Heat pumps are certainly one of the best inventions in the field of heating systems. It literally makes it possible to extract virtually free energy directly from the air, as well as from land or water. If you use a heat pump for the pool, the cost of heating water can be significantly reduced.
We will tell you how to choose the optimal model of using “green” energy to generate heat that heats up water. The article submitted to the article details the principle of the system. With us you will learn how to mount the unit, how to properly use it in living conditions.
The content of the article:
- How does such a pump work?
- How to choose a suitable system?
- Object heat loss
- Important points when choosing a pump
- Features of mounting the device
- Self-made heat pump - is it real?
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How does such a pump work?
Energy is everywhere, even in those objects that seem to us extremely cold. Just this energy has a low potential. Heat pumps can extract it from the environment and convert it into energy with high potential. In this condition
Heat pumps, however, like refrigerators, work on the principle of Carnot. The refrigerator moves heat energy from the chamber to the surrounding space to create the effect of cooling, then the heat pump works in the opposite direction.
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The active use of heat pumps for temperature treatment of water in the pool due to lower energy costs and sufficient efficiency for heating water
In the pool arrangement schemes, heat pumps are installed after sand filters so that heated water does not cool down when passing through other devices before being supplied to the pool.
In the area of pool equipment, the most common air-to-water heat pumps. The industry offers ready-made options for connecting to single- and three-phase networks.
However, in the technical equipment of private pools, other heat pump schemes are also used with the intake of heat from groundwater or rocks.
Most often, heat pumps are used in the arrangement of open stationary and temporary artificial reservoirs.
Heat pumps do an excellent job of preparing water for indoor pools, especially if there are problems with the supply of electricity.
To reduce the load on the heat pump, it is supplemented with other means of alternative energy: solar panels or collectors
Indoor temporary and stationary pavilions for summer pools, planes, awnings, etc. covering the bowl will significantly reduce the heat consumption.
Heat pump in pool water heating
Location of the heat pump in the equipment layout
The pump for arrangement of the pool like air-to-water
Heat pump land-water for artificial reservoir
Application to equip open structures
Equipment for heating water in an indoor pool
Solar battery as an addition to the heat pump
Rules for maintaining the temperature of the water in the pool
Such a system consists of two main parts - external and internal, between them are the compressor and the evaporator. So, the coolant circulates through a system of pipes that are outside. At the same time, it absorbs the energy dispersed in the earth, in water or in air, depending on the type of pump.
Then the coolant passes through the chamber of the evaporator, filled with refrigerant (usually freon). The refrigerant boils at a very low temperature. When heated in contact with the thermal energy of low potential, it passes into the gaseous state and enters the compressor.
This diagram clearly shows the structure and operation of a heat pump that collects heat. low potential from the environment and converts it into high-potential thermal energy (+)
Here the gas is heated and moved to the condenser. Then the coolant cools down, returning to the liquid state again, and the heat that it collected enters the internal heating system, i.e. on the heating system of the house or, in this case, the pool. The cycle is repeated many times.
Of course, for the operation of such a system, namely pumping units, it will take some amount of electricity, without access to which the system will not be able to work.
But the amount of electricity required by the heat pump is about four times less than the cost of directly heating the water with an electric heater. With a consumption of less than 2.5 kW of power for the operation of electricity, the heat pump can produce more than 10 kW of thermal energy.
How to choose a suitable system?
The design features of the heat pump make it more resistant to the effects of high humidity than any other water heating system. But you need to choose the right heat pump typei.e. determine the source of low potential thermal energy.
The more stable the ambient temperature, the more efficiently the heat pump operates. The land is considered in this respect the best option, but the practical implementation requires the fulfillment of a number of not very simple conditions.
This table allows you to determine the power of the heat pump for the pool. The calculations are made taking into account the presence of a protective coating from the sun (+)
You will need a spacious plot and large-scale earthworks. The pipes through which water circulates will have to be placed in the thickness of the ground; it is not always possible and convenient to fulfill this requirement. Ground-to-water heat pumps are rarely used for swimming pools.
Water heat pump is a little easier to arrange, because water is used as an energy source. The best option - located near a reservoir: a pond, lake, river, etc.
Not all land owners have access to such resources. A more affordable solution to the problem is to lower the water pipes into the well or well. This means that at the site, you may have to build an additional source of water.
Less time and effort will be needed to install a heat pump that consumes energy dispersed in air masses. To organize intensive air exchange, use powerful fans. Neither lay pipes in the ground, nor drill a new well.
Air-to-water heat pumps allow you to heat a large amount of water in the pool with minimal electrical energy
Of course, the efficiency of heating with an air heat pump may be somewhat lower than when using such stable energy sources as land or water. However, for use during the season from spring to autumn, and not all year round, this model fits perfectly. Most of the pools in the areas used during this period.
The heat pump can also be used in conjunction with other heating systems, for example, with electric heating. For home heating, such models are sometimes combined with a gas or electric boiler. This is especially appropriate in areas with a harsh climate, since when the air temperature is below -20 degrees, the efficiency of heat pumps decreases sharply.
Feature of any industrial model of the heat pump - high price. You can reduce costs if you build such a device yourself. This is not too difficult task, many craftsmen successfully coped with it. But industrial models are more reliable, more efficient and easier to manage.
According to reviews, the high cost of the industrial model of a heat pump pays off in the first couple of years of operation, and sometimes in just a few months. It is very important to choose a model whose power will exactly match the needs of the object in heat.
Object heat loss
In order to choose the right heat pump for power, it is necessary to determine the heat loss of the pool in which the device will be installed.
In the case of the pool should be considered:
- the place where the pool is located;
- availability and degree of reliability of the pool;
- the volume of the bathing bowl;
- initial water temperature;
- optimal bathing water temperature;
- the presence of additional factors affecting the change in water temperature: heating the air in a covered building, air conditioning, etc.
In order to calculate the heat loss of a structure, some experts recommend using the methodology described in DBN B.2.5-67: 2013. Pump power should be 30% higher than the size of the heat loss pool.
This scheme allows you to get an idea of the possible heat loss in the pool, depending on the impact of external factors. The smaller these losses, the more efficiently the heat pump will operate.
These calculations are quite specific, it is better to entrust them to a specialist. Useful advice can be obtained from experienced professionals who are engaged in the production or sale of heat pumps. Useful when choosing a heat pump will also be information about the capacity of the heat exchanger device.
When choosing an air source heat pump to preheat pool water, a number of factors that influence the degree of heat loss of a building should be considered, for example, the presence or absence of shelter
This indicator reflects the consumption of thermal energy for heating the pool water for a certain period of time.
In a simplified form, the formula may look like:
P = 1.16 X ΔT / t X V (kW)
- 1.16 is the heat loss correction factor;
- ΔT is the number of degrees separating the initial and final temperature of the water in the basin, ºС;
- t is the device operation time until the required water temperature, hour, is reached;
- V is the volume of the bathing bowl, cub. m
Of course, this formula does not take into account a number of factors such as the effect of heating in the indoor pool, the presence of air conditioning, the presence of insulation, etc.
But when choosing a suitable heat pump model, such a calculation can be very useful. During the calculations it is useful to take into account that the optimum temperature for an indoor pool is 28 degrees, and the water temperature is 24 degrees.
Important points when choosing a pump
Choosing a suitable heat pump, you should be guided not only by its power. Other factors are also important. For example, these are the dimensions of a pump that resembles a large metal box.
The installation site is usually chosen in advance, you should make sure that the selected model will freely rise there while leaving enough space for the person who will install and maintain device.
The smaller the difference between the temperature of the air outside and the temperature of the water in the pool, the more effect the use of the heat pump will give, and the higher its performance.
Automatic control of some models allows you to change the operation of the pump, taking into account not only the external temperature, but also the rate of cooling water in the pool, as well as the ability of the building (if we are talking about an indoor pool) keep warm
During operation, the heat pump vibrates and produces noise. The less noise on the site, the better. Before buying, you should find a way to estimate the level of noise that different models of heat pumps emit.
The availability of an automatic control unit may significantly affect the cost of the unit. If funds allow, do not abandon this modern and convenient add-on. Firstly, automation increases comfort during the use of equipment, since it is not necessary to constantly be distracted to turn it on, adjust, turn off, etc.
The automatic control system of modern heat pumps facilitates the operation of the device, increases its efficiency and prolongs the service life.
Secondly, the operation of the device in the automatic mode significantly increases its service life, i.e. lifetime. But breakdowns are still possible. To minimize the problems associated with the operation of the heat pump, will help the availability of properly executed documents for warranty service of the device.
However, the presence of the official form with the seal is not enough. Sometimes sellers are modestly silent about the fact that warranty repair is performed only by a specialized enterprise, which is located a hundred kilometers from the installation site of the equipment.
It also happened that for repair the device had to be sent abroad. Such warranty service is extremely inconvenient, since it takes the whole months of time from the owner.
Craftsmen, who can easily repair household appliances, should study the features of the device of the selected model and access to spare parts in advance. If the necessary parts are not available somewhere nearby, they will have to be specially ordered, paid for long-term delivery, etc. Forethought helps to avoid such problems.
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An important criterion in the choice of a heat pump for preparing water in a pool is the type of installation of the tank: ground or buried in the ground. First need a more powerful system
An important factor in the choice of equipment is the volume of water that will be heated by the heat pump system
Most models of air-to-water heat pumps are designed for water treatment in pools up to 10,000 liters. If the bowl is larger, individual calculation is required.
Heat pumps to equip pools are characterized by an extremely simple control scheme. Models are supplemented with temperature sensors, displays, built-in thermostats
Specificity of the choice of the heat pump for the pool
Accounting for the volume of heated water
Standard heat pump capabilities
Control and monitoring devices
If the cost of a factory-made heat pump seems “sky-high” high, it can be do it yourself. How the unit is constructed from almost waste materials is set forth in the article recommended by us.
Features of mounting the device
The order of connection of the heat pump for the pool depends on the particular model. Therefore, before starting work, you should carefully study the manufacturer's instructions and accurately follow the requirements and recommendations set forth therein. Usually, industrial models are supplied already assembled and with a set of components required for installation.
The scheme of the heat pump connected to the pool:
1 - Heat pump for the pool
2 - Remote control device
3 - Clear water for the pool
4 - Circulation pump
5 - Bypass (bypass channel) and control valves
6 - Pool water supply pipe
7 - Filter
During the connection you will need to install a pair of pipes, as well as provide power. The heater is installed in the pool maintenance system so that it is located after the filtration system and in front of the chlorinator.
As shown in this diagram, the heat pump should be connected after the water filter, but before the device for its chlorination
It is very important to choose the right place to install the equipment. Usually air-to-water heat pump is a unit of impressive size, reminiscent of the outdoor unit split-system air conditioner.
To install an air heat pump, you need to choose a sufficiently spacious place that should be protected from external factors, for example, with a canopy
A place to install such equipment must meet the following requirements:
- good ventilation;
- no obstacles to the movement of air masses;
- remoteness from open fire and other heat sources;
- protection from external environmental factors: precipitation, debris falling from above, etc .;
- availability for maintenance and necessary repairs.
Most often, the heat pump is installed under a canopy. For the sake of additional protection, you can install a pair of side walls, but they should not interfere with the air flow, which is blown by the fans.
The pump is mounted on a metal frame, the base must be strictly horizontal. This will minimize problems such as vibration and noise during operation of the device, as well as protect the device from damage.
The air heat pump should be installed on a firm and strictly horizontal base. This will reduce vibration when it is working and reduce the amount of noise.
When installing a heat pump and connecting it to the system, it is important to ensure that all its elements are clean. It does not hurt to check the inner surface of the pipes with which the connection is made.
All joints of pipes through which water circulates must be carefully sealed and checked for leaks. So that the vibration from the heat pump during its operation is not transmitted to the rest of the system, it makes sense to consider the connection option using flexible hoses.
Power supply to the heat pump will require special attention. It must fully comply with the rules for installing electrical equipment, taking into account all fire safety requirements.
Near the pool there is usually a high level of humidity, and the likelihood of electrical contact with water increases significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully insulate all places of electrical contacts, additionally protecting them from possible contact with moisture.
In the scheme of connecting the heat pump to the power supply, it is imperative to turn on the circuit breakers, which are equipped with sensors that react to temperature increase. Protection devices that prevent leakage current will also be needed.
All conductive nodes should be grounded without fail. To connect the cables, both power and control, you will need special terminal blocks. The manufacturer’s instructions usually indicate the required cross-section of electrical cables through which you can connect the equipment to the power supply.
This data must be followed. The cable section may be more than the recommended, but no less.
The installation of a heat pump for heating water in the pool is made in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer. It is usually installed after the water treatment system, but before the chlorination device, if available
Self-made heat pump - is it real?
If you make the heat pump yourself, you can save a lot, but the efficiency of such devices is somewhat lower than that of industrial models. First, make the individual elements of the pump, then they are combined into a common system. The evaporator can be made from a large plastic tank. Inside install copper coil.
For making a coil pipe from copper can be carefully wound on a gas cylinder or other suitable cylindrical object to give it the desired shape. In the same way make another coil - for the evaporator. This element is placed inside another tank, this time metal, welding will be needed.
The compressor is simply bought or removed from another device, for example, from a broken air conditioner. When these three devices are ready, they are connected to a common system. Then the compressor is charged with refrigerant. It remains to connect the evaporator with the fan, which pumps air, and the condenser - to the system of heating the water in the pool.
Significantly more complex in the device water-to-water heat pump. For its construction requires the presence next to a section of a river or a natural reservoir, if they are not present, then wells are drilled. However, if it is impossible to receive energy from the air for technical reasons, this option will also be useful.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Practical experience of heating water in the pool using heat pumps is presented in the following video:
The principle of operation of an air heat pump is clearly demonstrated here:
This video presents a very detailed overview of the operation and design of the air-to-water heat pump model:
The heat pump is a convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly way to heat the pool. With proper operation, the cost of the model will pay off very quickly, and competent installation will significantly increase the service life of the device.
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