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Liming the pond with fish is an integral part of caring for the pond. Especially if the water in it remains for the winter. During the cold season, it accumulates a large amount of waste products, such as:
- remains of feed;
- dead plants;
- organic substances;
- excreta of inhabitants.
Liming of water is carried out to accelerate the mineralization of substances and the addition of open oxygen. It also helps improve fish productivity and water quality.
What is it for
Liming of water is, first of all, the creation of the correct ecological atmosphere of the pond. This is done to eliminate acidic soil reaction and accelerate mineralization. In the form of a side (but useful) action is the addition of calcium in water.
During the operation of the reservoir, lime is gradually washed out of the ground and water. It must be periodically added, because it performs the following functions:
- Development of the inhabitants. Lime is involved in the formation of skeleton in fish, affects the development of embryos and normalizes the work of the neuromuscular apparatus of fish. During catching, a significant portion of the calcium is removed from the pond and must be added.
- Disinfection of water. Lime helps prevent diseases of gills and rubella carp.
- It fights most parasites living on the bottom and in the water. They simply do not tolerate the impact of quicklime and die immediately after its addition.
- Helps get rid of unnecessary (weed) fish. It is enough to process the remaining pits with water in the fall and in the spring, you can run the inhabitants.
How to activate the productive layer of the pond bed
If the pond is equipped on poor sandy grounds, liming the pond with the fish will be useless.
When there is a lot of silt on the bottom of the pond, liming is mandatory.
Here you need to use quicklime. It should be applied to the wet bottom of the soil. For liming to be successful, the substance must be in the form of fine particles and it must be distributed evenly. Otherwise, no extinction will occur.
Unexpired lime is used only on a humid day. Do not put it on dry or frozen ground.
Ice bottom can help in liming. If the pond is deep and there is enough silt in the bed, in the spring the ice melts and the alkali is activated.
Once you have made lime, be sure to immediately process the soil, otherwise there will be no effect. It is due to the fact that quicklime reacts with oxygen and quickly becomes carbonic, that is, loses its properties.
It is impossible to activate the sand bed of the reservoir with quicklime. It interacts only with organic matter, and there are practically none in such soil. There will not be an effect.
If the soil in a pond with a high content of peat, quicklime will do a very good job. Determine how much matter you need in this case, you can by two factors - the thickness of the silt layer in the bed and its current activity. The more silt, the more a quick substance is required. And the more active the bed, the less substance it is necessary to make.
The recommended amount of adding quicklime to the peat bed is about 270 kg per 1 ha. In some cases, the quantity reaches 2 tons per ha.
Categorically it is not recommended to continuously increase the dose. From this, the fish productivity of the pond can sharply decrease.
Rules for the enrichment of water
Liming of the pond must be done with slaked and quicklime lime, as well as crushed limestone.
The substances have different neutralizing ability: 1 kg of quicklime kg hydrated kg limestone.
The action of limestone is slowed down in comparison with slaked and quicklime, as it dissolves more poorly. Therefore, the likelihood of an overdose decreases.
With fish productivity of 1 ton per 1 hectare liming of the pond with fish is necessary. With increasing to, t / ha - it is necessary.
To increase the content of calcium in water, soluble lime (calcium bicarbonate) and calcium carbonate are used. When there is insufficient quantity of the latter in water, calcium bicarbonate forms in a gray sediment on the bottom and underwater parts of plants. So there is a shortage of lime.
Unexpected lime and calcium carbonate are used in the form of fertilizers. So quicklime dissolves and produces an alkaline solution. It, in turn, reacts with carbon dioxide and is converted to calcium carbonate.
For the productive saturation of water with calcium, it is necessary that a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide is released in the reservoir. Ensure this condition can only be sufficient presence of quicklime in the bed of the pond. It is practically the only source of carbon dioxide.
The pH value is also extremely important for the existence of bicarbonate carbon dioxide. When the pH is higher, the lime in the water becomes carbonic or alkaline.
The content in the water of lime is strongly influenced by plants living in the pond. For example, some of them actively absorb carbon dioxide, others - dissolved lime. Water with the latter acquires a pH of 9-10.
Liming is necessary. It allows to neutralize all harmful compounds, including iron, magnesium, sodium, copper and potassium. Iron compounds are especially dangerous. They are easy to recognize by metal gloss and the formation of a film on the water surface. It looks like an oily one, but it does not rejoin at break, but swims in pieces. Such areas of the film are dangerous for fish - they fall into the gills and partially block the breath. Lime can solve this problem.
When liming the pond, it is worth considering that in autumn the content of lime is higher in spring than in spring, and in a new pond is less than in the old one.
In some cases, sufficient activating liming, and in others necessarily additional fertilizer. Here you need to look at a particular pond.
How much lime is needed for the pond
To determine the required quantity, it is necessary to take into account the following factors:
- dry bed or water;
- with fish or after catching;
- what bottom sediments are available;
- the presence and types of plants;
- initial quality of water.
It is dangerous to liming a reservoir with a higher dosage, since not only zooplankton and parasites can perish, but the fish itself.
Elevated doses of lime are applied only on a dry bed or on water without fish in case of spread of the disease among the inhabitants.
Practically in all theoretical materials on this subject, the value of 280 kg of lime per hectare of pond with a depth of 1 meter is encountered. But, as practice shows, there are many other factors that need to be considered:
- Plants in the pond absorb lime during development and secrete it after withering away.
- With the natural evaporation of water, lime in the residue becomes more concentrated.
- In the silt bottom the content of lime is higher than in the sandy.
According to the research, more ponds do not need calcareous tanks, since in pond silt the lime content reaches 1%.
Il has a greater density than water. If we arbitrarily take 7 cm silt per hectare, we will get 70, 0, 00 cubic cm. Its weight in this case will be 700 000 kg. That is, with a lime content of 1%, such an amount of silt accounts for about 7 tons. But since this content is not in a free form, it can not be taken into account. Il gives about 10% of the lime from the total content in it, that is,%. Thus, alkalinity appears, mEq / L. This value is most suitable for pond farming.
For disinfection of the pond on a dry bed, make, kg per 10 sq. M. m, for wet areas - 1 kg per 10 sq. m. m. Liming ponds on water is carried out twice a year - from May to June and before the application of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers (2-3 days). The consumption here will be 100 g per 10 sq. M. m.
Here, the use of quicklime is effective. Disinfection should be performed at an ambient temperature of 1 ° C.
For this purpose, only fresh quicklime is suitable. If it has been stored for a long time or the container has been opened, the substance has already lost its properties.
The norm in this case is higher than that used to activate ponds. So, a silty bottom would require 2t / ha, a 750 kg / ha sand, and up to 4 tons / ha peat.
When applying the main evenly distribute the substance on the bottom.
Large particles (not sufficiently crushed) of quicklime can harm the fish.
The fact is that they are extinguished only from the outside, forming a crust that does not allow the internal extinction of granules. At start, the fish can touch and break this layer. As a result, the process of extinction of the remaining lime will begin. This can cause damage to the fish by the release of heat and alkali.
Methods of applying lime
Most often for liming water in a pond slaked lime is used. It is easier to store, because it does not absorb the moisture from the environment (as it happens with quicklime).
Liming ponds on the water can be effective only if there is a large amount of organic material in the pond.
There are several methods of adding lime to the pond. Mechanized, of course, more convenient and effective, but we will consider not only them:
- Manual input from the boat begins simultaneously with feeding. It uses quicklime in the amount of 12% of the mass of fish in the pond. Gradually the dosage is reduced so that by the end of the season it was equal to 6% of the weight of the fish.
- Shoveling into the ground. Only here you do not need an ordinary garden shovel (it will create a lot of dust and you will not get an even distribution). There is a special device that looks like a shovel with slits. It helps to evenly distribute the lime on the bottom. To avoid getting dust in the face, you need to monitor the wind.
- It is possible to sprinkle lime milk - pre-extinguished and dissolved in water lime. For this purpose, only packagings of their stainless materials are suitable.
- There is an interesting model of the nebulizer. Suction and discharge pumps, a mixer and an elastic pipe are installed on the boat. The latter is fitted with a movable transverse tube with sprayers. When the boat moves, the pump draws water from the reservoir, the lime is extinguished in the mixer and lime milk is already sprayed. In this case, the recoil is enough to move the boat. But even this method has its drawbacks - when the wind fertilizer does not fall into the destination.
- A pendulum atomizer and a box diffuser are recommended. They move through the dehydrated pond with a tractor or tractor.
Liming of water bodies is a necessary measure for maintaining a healthy pond ecosystem and improving fish productivity. Calculation of the consumption of lime for each pond should be carried out taking into account many factors. The overabundance is also bad, as is the lack of substance.