It is difficult not to notice how the stability of the supply of electricity to suburban objects differs from the provision of urban buildings and enterprises with electricity. Admit that you, as the owner of a private house or cottage, have repeatedly encountered interruptions, inconveniences and damage to equipment.
These negative situations together with the consequences will no longer complicate the lives of lovers of natural spaces. And with minimal labor and financial costs. To do this, you just need to make a wind power generator, which we describe in detail in the article.
We have described in detail the production options for an economically useful system that eliminates energy dependence. According to our advice, an inexperienced home master will be able to build a wind generator with his own hands. A practical device will help to significantly reduce daily expenses.
The content of the article:
- Legality of the installation of a wind generator
- The principle of the wind turbine
- Classification of types of energy generators
Rotary wind power plant
- Starting stage of the installation
- Advantages and disadvantages of the rotor model of the windmill
Assembling axial wind turbines on neodymium magnets
- Distribution and fixing of magnets
- Single-phase and three-phase generators
- Coil winding rules
- Final assembly of the device
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Legality of the installation of a wind generator
Alternative energy sources - the dream of any summer resident or homeowner, whose site is located away from the central networks. However, receiving bills for electricity consumed in a city apartment, and looking at the increased tariffs, we realize that a wind turbine designed for domestic needs would not hurt us.
After reading this article, perhaps you will make your dream a reality.
A wind generator is an excellent solution for providing a country object with electricity. And in some cases its installation is the only possible way out.
In order not to waste money, effort and time, let's decide: are there any external circumstances that will create obstacles for us in the process of operating a wind generator?
To provide electricity to the cottage or a small cottage is enough small wind power plantwhose power does not exceed 1 kW. Such devices in Russia are equated to household products. Their installation does not require certificates, permits or any additional approvals.
In order to determine the feasibility of a wind generator, it is necessary to find out the wind energy potential of a specific area (click to enlarge)
No taxation of the production of electricity, which is spent on ensuring their own domestic needs, is not provided. Therefore, a low-power windmill can be safely installed, it can produce free electricity with it, without paying any taxes to the state.
However, just in case, you should ask whether there are any local regulations concerning individual power supply, which could create obstacles in the installation and operation of this devices.
Wind generators, which are able to satisfy most of the needs of an average farm, can not cause complaints even from neighbors
Claims may arise from your neighbors if they experience inconvenience associated with the operation of a windmill. Do not forget that our rights end where the rights of other people begin.
Therefore, when buying or self-manufacturing wind generator for home need to pay serious attention to the following parameters:
- Mast height When assembling a wind generator, you need to take into account the restrictions on the height of individual buildings that exist in several countries around the world, as well as the location of your own site. Know that in the vicinity of bridges, airports and tunnels of the structure, the height of which exceeds 15 meters, is prohibited.
- Noise from gearbox and blades. The parameters of the generated noise can be set using a special device, after which the results of the measurements are recorded. It is important that they do not exceed the established noise standards.
- Radio interference. Ideally, when creating a windmill, protection should be provided against creating television interferences where your device can provide such trouble.
- Claims of environmental services. This organization can prevent you from operating the installation only if it interferes with the migration of migratory birds. But this is unlikely.
When self-creating and installing the device, learn these points, and when buying a finished product, pay attention to the parameters that are in his passport. Better safeguard yourself than to get upset later.
A photo of
The feasibility of a wind turbine device is primarily based on a sufficiently high and stable wind pressure in the area
It is necessary to have a large enough area, the effective area of which will not be significantly reduced due to the installation of the system
Because of the noise accompanying the windmill, it is desirable that there is at least 200 m between the neighbors' housing and the installation
Convincingly argues in favor of the device of the wind generator the steadily increasing cost of electricity
The device of a wind generator is possible only in areas where the authorities do not interfere, but rather also encourage the use of green energy.
If in the region the construction of a mini power plant that processes wind energy, frequent interruptions occur, the installation minimizes the inconvenience
The owner of the system must be prepared for the fact that the funds invested in the finished product do not pay off immediately. The economic effect may become noticeable in 10 to 15 years.
If the payback of the system is not the last moment, you should think about building a mini power plant with your own hands
Conditions for the installation of a wind power plant
Extensive site to install a wind generator
Location of a powerful wind generator relative to its neighbors
The price of electricity as an argument for the wind generator
Wind turbine installation must be approved by local authorities.
Mini power station in places with interruptions in electricity supply
Use of factory-made wind generator
Making a budget option with their own hands
The principle of the wind turbine
A wind generator or wind turbine (wind turbine) is a device that is used to convert the kinetic energy of the wind flow into mechanical energy. The resulting mechanical energy rotates the rotor and is converted into an electric form we need.
Principle of operation and device kinetic windmill described in detail in the article, which we recommend to read.
The structure of wind turbines includes:
- blades that form the propeller,
- rotating turbine rotor
- generator axis and generator itself,
- an inverter that converts alternating current into direct current, used to charge batteries,
The essence of the device wind turbines is simple. During the rotation of the rotor, a three-phase alternating current is generated, which then passes through the controller and charges the DC battery. Next, the inverter converts the current so that it can be consumed, powering the lighting, radio, TV, microwave, and so on.
Detailed device wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation allows a good idea what elements contribute to the transformation of kinetic energy into mechanical energy, and then into electric
In general, the principle of operation of a wind generator of any type and design is as follows: in the process of rotation, there are three types of force action on the blades: braking, pulsed and lifting.
This scheme of the wind turbine allows you to understand what is happening with the electricity generated by the work of the wind generator: some of it accumulates and the other is consumed
The last two forces overcome braking force and set in motion the flywheel. On the fixed part of the generator, the rotor forms a magnetic field so that the electric current goes through the wires.
A photo of
For the manufacture of wind energy generator suitable engine from unnecessary household appliances. The more volts per revolution, the more effective the system will work
A sleeve is attached to the rotor of the motor, on which the blades of the device are fixed. It is better to close the frontal node with a protective cover
The front part with the motor and blades must be balanced with the tail part. The tail of a pipe or lath of the tail should be longer, a shank of any shape is fixed on its edge
The mast holding the windmill must have at least three supports; the structure must be connected to the ground loop and a lightning conductor must be arranged
Engine for the simplest windmill
The specifics of the connection of the motor with blades
The balance of the tail and frontal part
Wind Turbine Installation Rules
Classification of types of energy generators
There are several signs by which wind power plants are classified. How to choose the best option for a suburban property is described in detail in one of most popular articles on our website.
So, windmills differ in:
- the number of blades in the propeller;
- blade manufacturing materials;
- the location of the axis of rotation relative to the surface of the earth;
- stepper sign of the screw.
There are models with one, two, three blades and multi-blade.
Products with a large number of blades begin to rotate even with a slight wind. Usually they are used in such works, when the process of rotation itself is more important than the production of electricity. For example, to extract water from deep wellbores.
It turns out the blades of the wind generator can be made not only from solid materials, but also from affordable fabric
The blades can be sailing or hard. Sailing products are much cheaper than hard ones, which are made by metal or fiberglass. But they often have to be repaired: they are fragile.
As for the location of the axis of rotation relative to the earth's surface, there are vertical windmills and horizontal models. And in this case, each variety has its advantages: vertical ones are more sensitive to every breath of wind, but horizontal ones are more powerful.
Wind generators are divided according to step characteristics into models with fixed and variable pitch. The variable pitch allows you to significantly increase the speed of rotation, but this installation has a complex and massive design. Wind turbines with a fixed step easier and more reliable.
A photo of
After disassembly, only the stator, for which the casing was separately welded, remained from the fairly damaged autogenerator.
In order to restore the technical characteristics of the engine, you need to rewind 36 stator coils. In rewinding you will need a wire with a diameter of 0.56 mm. Coils need to do 35 pieces
Before fixing the blades, the repaired engine must be assembled, coated with varnish or at least epoxy, the surface must be painted
The wires are connected in parallel, three wires are output for connection to the power source.
The axis, designed to ensure rotation, is made from the outlet of the pipe 15. Bearings are welded to the axle and are attached through a section of pipe 52
In the manufacture of the tail, galvanized sheet steel 4 mm thick, bent at the edges and installed in the groove selected in the rail was used
The blades are cut from a polymer sewer pipe, attached to the triangle connected to the engine with screws
Almost free wind generator can be made from waste parts: the engine from the old car and cutting sewer pipe
Step 1: Dismantling a used generator
Step 2: Restore Engine Capabilities
Step 3: Assembling a Restored Wind Turbine Engine
Step 4: Connect the motor wires and output them to the power line
Step 5: Specific features of the swivel unit
Step 6: Making the tail to respond to the wind
Step 7: Fastening the blades of a mini wind power plant
Step 8: Build a practically free electricity generator
Rotary wind power plant
Let's figure out how to make a simple wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation of the rotary type. Such a model may well meet the electricity needs of a garden house, a variety of outbuildings, as well as illuminate in the dark the house and garden territory tracks.
The blades of this rotor type installation with a vertical axis of rotation are clearly made of elements cut from a metal barrel.
Our goal is to manufacture a windmill, whose maximum power will be 1.5 kW.
For this we need the following elements and materials:
- 12 V car generator;
- 12 V helium or acid battery;
- semi-hermetic switch of the “button” variety for 12 V;
- 700 W converter - 1500 W and 12V - 220V;
- a bucket, a large saucepan or other large container made of stainless steel or aluminum;
- car relay control lamp charge or battery charge;
- car voltmeter (you can any);
- bolts with nuts and washers;
- wires with a cross section of 4 square mm and 2.5 square mm;
- Two clamps to secure the generator to the mast.
In the process of doing the work, we will need a Bulgarian or scissors for metal, a construction pencil or marker, a tape measure, pliers, a drill, a drill, keys and a screwdriver.
The controller for the system that generates electricity, you can also collect your own hands. With the rules and schemes of manufacturing controller for windmill read the article, the content of which we advise you to read.
Starting stage of the installation
We start making a homemade windmill by taking a large metal container of a cylindrical shape. Usually for this purpose they use an old waste, a bucket or a pan. That it will be the basis for our future wind turbines.
With the help of a tape measure and a construction pencil (marker) we will apply a markup: we will divide our capacity into four equal parts.
When making cuts in accordance with the instructions contained in the text, under no circumstances cut through the metal to the end.
Metal will have to cut. For this you can use the grinder. It is not used for cutting containers made of galvanized steel or painted tin, because the metal of this type must overheat. For such cases, it is better to use scissors. Cut the blades, but do not cut them to the very end.
Options, schemes and recommendations for the manufacture of various models blades for wind turbine You will find in our recommended article.
Simultaneously with the continuation of work on the capacity, we will redo the generator pulley. In the bottom of the former pan and in the pulley you need to map and drill the holes for the bolts. Work at this stage should be taken as carefully as possible: all openings should be arranged symmetrically so that during the installation rotation there is no imbalance.
This is how the blades of another design with a vertical axis of rotation look like. Each blade is manufactured separately, and then mounted in a common device.
Bend the blades so that they are not too sticking out. When we perform this part of the work, we always consider in which direction the generator will rotate.
Usually the direction of its rotation is oriented clockwise. The angle of bending of the blades affects the area of impact of air flow and the speed of rotation of the propeller.
Now you need to fix on the pulley bucket with blades prepared for operation. Install the generator on the mast, fixing it with clamps. It remains to attach the wires and assemble the circuit. Get ready to write the wiring diagram, wire colors and pin markings. Later she will certainly come in handy. Fix the wires on the mast device.
This figure contains detailed recommendations for assembling the overall design and a general view of the device already assembled and ready for use.
To connect the battery, you need to apply 4 mm² wires. It is enough to take a segment with a length of 1 meter. That's enough.
And in order to connect to the network the load, which includes, for example, lighting and electrical appliances, wires with a cross section of 2.5 mm² are sufficient. Install the inverter (converter). For this, a 4 mm² wire will also be needed.
Advantages and disadvantages of the rotor model of the windmill
If you did everything neatly and consistently, then this wind generator will work successfully. At the same time, no problems will arise during its operation.
If you use a 1000 W converter and a 75A battery, this installation will provide electricity and video surveillance devices, and burglar alarms and even street lighting.
The advantages of this model are as follows:
- elements can be easily replaced with new ones or repaired;
- special conditions for operation are not needed;
- reliable in operation;
- provides complete acoustic comfort.
There are also disadvantages, but there are not so many of them: the performance of this device is not too high, and it has a significant dependence on sudden gusts of wind. Air currents can simply disrupt an improvised propeller.
In order to accurately select the model of wind generator required power before starting work, we recommend make a calculation according to the formulas given in the recommended article.
Assembling axial wind turbines on neodymium magnets
Since neodymium magnets appeared in Russia relatively recently, axial wind generators with iron-free stators began to be made not long ago.
The emergence of magnets caused an excessive demand, but gradually the market was saturated, and the cost of this product began to decline. It became available for craftsmen, who immediately adapted it for their various needs.
Axial wind turbine on neodymium magnets with a horizontal axis of rotation is a more complex structure that requires not only skill, but also certain knowledge
If you have a hub from an old car with brake discs, then we take it as the basis for the future axial generator.
It is assumed that this part is not new, but already exploited. In this case, it is necessary to disassemble, inspect and lubricate the bearings, thoroughly scrub away the sedimentary layers and all the rust. Ready to generator do not forget to paint.
The hub with brake discs, as a rule, goes to the craftsmen as one of the knots of an old car that went to the scrap, and therefore needs to be thoroughly cleaned.
Distribution and fixing of magnets
Neodymium magnets should be attached to the rotor discs. For our work, we take 20 magnets 25x8mm.
Of course, you can use a different number of poles, but you must observe the following rules: the number of magnets and poles in single-phase generator should be the same, but if we are talking about a three-phase model, the ratio of the poles to the coils should be 2/3 or 4/3.
When placing the magnets, the poles alternate. It is important not to make a mistake. If you are not sure that the elements are positioned correctly, make a hint template or apply a sector directly on the disk itself.
If you have a choice, buy rectangular magnets rather than round ones. In rectangular models, the magnetic field is concentrated along the entire length, and in the circular ones - in the center.
Opposing magnets must have different poles. You will not confuse anything if you use the marker to mark them with minus or plus signs. To determine the poles, take the magnets and bring them together.
If the surfaces are attracted, put a plus on them, if they repel, then mark them with minuses. When placing the magnets on the discs alternate the poles.
The magnets are installed in compliance with the rule of alternation of policies, along the outer and inner perimeters are located the edges of plasticine: the product is ready for pouring with epoxy resin
For reliable fastening of the magnet you need to use high-quality and extremely strong glue.
To increase the reliability of fixation, you can use epoxy resin. It should be diluted as indicated in the instructions, and fill it with a disk. The resin should cover the entire disk, but not drain it. It is possible to prevent the possibility of run-off if you wrap a disk with tape or make temporary plasticine fences out of a polymer band around its perimeter.
Single-phase and three-phase generators
If we compare single-phase and three-phase stators, the latter will be better. Single-phase generator vibrates when loaded. The cause of the vibration is the difference in the amplitude of the current, which arises due to its unstable return over time.
This lack of a three-phase model is not. It has a constant power due to phases compensating each other: when a current builds up in one, it falls in the other.
According to the results of testing, the return of the three-phase model is almost 50% more than that of the single-phase one. Another advantage of this model is that in the absence of unnecessary vibration, acoustic comfort is increased when the device is operating under load.
That is, the three-phase generator practically does not buzz during its operation. When vibration is reduced, the service life of the device logically increases.
In the struggle between three-phase and single-phase devices, it always wins over three-phase, because it doesn’t buzz so much in the process of working and lasts longer than single-phase
Coil winding rules
If you ask a specialist, he will say that before winding the coils, you need to perform a thorough calculation. The practitioner in this matter will rely on his intuition.
We chose a not too high speed generator option. Our procedure for charging a twelve volt battery should start at 100-150 revolutions per minute. Such initial data require that the total number of turns of all coils be 1000-1200 pieces. It remains for us to divide this figure between all the coils and determine how many turns there will be on each.
A low-speed wind turbine can be more powerful if the number of poles increases. The frequency of current oscillations in the coils will increase. If a wire with a larger cross-section is used for winding coils, the resistance decreases and the current increases. Do not lose sight of the fact that more voltage can "eat up" the current due to the resistance of the winding.
The winding process can be facilitated and made more efficient by using a special machine for this purpose.
Not necessarily such a routine process as winding coils do manually. A little ingenuity and a great machine that easily copes with the winding, already have
The performance and performance of home-made generators are greatly influenced by the thickness and number of magnets that are located on the disks. The total total power can be calculated by winding one coil and then scrolling it in the generator. The future generator power is determined by measuring the voltage at a specific speed without load.
Let's give an example. With a resistance of 3 ohms and 200 revolutions per minute, 30 volts are output. If we take away from this result 12 volts battery voltage, you get 18 volts. We divide this result by 3 Ohms and we get 6 amps. Volume of 6 amps and go to the battery. Of course, in the calculation we did not take into account the losses in the wires and on the diode bridge: the actual result will be less than the calculated one.
Usually the coils are made round. But, if you pull them out a little, you get more copper in the sector and the turns will be straighter. If we compare the size of the magnet and the diameter of the inner hole of the coils, they should match each other or the size of the magnet may be slightly smaller.
Already finished coils must correspond to their size magnets: they must be slightly larger than the magnet or equal to them
The thickness of the stator, which we do, must be properly related to the thickness of the magnets. If the stator is made larger by increasing the number of turns in the coils, the inter-disk space will increase, and the magnetic flux will decrease. The result may be the same: the same voltage is generated, but, due to the increased resistance of the coils, we get less current.
For the manufacture of forms for the stator used plywood. However, the sector for the coils can be marked on paper, using clay as borders.
If fiberglass is placed on the bottom of the mold over the coils, the strength of the product will increase. Before applying the epoxy resin it is necessary to lubricate the form with petroleum jelly or wax, then the resin will not stick to the mold. Some use scotch or tape instead of grease.
Between the coils are fixed. In this case, the ends of the phases are brought out. Six outgoing wires should be connected by a star or a triangle. Rotating the assembled generator by hand, produce its testing. If the voltage is 40 V, then the current will be about 10 amps.
Final assembly of the device
The length of the finished mast should be approximately 6-12 meters. With such parameters, its base must be concreted. The wind turbine itself will be mounted on the top of the mast.
In order to reach it in the event of a breakdown, a special fixture must be provided at the base of the mast, which will allow the pipe to be raised and lowered using a hand winch.
A mast with a wind generator attached to it rises high, but the prudent master made a special device that allows, if necessary, to lower the structure to the ground
To make a screw, you can use a PVC pipe with a diameter of 160 mm. It will be used to cut a two-meter screw consisting of six blades from its surface. The shape of the blades is best developed independently by experiment. The goal is to increase the torque at low revs.
Screw propeller should be protected from too strong wind. To solve this problem using a folding tail. The energy generated is stored in batteries.
For the attention of our readers, we have provided two versions of wind turbines, made by hand at 220 V, who enjoy increased attention not only to owners of suburban real estate, but also simple summer residents.
Both models of wind turbines are effective in their own way. Particularly good results, these devices are able to demonstrate in the steppe area with frequent and strong winds. They are effective enough to be used in an organization. alternative home heating and in the supply of electricity. And they are not so difficult to build their own hands.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
This video shows an example of a wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation. The author of the device explains in detail the nuances of the installation design, made by hand, draws the attention of viewers errors that can be made in the process of self-manufacture of a wind generator, gives practical tips.
Pay attention that getting to the device, raised to a decent height, is not so easy. To reinstall such a wind turbine will most likely be problematic. Therefore, the folding design of the mast in this case will not be superfluous.
This video shows a rotary windmill with a vertical axis of rotation. This installation is low, original and highly sensitive: even a slight wind drives the blades of the device.
If you live in an area where winds are not considered rare, the use of this particular source of alternative energy may be the most effective for you. The above examples of self-manufacturing wind turbines prove that making them yourself is not so difficult. Wind energy is a shared and renewable resource that can and should be used.
We invite visitors who are interested in the topic of the article to express their opinions in the comments and ask questions arising during the introduction to the material.