the high-rise building are fully satisfied with the central heating. Uncomfortable temperature, interruptions in the supply of heat and hot water, dampness and fungus in the rooms. And most importantly - the high cost of utilities, the quality of which often leaves much to be desired. Do you agree?
There is an effective method of dealing with the above negative - this is individual heating in the apartment. We will talk about options for its organization and how to translate ideas into reality. In the article presented by us, the schemes with the use of various types of fuel are described in detail, the features of the arrangement are given.
The content of the article:
- Independent heating in the apartment: is it possible?
- Features of individual heating of the apartment
- Gas heating in the apartment
Electric direct heating
- Using convectors or radiators
- Floor heating system
- Infrared heating options
- Water electric heating
- Electric heating indirect heating
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Independent heating in the apartment: is it possible?
The desire to equip an autonomous type of heating is quite understandable. Calculations show that the cost of heating homes and supplying hot water should be significantly reduced. According to statistics, on average, they are reduced by two to three times for heating and four to five times for heating water.
The result is a significant amount. It is clear that we will have to spend money on the installation of equipment, on its maintenance and on the purchase of energy, but the costs will be justified.
Utilities are not at all interested in losing consumers of their services. Therefore, we must be prepared to make efforts to implement our plans. First of all, you need to know exactly what the law says about the autonomous heating in the apartment.
Very often, disconnection from the central heat supply is denied to the apartment owner, referring to Federal Law No. 190 “On Heat Supply”. However, this is illegal, since there is a Government Decree under number 307, which was issued on 16.04.2012. It prescribes the procedure for connecting autonomous heating systems in apartment buildings.
Here is a list of heat sources that are strictly prohibited for the construction of autonomous heating in such houses. Consequently, it is allowed to equip individual heating with the condition of using modern safe equipment.
It should be understood that before you purchase and install equipment, you need to get permission for disconnection from the centralized system and permission to switch to individual heating selected type.
To do this, you have to collect a weighty package of documents and wait for a decision. Only after that you can start rebuilding the heating.
Autonomous heating for an apartment in a high-rise building is advantageous and practical. However, to be able to equip such a system will have to try. Begin with the collection of documents
Features of individual heating of the apartment
If you are going to switch to autonomous heating, you need to realistically assess your capabilities and understand that most of the options that are quite acceptable for private houses are impossible in a high-rise building. Immediately it is necessary to “brush off” solid fuel and liquid fuel boilers of all types.
This is due to the fact that for their uninterrupted operation requires the presence of a supply of fuel, which is unsafe in an apartment building.
Individual heating in the apartment can be arranged in different ways. There are certainly fewer options than in a private house, but it’s quite enough to choose the most suitable system for the existing conditions.
In addition, it is also extremely uncomfortable. In this case, it is also forbidden to use a warm water floor. It is only possible to install one of its electrical varieties.
You need to know that when arranging individual heating in a high-rise building, you will have to take into account not only your own interests, but interests of other tenants who may be unhappy with some of the difficulties that arise as a result of your action.
Therefore, choosing the right heat source is very important. This is a crucial stage, which determines, in fact, the success of the planned event.
Despite the limitations, autonomous systems options remain quite a lot. First of all, it is gas heating. And you need to take into account that we are not talking about cylinder fuel, but about connecting to the gas mains.
The option with cylinders is not even worth considering, since it will cost much more than central heating, and it is extremely inconvenient. Heating on the main gas is very economical and able to operate completely autonomously.
The best source of heat for one of the apartments in the high-rise building will be wall mounted double boiler with thermostat and electronic ignition. It will automatically keep the most comfortable temperature, and provide hot water.
If the apartment has enough space, you should pay attention to the boiler with a boiler. So it will be possible to stabilize the flow of hot water.
Electric heating can also be installed in apartment buildings. It can be implemented in several ways, when electricity is used for direct heating, which is more expensive, or indirect.
The gas wall boiler paired with a boiler will certainly occupy a lot of space, but this will ensure an uninterrupted supply of hot water of the right temperature and in any volumes.
An electricity system may have a boiler, a heat pump as a heat source, and an electric cable floor as an energy transmitter, infrared film, plinth radiators or electric convectors.
The apartment owner can choose any suitable option or combine several. For example, warm floor and convectors. Let us consider in detail each of the possible ways of arranging an autonomous heating.
Gas heating in the apartment
Such a system is a closed circuit with a coolant circulating inside. To heat the liquid, a gas boiler is used. It can be single or dual circuit. It all depends on the needs of the people living in the apartment. As you know, gas boilers can be floor or wall. For apartments selected second option.
These are compact, but at the same time powerful enough devices. For the apartment should choose a heating device with a closed burner. Such devices do not take air from the room and do not require the arrangement of a traditional smoke exhaust system.
The latter is not always possible in an apartment building. Coppers with a turbo-supercharging need a smoke vent of a special type which is equipped quite easily.
What are the advantages of the owner of gas heating? First of all, it ceases to depend on the timing of the heating season. The boiler is ready for use at any time and can be started as needed.
The cost of fuel is relatively small. If to compare with heating with electricity, for example, the operation of the boiler will be much cheaper. Also, if you install battery thermostatic valves and purchase a heating unit with automatic controlwill be able to save on its operation.
In new buildings with individual heating of apartments, the problem of exhausting smoke from a gas boiler can be solved in this way: the image shows the pipes through which the outside air flows to the burner. Smoke is also diverted to the central smoke outlet.
This results from the fact that automatic equipment will regulate temperature in rooms, selecting the most economic operating mode and turning off the equipment when reaching the set temperature. "Manual" with all the desire to do this will not succeed.
The advantages include the compactness of gas heating equipment, its high efficiency and quite budgetary cost. There are solutions and disadvantages. The most obvious are related to the potential danger posed by gas heating.
The apartment owner will be required to receive a package of permits for gas installation. It should be understood that it will be received only if the apartment fully complies with safety requirements. Purchased equipment must be certified.
Installation, connection and subsequent maintenance should only be carried out by specialists. In general, gas equipment should be handled with the utmost care and no initiative, be This is a part for the boiler with your own hands or an independent repair of the device, here is unacceptable.
Gas equipment is considered potentially hazardous. Handle it very carefully. Its maintenance, installation and repair should be carried out only by certified professionals.
The disadvantages include the energy dependence of the system, which will not work without electricity. Despite the shortcomings, practice shows that gas heating is becoming the most frequent choice among apartment owners.
It allows you to get maximum savings and at the same time get an effective heating of housing. The possibility of parallel arrangement of hot water supply makes this solution even more attractive.
Electric direct heating
The concept of direct heating implies that electrical energy will be directly converted to heat. There are several options acceptable for an apartment of such systems.
Using convectors or radiators
Radiators, working from electricity, are simple devices-converters. Two electrodes are lowered into the electrolyte, which is mineral oil. The current flowing through the liquid heats it. Given that the boiling point of the oil is high, and its heat transfer is very good, the surface of the radiator heats up in a short time.
To increase the heat transfer device its body is usually made ribbed. The device can be operated manually, for this purpose a special regulator can be installed on the case, or automatically, which is possible only for programmable models.
The advantage of this method of heating can be considered the utmost simplicity of arrangement. Oil radiators are simply placed on the right areas. It is important that they have access to the power grid.
Electric convectors - more reliable and cost-effective equipment compared to oil radiators
Nothing more is required. Devices warm up quickly, but they cool for a long time. They work completely silently and do not emit toxic substances. The devices are compact and have an attractive design.
The main drawback of electric radiators is their high energy consumption, which is very disadvantageous for their owners. A good alternative to radiators are electric convectors.
Their difference lies in the fact that the heating elements installed in the devices heat up the air entering the body, which subsequently rises up and enters the heated room. Convectors are produced in wall and floor versions, which is very convenient for their placement in the room.
The advantages of the devices are about the same as those of radiators. The only thing that they consume electricity more economically, but still it takes quite a lot.
Floor heating system
She represents electric heating systemconsisting of special heating mats or cables laid in the floor. When turned on, the device converts electricity into heat, which is radiated from the entire floor surface.
This is a big plus, as the room warms up as evenly as possible. The temperature difference between the lower and upper part of the room is minimal.
The heat source for arranging an electric floor heating can be a heating mat, infrared film or a resistive cable shown in the photo.
The system has built-in sensors that monitor the temperature in the room. As soon as it reaches a predetermined mark, the heating is automatically turned off and vice versa, when the temperature drops, the heating is turned on.
Thus, the system independently maintains the desired temperature. It is possible to implement different scenarios, that is, in some rooms it can be warmer, in others - it is cooler.
Warm floors do not dry out the air, the humidity remains at a comfortable level. They are absolutely harmless to those living in the apartment. The system allows you to warm the room as quickly as possible.
They are simple enough in installation, can be laid practically on any basis. Heated floors do not take away free space, do not spoil the interior, as there are simply no bulky radiators and pipes.
The service life of the system - from half a century and more. Let's talk about the disadvantages of warm floors. They are more economical than radiators and convectors, but still consume electricity.
And its consumption is large enough. It largely depends on the degree of insulation of the apartment, the desired heating temperature and other factors, so there are ways to save. Often, such systems are used as additional heating.
The resistive cable and heating mats are placed in a screed, thanks to which the floor is slightly raised. This should be considered when planning a floor heating system.
However, in a small well-insulated apartment it will work fine as the main one. The disadvantages include the rather high price of equipment and its installation. You need to know that according to the rules, heating mats or cable are laid only in the screed. In addition, most likely, you will also need to replace the old unreliable wiring, which is also expensive.
Infrared heating options
This type of individual heating in an apartment building is based on the use of infrared radiation. Infrared heating systems These are the surfaces assembled from a special film, laid on the floor or mounted on the ceiling.
In any case, an effective result will be obtained. With the passage of current through a graphite paste deposited on such a film, infrared radiation appears. The rays move until they encounter a massive barrier on the way. This may be the floor, ceiling or large pieces of furniture. Here they linger and begin to accumulate in the object that has delayed them.
Thus, the floor or furniture is heated and give up the previously obtained heat into the air, due to which the temperature in the room rises very quickly. The main advantage of infrared heating is the most comfortable temperature distribution for a person.
Infrared heating gives the most comfortable temperature distribution for a person. The figure under the number 1 shows the scheme of operation of convective heating, under the number 2 - infrared
No matter where the infrared film is located, on the ceiling or on the floor, at the bottom of the room it will always be warmer than at the top. This distribution, in the opinion of physicians, is ideal for human health.
By their nature, infrared rays are similar to thermal solar radiation, so they are completely safe for the body and even useful. The heating system of this type is fully automated.
Sensors that monitor the temperature in the room must be built into it. Based on their testimony, the controller turns off / on the system.
Thanks to this, the heating always works in the most efficient energy saving mode. Considering that the film warms up the room very quickly, in working condition such a heater arrives very briefly, approximately 10-15% of the total operating time.
Thus, it is possible to recognize IR films as effective and economical as possible. In addition, their use does not spoil the indoor climate. Humidity remains unchanged. Question about the harm or benefit of infrared heating discussed in the article, which we advise you to read.
Such heaters do not make noise, do not emit toxic substances and are completely invisible in the interior. The film is mounted under the floor or ceiling covering, which does not affect its performance.
Infrared film can be mounted on the floor or on the ceiling. on top of it can be laid almost any coating.
There are infrared heaters, ceiling and floor type. But they are used exclusively for heating a specific zone. IR films can be used for additional or main heating of the apartment.
Among the shortcomings, it is worth noting the high price of the equipment, as well as the need for accurate calculations when arranging such a heating system. Otherwise, the cost of its maintenance may be prohibitive.
Water electric heating
It is a standard closed heating circuit, where the heating medium is heated by an electric boiler. This is very effective, because the heating of the liquid occurs quickly.
The efficiency of such a system is determined by the type of boiler used. The most common TEN option as the most simple in the device and in operation.
They descend into the liquid and when activated quickly heat it up. The efficiency of such devices is relatively low, they consume a large amount of energy. The most vulnerable point of such devices - TENY. They interact with coolant and quickly fail.
A more reliable option - electrode boiler. The coolant is pumped through the body of the device, inside which are electrodes.
Induction electric boiler is very compact, but at the same time has considerable weight. It therefore requires durable fastenings when mounted on a wall.
With the passage of current, the liquid heats up quickly. The peculiarity of the use of such a boiler is the need for additional preparation of the coolant. Electrode devices are durable and reliable. In terms of electric power consumption, they are approximately equivalent to heating elements. The third variant of electric boilers is induction. This is the most economical modern devices.
The equipment has two circuits - heat exchange and magnetic, due to which temperature redistribution occurs and the liquid heats up as quickly as possible. The efficiency of such devices is very high. Devices are compact and convenient in operation. Among the shortcomings, it is worth noting the high cost of induction type boilers and the difficulty in making their adjustments.
Electric heating indirect heating
In this case we are talking about heat pumps of different types. Electricity will only be used to operate equipment that extracts heat from the environment. Therefore, its consumption is relatively small.
It is necessary to make a reservation that the use of heat pumps is optimal only in areas with a mild climate, where in winter there are fairly mild temperatures and there is no frost.
The heat pump “picks up” the heat in the environment. The principle of operation of such an air-to-air device is shown in the diagram.
The best options for heating an apartment are considered to be air-to-air or air-to-water pumps. The former are close to air conditioners in terms of their principle of operation, so they can be used in summer to cool air masses indoors.
To obtain heat, it will be necessary to purchase and install expensive equipment, but in the future the heat pump will justify itself. A unit of heat obtained in this way costs about as much as that obtained using a gas boiler.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. The advantages of using independent heating in the apartment:
Video # 2. Advantages and disadvantages of individual gas heating:
Video # 3. How to equip electric heating in your apartment:
Autonomous heating of the apartment is a reasonable and practical solution that allows you to save significant amounts on heating the house. It is important to choose the right heat source for the apartment and correctly calculate the heating system.
In this case, problems with operation should not arise and the owner will only enjoy the warmth and his independence from the centralized system.
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