Properly organized intake ventilation in the apartment is the basis of a comfortable microclimate in a residential area. Very often, natural ventilation does not provide a sufficient supply of fresh air and you have to look for alternative ways to improve ventilation.
We will tell all about the existing options for the organization of air exchange, help you choose the best method. This article describes in detail the simplest versions of devices for improving ventilation and complex technical systems. Taking into account our recommendations, you will significantly improve the living conditions.
The content of the article:
- Air exchange - the key to a healthy microclimate
- Ways to improve the efficiency of the inflow
Low-cost options for restoring air circulation
- Features of different types of window valves
- Wall model: device and installation
Channelless forced ventilation
- Advanced Wall Valve
- Breather - compact air handling unit with climate control
- Air conditioning with fresh air
Stitched channel multi-systems
- The principle of operation of the complex with recovery
- VAV-system - ventilation according to needs
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Air exchange - the key to a healthy microclimate
For normal use of the apartment, a single air exchange per hour is sufficient. The fulfillment of this norm is ensured by the installation of natural exhaust ventilation channels.
The flow of fresh air in case of unorganized air exchange is carried out through the leakiness of the window frames, slit openings in the door structures, air vents and vapor-permeable wall material.
After the installation of sealed double-glazed windows, the ventilation scheme fails - the air intake channel to the apartment is blocked, the pressure difference is reduced and the exhaust fumes are stagnant in the room.
Scheme of natural circulation: 1 - air flow through the slots of the window frames, 2 - movement of air flow through the gaps of the threshold, 3 - removal of exhaust air through the ventilation channels. Natural circulation is based on the difference in temperature and pressure conditions inside and outside the building
Many apartment tenants face negative factors indicating the problems of the ventilation system:
- Deterioration in air quality. At home, there is a shortage of oxygen, due to an excess of carbon dioxide air becomes stale. The "heavy" atmosphere causes discomfort, headaches and fatigue.
- Stagnation of unpleasant odors. In the "canned" apartment for a long time kept the flavors that accompany a person's life. Exhaust appliances in the kitchen or bathroom cease to function fully.
- High humidity. A clear sign of the problem is condensation on the windows and wet corners on the walls. Subsequently, black spots can be found on the surfaces - the first manifestations of mold. In such conditions, the finishing of the room is saturated with moisture and gradually collapses.
If you do not take care of the unimpeded and regular supply of outdoor air in time, the probability of allergic and viral diseases increases.
Non-renewable musty atmosphere stimulates the development of disease-causing fungi, parasitic ticks and bacteria. Older people and young children react very quickly to deteriorating air.
Restoring the intensity of the movement of air flow solves these problems.
Regardless of the method chosen organization of ventilation, it is necessary to provide the following standards for air exchange per resident:
- bedroom, children's room and living room - 30 cubic meters / h;
- kitchen - 60-90 cubic meters / h;
- bathroom - 25-50 cubic meters / h.
Air intake requirements for the kitchen depend on the type of stove installed. The exact standards for the bathroom are determined on the basis of the joint or separate use of toilet and bathroom.
The parameters are relevant if the maximum concentration of harmful components in the atmosphere does not exceed the established regulatory indicators for human settlements
If the premises are not used for permanent housing, the minimum air exchange rate for residential and non-residential rooms is reduced by 0.2 h-1 and 0.5 h-1, respectively.
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The inlet ventilation system is installed if natural ventilation is provided through the structures. prevent airborne materials and hermetic seals on sash windows and canvases doors
The type of inlet device is selected based on the volume of the premises and the rate of air exchange required for the formation of a normal microclimate in the apartments
In the formation of the microclimate and the supply of fresh air to the apartment used intake valves, breathers and air conditioners
According to the method of supplying air to the premises, all types of inlet devices are divided into channel and channelless. The latter directly inject air into the room.
In the simplest versions of intake systems, the flow taken from the street is only filtered, but not heated / cooled.
In recirculating systems, the air is heated before being introduced into the room, filtered and supplemented with a fresh portion from the street.
The movement of air in the air intake systems is stimulated by a fan mounted in an intake device or an air duct located on the street.
The air supplied by the intake system displaces the exhausted air mass from the room, which spontaneously escapes through window and door openings or exhaust openings.
Ventilation in the apartment
Miniature wall unit
Air conditioning with outdoor air intake
Device for channelless ventilation
The simplest wall intake valve
Channel recirculation option
Volatile supply instrument
Self-generated air outflow through openings
Full information about making calculations for the device and modernization of ventilation is given in this article. We recommend to get acquainted with useful information.
Ways to improve the efficiency of the inflow
Various techniques aimed at improving the efficiency of supply ventilation are divided into two main categories:
- measures that increase the flow of air without pressure devices;
- use of installations with forced air supply.
The first group includes: manual or automatic ventilation, installation of a window or wall valve.
Manual airing. Opening the window for 15 minutes at intervals of 3 hours. It is practically impossible to implement the method in practice - there is no time or no one to constantly open and close the window. An alternative option is to open the casement window in micro-ventilation mode.
The disadvantage of this method is that dust from the street and noise get into the apartment through a crack. In winter, the micro-airing room gradually cools down.
Automatic airing. A servo is installed on the window flap. The device is programmed to open the transom at specified intervals or is equipped with a weather sensor.
The “intelligent” mechanism responds to changes in humidity and changes in the atmosphere — during rain, strong wind or snow, the sensor will trigger and the window will automatically close.
It is possible to connect the electric drive to the general fire safety system. In case of smoke, the drive will operate and the window sash will open.
The automatic method of airing has the same drawbacks as the manual method.
Window and wall valve. In-wall and in-wall grinders perform the same function - they open up fresh air to the room. Types of valves differ in characteristics and installation technology.
Wall models of valves are more productive, it is advisable to use them in spacious rooms. Window gates suitable for compact rooms.
Installation wall device more difficult than installing the airbrush on the window sash, as it requires drilling a through hole through the supporting structural element of the building. Products for windows cheaper wall analogues.
Channelless devices for the inflow of air streams forcibly:
- Ventilation. In fact, it is the same wall valve only with a built-in fan. The flow of fresh air does not depend on the external parameters of the atmosphere (temperature, pressure), but is determined solely by the performance of the fan.
- Breathers. Unlike ventilators, the installation provides high-quality multistage filtering. An additional plus - the presence of climate control. The user sets a comfortable temperature, and the "smart" device automatically heats the air.
- Air conditioners with an air supply option. Multifunctional two-block split-complexes with an outside air mix are equipped with an air duct connecting both bodies, as well as a filtration system for air masses.
These devices are mounted without laying the duct and work on the air supply in one room. For the integrated restoration of the ventilation function in several rooms, channel systems are used at once.
It is necessary to take care of the ducting at the repair stage. Otherwise, you will have to dismantle the finish or create a false box for laying the ventilation channels.
Features of channel inlet systems:
- high performance;
- the possibility of heating the air;
- control automation;
- sufficient insulation;
- high cost of component parts;
- complexity of installation.
Duct ventilation is rarely installed in apartments. Priority areas of application: offices, cottages and public buildings.
How to check the performance of wall and window ventilation valves, you will learn by reading next article.
Low-cost options for restoring air circulation
There are no fans in wall and window valves. Air flow occurs due to the difference of street and "home" pressure. A prerequisite for the operation of overhead inflowers is proper exhaust ventilation.
Features of different types of window valves
The design of all window climate devices is very simple. Typical valve consists of an air intake, a telescopic channel and an indoor unit.
The air intake is mounted outside the frame. The outdoor unit is equipped with a visor and a grill that prevents insects from getting inside. The telescopic channel cuts into the frame, forming a through slot for unobstructed entry of the air jet.
The indoor unit is mounted on the side of the room. Some models of supplyers are equipped with a filter and a valve that regulates the capacity of the device.
Based on the design and installation method, the following climatic devices are distinguished:
Slotted models. The capacity of the unit reaches 20 cubic meters / h - the inflow of air masses is carried out through a micro-hole with a height of up to 1.6 cm and a width of up to 4 cm. The device consists of two blocks, which complicates its installation - it is necessary to mill the window frame.
Seam valves. This is the most accessible and easiest way to air the room. Air flow through the slots in the vestibule. The main plus of the models is the ability to install on the operated window without milling the groove.
Additional advantages of folding models include: low cost, the preservation of the sound-absorbing and heat-retaining properties of PVC glass and the possibility of automation.
The capacity of the valve does not exceed 5 cubic meters / h. To ensure air supply in a larger volume, it is permissible to install several valves on one window.
Overhead climate products. This option is rarely implemented in the domestic environment due to the complexity of installation - valve insertion occurs during the assembly of the glass unit. In addition, the product degrades the heat and sound insulation of the window.
Overhead modifications found their use in manufacturing and storage facilities. The performance of climate devices is about 100 cubic meters / h.
In the simplest models of window grinders, the size of the gap, and, consequently, the intensity of the air flow, is manually selected - the position of the valve is adjusted. High-tech devices are equipped with sensors of humidity and atmospheric fluctuations.
Wall model: device and installation
Externally, the wall valve resembles a cylindrical flask or a wide tube with a diameter of about 10-16 cm.
The plastic air duct is equipped with the following elements:
- heat-insulating layer - “sleeve” passes through the entire flask, preventing the wall from freezing and reducing the noise effect from the street;
- filter - located at the outlet of the duct, implements a rough air cleaning.
In some models, a sealing (silicone) ring with flaps is placed in front of the filter. The purpose of the part is to equalize the air flow in windy weather.
On the side of the street, the wall duct is closed with a metal grill and anti-mosquito insert, and on the inside with a decorative lid with a regulating knob.
When choosing supply device First of all, the power and the “working” temperature of the unit are estimated. On average, the productivity of the wall climate product is 40 cubic meters / h. This value is sufficient for airing a room of 13 sq.m.
The range of operating temperatures specified by the manufacturer on the packaging or in the instructions for the device. For harsh climatic conditions, special models have been developed that prevent the formation of condensate and the appearance of an ice block in the channel.
The following photo-collection will visually introduce the installation technology of the wall valve:
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At a height of about 2 - 2.2 m from the floor plane we drill a hole in the wall. We select the drill according to the size of the future ventilation channel
We refine the hole with a smaller drill bit, trying to give it a small bias towards the street
In the hole drilled and cleaned of dust, we first install a heater made in the form of a pipe, then a plastic duct. Insulation is cut flush with the surface, the duct should protrude 1 cm
We apply the lower part of the body to the installation site and mark the device fixing points through the holes in it.
We fix the lower part of the body on the wall, having drilled holes in the marked points. In the case we place the filter available in the configuration
Snap on the case its upper part, equipped with a device to adjust the air flow
We check the performance of the system and the ability to regulate the volume of air flow entering the room
From the outside of the wall we install a grille with inclined slats, it will protect against insects and birds
Step 1: Drill the valve hole
Step 2: Refining the hole with a drill
Step 3: Arrange the drilled hole
Step 4: Layout for attaching the valve body
Step 5: Installing the filter in the fixed housing
Step 7: Installing the Supply Valve Cover
Step 7: Verifying System Health
Step 8: Install the grille from the front
Stage 1. Definition of a place. When choosing a wall should consider some of the nuances:
- installation is best done on the supporting structure;
- optimally - the “exit” of the valve to the insulated loggia;
- it is better to avoid installation from the side of the roadway.
Valve manufacturers have identified recommended and unwanted instrument installation sites. When installing it is important to consider the vector of air flow.
In the first embodiment, fresh air, getting into the apartment, warms up at the top and goes down. The second option - air masses heat up from a heating radiator
Stage 2. Preparation and drilling of the wall. Mark the space for the through hole on the inner wall and draw the valve diameter.
Channel Drilling Procedure:
- Start drilling with a diamond bit to a depth of 10 cm.
- Remove debris and chisel to knock out a small notch for a sustainable placement of the drill.
- When drilling, keep the slope out - this position of the duct will prevent the ingress of rain water inside the device.
It is better to perform the work with an assistant who will periodically wet the drilling site. Humidification will reduce dust levels and protect the instrument from overheating.
Stage 3. Installation of valve components. To clean a groove from dust and to place heat-insulating "sleeve" in the canal. Using screwing movements, install the cylindrical body of the device, and fasten a fine-meshed grating on it.
Inside the wall is fixed panel, ring with flaps and filter. Finishing the assembly - mounting the cover with the adjustment knob
Channelless forced ventilation
Inflowers of this category are considered to be the optimal solution to problems with the supply of fresh air to a high-rise apartment and a private house. They are quite powerful, independent of weather changes, and their installation does not cause any particular difficulties.
Advanced Wall Valve
The wall mounted ventilator with air jet inducement is a modernized analogue of the wall intake valve. The principal difference in the design is the presence of a fan, which is carried out by the injection of an air jet.
The performance of the mechanical flow is determined by the speed of the fan. The amount of energy consumed and noise characteristics depend on the selected mode.
The principle of operation of the ventilator:
- The rotating blades of the fan force the flow of street air.
- Passing through the duct, the air masses are cleaned and enter the apartment.
- Exhaust air moves in the direction of exhaust ducts and is discharged through the vent.
The degree of purification of the air flow depends on the built-in filtration system. It is optimal if the ventilator is equipped with different types of filters.
The fan with a fan works even with a poorly efficient exhaust system. Forced feed increases air pressure, which has a positive effect on exhaust performance.
Breather - compact air handling unit with climate control
The breather is designed to maintain indoor air circulation of 10-50 square meters. Device solves several problems at the same time: supplying clean air and heating it to the set temperature values.
The main area of application of breathers is residential premises, that is, cottages, private houses and apartments. Demand device in small offices
Breather is a technically sophisticated device with climate control option and control system. Components of the air handling unit:
- Air intake with grille - protects the device from insects and rainwater entering inside.
- Insulated duct - sealed channel that provides air flow. Insulating liner prevents freezing of the wall and reduces noise.
- Automatic damper - opens the channel of the inflow of outdoor air after switching on the device and closes after switching off. The element prevents the infiltration of cold air into the apartment.
- The fan is responsible for the amount of intake air from the street.
- The communication unit and the control system are the “brains” of the breather, which is responsible for all the working processes of the device.
The compact unit is equipped with a complete filtration system. The cascade of filters implements three degrees of purification.
Coarse filter - removal of medium and large particles (wool, dust, plant pollen). HEPA filter - the retention of particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 0.1 microns, including mold spores and bacteria spores. AK filter - carbon filtration of smoke, odors and industrial emissions
Breather is the optimal solution for creating ventilation in an apartment with filtration, providing up to 80-90% of air masses cleaning from atmospheric dust. The installation process is quite simple:
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Before starting the installation of the breather, we mark up on the wall a place for a hole for the inlet ventilation device
Fix the wall guides of the drilling machine with brackets on the wall. We install them in such a way that there is a slope of about 1-2º toward the street.
We attach a drill bit with a diamond crown for drilling brick and foam concrete walls to the shaft of a drilling machine. We drill core from the wall and extract it.
We remove the dust from the formed hole after drilling, using an industrial vacuum cleaner, or wash it out with a hose
In a hole cleared of debris and dust, we put a plastic casing
Let's combine the case with the equipped hole and mark the points for fixing the case on the wall. We drill holes for brackets, hang the device
We connect the device to the power supply, check the operation of the system and flow control devices
On the outside of the wall we put a plastic grid, if it was not part of the plastic case.
Step 1: Marking the vent hole
Step 2: Installing Drilling Machine Guides
Step 3: Mount the diamond bit
Step 4: Remove dust with an industrial vacuum cleaner
Step 5: Install the casing with the drilled hole
Step 6: Install the case with the working part
Step 7: Power on the equipment
Step 8: Attaching the external grille to the hole
Air conditioning with fresh air
95% of split-systems on sale work with static air. They are continuously recycled atmosphere of a closed room. Typical air conditioners perform their main task and the room becomes cooler. However, fresh air from their work is not added.
Manufacturers split systems offered their own solution to the issue of lack of fresh air and developed air conditioners with air mixed with outside.
Design features of split-system with inflow:
- the air intake is carried out through pipes-ducts, going from the external block to the internal one;
- on the street case there is a turbine with a filtration system that is responsible for the supply and cleaning of air.
Some models of ventilation units are equipped with an oxygen concentrator, and the oxygen level in the room is monitored by special sensors.
The oxygen concentrator passes the outside air through the membrane wall that separates the oxygen molecules from other gaseous substances. As a result, the oxygen concentration increases
The principle of "split-system with a mix":
- Fresh air through the suction fan flows through the duct to the evaporative (internal) unit.
- Street air flows mixed with room air.
- After filtering and additional processing (cooling, heating) air flows into the interior of the apartment.
Despite the good idea of technologists, such models of climate systems have little demand. Air conditioners with inflow work loudly and are not able to provide full ventilation of the apartment. In addition, the cost of advanced equipment by 20% higher than the price of a conventional air conditioner.
Stitched channel multi-systems
Duct ventilation is a complex of air ducts laid in all rooms. The heart of the system - inlet equipment, located at the entrance.
The scheme of construction and operation of ventilation is determined by the type of ventilation unit. Let us designate the features of the two most economical and efficient ways of organizing the air supply: ventilation with recovery and the use of VAV-units.
The principle of operation of the complex with recovery
The recuperator is a constituent element air handling unit. The heat exchanger can significantly reduce energy consumption, ensuring the transfer of heat from the heated exhaust air to cold incoming streams.
In addition to the supply air duct, the operation of the heat exchanger requires the installation of exhaust ducts, which affects the cost of the system. The efficiency of some heat exchangers reaches 95%
Two types of heat exchangers are installed in the ventilation systems: plate and rotor.
Plate heat exchangers. Structurally represent a cassette installed in the duct. The air flow is “cut” by a block of plates. Warm air passes from one side of the plate, and cold from the other. Due to heat transfer, condensate forms and is removed.
Features of the plate heat exchangers:
- fresh supply and exhaust air is not mixed;
- the probability of frosting in winter;
- recuperators made from vapor-permeable thin films do not accumulate condensate.
However, the service life of such equipment is limited to ten years.
Rotary recuperators. The principle of redistribution of heat is based on the rotation of the drum through which the versatile air jets move. Gradually, rotating in the drum set, the exhaust air is “shared” with the rotor sector by heat. When the heated section of the rotor enters the cold supply stream, the air is heated and the rotor is cooled.
Rotor recuperators differ in compact size and high energy efficiency. The disadvantage of this device is the partial mixing of dirty and fresh air. In cold weather, turning off rotary models is undesirable.
Details about the device and the principle of operation of climate systems with heat recovery are written in this articlewith which we advise you to read.
VAV-system - ventilation according to needs
Variable Air Volume (VAV) installation –efficient ventilation system providing air supply and heating with minimal energy consumption. The complex allows you to adjust the parameters and ventilation mode for each room separately.
A standard ventilation system supplies air without taking into account the time of day, the purpose of the room and the number of residents. The performance of a VAV system is selected by the user based on the specific operating conditions.
An example of the work of VAV-ventilation. Suppose that a complex with a maximum capacity of 300 cubic meters / h serves two rooms: a bedroom and a living room. If in the winter there wasn’t enough power for the heater to warm up the air flow to a comfortable temperature, then in the case of conventional ventilation it would be necessary to reduce the overall performance. As a result, it would be stuffy in both rooms.
The operation of the VAV system can be adjusted: during the day, to supply air to the living room, and at night to the bedroom. Each room has a separate ventilation switch.
Adjustment of productivity allows to save up to 25-50% of energy in comparison with traditional ventilation.
In addition to reducing energy bills, VAV-system has other advantages:
- lack of freezing equipment;
- "Working out" is derived through the existing ventilation channels, so there is no need to equip the network of exhaust ducts;
- low operating cost.
The disadvantage of VAV-ventilation is the high price of equipment and difficulties in assembling and adjusting the operability of the complex. Design and installation must be carried out by specialists.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. The technology of installing the Aereco air cleaner on the operated window structure:
Video # 2. The principle of operation of ventilation with filtration on the example of breather Tion:
Video # 3. The scheme of the VAV-system ventilation in different modes:
When choosing how to organize air exchange, many parameters are taken into account: the price policy of equipment, installation efficiency, features of work under different weather conditions, availability of filtering and heating options air masses.
Among the many units, the optimal balance of cost and quality is demonstrated by breathers specially designed for domestic use in the apartment.
Want to talk about how efficiently ventilation works in your house / apartment? Maybe you personally improved the ventilation by installing a breather or inlet valve on the window casement? Please write comments in the block below, share your impressions, opinions and photos on the topic of the article.