Construction work is carried out at any time of the year, despite the cold or heat. It is not always possible to choose a season that is comfortable for work, since the deadlines for putting an object into place are tight.
In general, the installation of a septic tank in winter is carried out in the same sequence as at any other time of the year, however there are a number of features that should be taken into account during installation. Knowing the basic rules of installation and connection of the sewage treatment plant, it will be possible to avoid a number of mistakes and prevent the breakdown of expensive equipment, do you agree?
The article identifies the pros and cons of the installation work in the cold season, are common errors inexperienced masters. Also described step-by-step installation instructions and recommendations for the preservation of the septic tank for the winter.
The content of the article:
- Installation of a septic tank in the winter - for and against
How to avoid common mistakes
- Error number 1: location without the requirements of SES
- Mistake number 2: lack of binding
- Mistake number 3: backfilling with ordinary soil
- Error number 4: lack of ventilation
- Mistake number 5: the lack of quality insulation
Phased installation instructions for a septic tank in winter
- Step 1. The device of the pit - the size and method of digging
- Step 2. Installing a septic tank - the process of installing different types
- Step 3. Communications laying, ventilation, drainage
- Step 4. An important stage - external insulation
- How to preserve a septic tank for the winter
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Installation of a septic tank in the winter - for and against
Some mistakenly assume that it is impossible to install a septic tank during the winter period, and wait for the spring to begin installation. However, this is not the case. You can put a septic tank on your site at any time of the year; moreover, in some situations, installation can be done only in winter. This happens when the groundwater level is high.
In the spring, during the mass melting of snow, the groundwater level is rising to critical levels. A situation may arise when a newly dug trench is filled with water at high speed. And then the installation is out of the question.
So it is better to suffer a little with the upper frozen layer of soil - it usually does not exceed 100 cm.
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Timed to the winter months, the installation of a septic tank or sewage station has a very attractive advantage - an affordable price. In winter, due to lower demand, installation prices drop significantly
When constructing an autonomous sewage system with an independent point of sewage treatment in heaving soils, one should keep in mind their traditional expansion during freezing. If you do not take into account this factor, the plastic case can be deformed in the frosts or significantly subside in spring.
In winter, the groundwater mirror drops significantly, allowing work to be carried out without pumping out of the pit. But it should be remembered that with a high GWL light plastic structures must be anchored - fastened to concrete structures at the bottom of the pit
It is necessary to take into account that the development of a pit for a septic tank or a station and the digging of trenches in frozen soil is much more difficult than in unfrozen. Smash the soil to the depth of frost penetration will have a crowbar or perforator
Development of trenches for the sewage pipelines and the pit for the cleaning system in the winter is desirable produce using construction equipment because manually these works are too hard and long
The most suitable winter period for the installation and connection of a septic tank is the beginning of winter or its final days. At this time, the depth of freezing is small
In northern latitudes with an average monthly air temperature during the winter period below -10 ° C, wastewater treatment plants of independent sewage must be warmed.
Taking into account the nuances of winter installation, it is possible to construct wastewater treatment plants for autonomous sewage systems of any type: both factory sewage stations, and accumulators or septic tanks made of concrete rings
Minimum prices - the main advantage of winter installation
Installation and connection of sewer station
Lower groundwater level
Development of top layers of soil perforator
Rational use of construction equipment
The beginning of winter - the optimal period
Warming of septic tanks in winter regions
The construction of a septic tank of concrete rings
There are a number of advantages that make this particular time of year for installation:
- low builder load;
- low prices for materials;
- lack of vegetation on the site.
It is no secret that winter is the "dead" season for builders. The demand for services is falling and you have to cut prices to attract customers. This can be used and save a little. The cost of rental of construction equipment and services of workers can be reduced by 10-20%.
Demand is reduced in hardware stores and from manufacturers of sewage treatment plants. Often there are favorable promotional offers and other bonuses.
Installation of a septic tank requires digging a large volume of the pit and, accordingly, excavation of a large amount of soil. This requires a free area, and if your site is landscaped, planted a lawn, flower bed or garden, the installation process will negate all your efforts.
Another thing - installing a septic tank in the cold season, when there is no vegetation.
In winter, the suburban area is not occupied by seasonal green plantings, so it is easier to provide access to the building. equipment to the work site, it is easier to choose the most suitable place for the treatment plant and placement of soil systems tertiary treatment
How to avoid common mistakes
When installing a septic tank in the winter make mistakes that can later become the cause of breakage or poor quality of the septic tank. In winter, the day is short, the conditions on the street are not the most favorable for work, I want to finish the installation as soon as possible. Such a rush often increases the number of errors and errors during installation.
The most common mistakes that workers make during the installation of a septic tank in the winter:
- lack of fixing plastic containers;
- non-compliance with the rules of backfilling;
- lack of ventilation;
- improper placement of a septic tank;
- lack of insulation
To avoid possible trouble, it is better to prepare in advance and take into account all the nuances.
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The hatch of a septic tank not conserved for the winter must be regularly cleaned of snow in order to gain access to the inspection and maintenance of the installation.
In the case of preservation of the sewage treatment plant, 2/3 of the wastewater is pumped out of it, the technical devices are dismantled and the cells with aerobic bacteria are removed.
If necessary, the insulation of the sewage treatment plant with thermal insulation equips all underground objects, including turning and inspection wells, collectors
If the water level in the sewer or absorption well is below the seasonal freezing horizon, the waste water in it will not freeze in winter
Regular cleaning of the manhole for the maintenance of the septic tank
Winter Canned Station
Heat insulated manifold hatch
Non-freezing year round waste water
Error number 1: location without the requirements of SES
Placement of a septic tank should be conditioned not only by the desire of the landlord’s owner, but also by sanitary norms that clearly regulate the installation of such structures on the site.
In particular, the sanitary zone around the installation site is limited. Its radius is 15 m. In the sanitary zone it is unacceptable to find water intake points, 50 meters should be measured to the well or well.
Even the distance to the trees is regulated. According to the rules, a septic tank should not be located closer than 3 m from trees and 1.5 m from shrubs (+)
In this case, residential buildings should be located no closer than 5 m from the septic tank. The distance to the road and the border of the site is also limited - not less than 2 m.
With regard to natural water bodies, SNiP also makes its own adjustments:
- from 30 m - to reservoirs with stagnant water;
- from 10 m - to flowing reservoirs.
It is also undesirable to install a cleaning structure in the valley. In winter, it will not be noticeable, but with the onset of heat, melt water will flood the pit and the septic tank itself, hindering its work.
Mistake number 2: lack of binding
If we are talking about plastic septic tanks, which are widely available on the market, you need to understand that the container will not be filled with drains at 100%. In any case, the part will be empty, which means it will be filled with air.
With a high level of groundwater plastic capacity, 20-30% filled with air, will pop up like a float.
At the time of installation (in winter), the GWL will be minimal, but you need to be prepared for the fact that in a couple of months spring will come, thaw, and there will be a significant increase in the groundwater level. And here the most interesting begins.
The water will gradually fill the pit with a septic tank, and that, in turn, will begin to float. Yes, from the pit he will not go anywhere, but even a minimal change of position of 5-10 cm in either direction is almost for sure will pull the depressurization of the joints, breaking the connection with the sewer pipe, ventilation and etc.
A heavy reinforced concrete slab will become a reliable anchor and will not allow the structure to budge under the influence of Archimedes force. Anchor belts surround the tank and fix it in place.
To prevent this from happening, experienced installers advise to “anchor” the tank with a concrete slab installed at the bottom of the foundation pit. An alternative for installing in the winter - drilling and pouring them with concrete. After that, anchor bolts are placed in the body of the obtained rods, and a plastic septic tank is attached to them.
Mistake number 3: backfilling with ordinary soil
In winter, the upper layer of soil freezes. The depth of freezing (GP) can vary significantly depending on the region. Typically, this figure is close to 1-1.5 m. In order not to bury the septic tank completely below the GC, it is customary to fill the pit not with ordinary ground, but with sand or sand-cement mixture.
At negative temperatures, the sand does not expand, does not get wet, and behaves stably. Thus, almost identical loads will act on the fragile plastic both in winter and in summer.
However, sometimes when filling a septic tank they make a common mistake - they do not sift the sand. It would seem that there is nothing terrible.
However, even a small fragment of rubble, accidentally turned out to be closely pressed against the wall of plastic container, under the weight of a meter layer of soil creates quite strong concentrated point stresses in plastic. The result - a crack or hole in the housing.
The septic tank will be depressurized. And if suddenly the plastic does not stand, and the crack goes on, the whole structure may break. In this case, the repair will no longer help, it will only remain to completely change the equipment and install it, looking back at the bad experience.
Error number 4: lack of ventilation
In winter, installation is often limited to installing a pit, installing the construction of a septic tank itself, and connecting communications. But ventilation is often forgotten.
This omission can cause excessive gas formation and, as a consequence, the appearance of unpleasant odors around the treatment plant or, even worse - the smell of sewage in the toilet or bathroom.
The ventilation pipe is brought to the roof of the building. According to the norms, the diameter of the pipe for ventilation must be less than the diameter of the pipe for draining water (+)
The vent from the septic tank to the roof of the house is called fan pipe. It serves to ventilate the container, since bacteria need air to work. With proper installation, the flavors of hydrogen sulfide and methane are not terrible.
According to the project, the splashpipe is connected to the filtering well or directly to the extreme compartment of the septic tank.
Mistake number 5: the lack of quality insulation
When installing a septic tank in the winter, we forget about insulation much less frequently than at other times of the year. This contributes to negative air temperature. It is recommended to warm the septic tank in cases when it is not completely below the depth of soil freezing, in order to protect the structure from freezing and damage.
To be sure that the structure will not freeze, special heating cables are sometimes installed. They keep the temperature above 0 and prevent freezing (+)
It is especially important to warm the sewage system in a country house, if it is not used for a long time in winter - for example, in the country. Septic tank can be “wrapped” polystyrene foam plates or rolled insulation.
Use heating cable for pipeswhich will prevent freezing of fluid in the system. Foam crumb or expanded clay is used as a heater.
Phased installation instructions for a septic tank in winter
The installation process in the winter is performed in a specific order.
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Development of the pit at the beginning of winter can be done manually. The first frosts will be “grabbed” with ice only by the upper 20-50 cm. The bottom of the pit needs to be leveled and tamped
Put a septic tank on the leveled and tamped bottom of the pit. We check its position with a building level, if necessary, we correct it by adding sand under the bottom
We connect a septic tank to the sewer pipe leaving the house. All sewage branches should be arranged with a bias towards the septic tank, then towards the ground treatment system and further unloading
Fill the free space in the pit with sand concrete so that the light plastic body does not “pop up” during the flood period and does not push out with heaving soil
From the septic tank to the side of the ground treatment system, we are developing a trench for laying the sewer pipe and installing the infiltration cassette
We fill a trench with a sewer pipe and expanded clay infiltrator, which is used as thermal insulation and non-pile aggregate
The sewer pipe connections in the area from the septic tank to the ground purification are checked by salvo discharge into the sewer. If everything is fine, fill in the remaining segments of the trench
We equip the ventilation risers of the sewer route with protective caps that prevent them from clogging with snow
Stage 1: Tamper the bottom of the pit under the sewer station
Stage 2: Immersion of a septic tank in the prepared ditch
Stage 3: Connecting the septic tank to release from home
Stage 4: Backfilling of sandstone with septic tank sandbeton
Step 5: Install and connect the infiltrator
Stage 6: Filling the trench with expanded clay infiltrators
Step 7: Check the tightness of the track connections
Stage 8: Installation of ventilation risers
Regardless of the type of septic tank, the basic steps are standard:
- trench device;
- installation capacity;
- pipe laying;
- installation of additional equipment;
Each stage should be considered in detail.
Step 1. The device of the pit - the size and method of digging
The size of the pit depends on the selected septic tank. If this concrete ring construction, its height will be 3 m, and the foundation pit is needed deeper. Finished plastic containers may vary in height and configuration.
There are high - vertically oriented, but there are also horizontal ones. For them, the pit will be less deep, but large in area.
The place for the pit is chosen in accordance with the requirements of SES. Take into account the slope of the relief and the direction of movement of groundwater. Check that the water moves from the house to the septic tank, and not vice versa.
When you have decided on the place and size, you need to choose a method for digging a pit:
- independently manually;
- with the help of the construction team;
- using the technique.
Since it is very difficult to dig frozen ground in winter, the first option — independently by hand — is practically excluded. Even if you decide to dig a three-meter hole, armed with only one shovel, it will take a significant amount of time. Therefore, it is impossible to call such a method rational when it comes to winter.
With the help of the labor of the construction workers, the foundation pit will be dug many times faster. They have all the necessary tools, strength, health and motivation to finish the job as quickly as possible.
Turning to qualified professionals, you will receive not only the right size pit, but also advice, and practical recommendations, since builders are likely to encounter the installation of a septic tank for the first time and have some experience
The fastest and least costly method is to call an excavator. In this case, the excavation process will take a few hours. A powerful machine is not afraid of frozen ground, but sometimes it is necessary to break it with a jackhammer.
At a price, renting an excavator will cost even less than a construction crew, but not every site can accommodate such a large vehicle, and it still needs a place to maneuver.
Step 2. Installing a septic tank - the process of installing different types
If you plan to install a septic tank of concrete rings in the winter, you need to prepare a concrete pad at the bottom of the pit for installation. Use ready concrete rings with special locks on the edge - so wells from several elements will be more stable and more tight. For installation will have to rent a crane truck.
The rings are fastened together with cement mortar or liquid glass. Often the design is reinforced - put additional ties of metal plates. All seams are carefully smeared with mortar or special water-repellent mixtures from the outside and inside.
In this case, you need to pay maximum attention. waterproofing septic tank, because in case of formation of a gap toxic untreated drains will flow into the soil.
For better sealing inside the well, you can install a special plastic cylinder - glass. It will protect the structure from possible leakage.
Installing a plastic septic tank in the winter is easier because there is no need to worry about the tightness of the structure itself. However, there is another concern - consolidation.
And here, too, need a truck crane, this time - for the installation of reinforced concrete slabs on the bottom of the pit. Fixing the container to the plate is carried out with metal loops or on the anchor.
Step 3. Communications laying, ventilation, drainage
Sewer pipes are laid in trenches that connect the pit to the house. Digging trenches in the winter is another serious stage of earthworks. The width of the trench will be several times the diameter of the pipe. For the highway usually take plastic pipes 110 mm.
Plastic is afraid of negative temperatures, it becomes brittle - cold brittle, so it should be warmed. One of the methods is to place the pipeline not just in the ground, but in a special heat-insulating “cover”. So plastic will not crack under the pressure of the soil in winter
In any case, it is recommended to lay communications below the level of soil freezing. Already at a depth of 2 m in most regions the temperature in winter does not fall below + 5 ° C. At this temperature, the water in the sewer will not freeze.
In addition, the drains are usually quite warm, so with regular use of a septic tank in the winter there is a natural heating and thawing.
Separately count filter fieldsif they are incorporated in the project. This is a pipeline that goes from the septic tank and distributes purified water throughout the field. Pipes are perforated and laid on a layer of sand and gravel. Drains that are cleaned in a septic tank up to 60-70% come to the filtration field, where they are cleaned up to 98%, passing through the sand.
Drainage pipes for such a system are laid below the depth of soil freezing in winter. For ventilation at the end of each drain set an angle of 90 ° and bring the vent pipe to a height of about 1 m above the ground.
Step 4. An important stage - external insulation
To insulate the septic tank, cover the sludge with a layer of material with a low coefficient of thermal conductivity, such as foam plastic, expanded clay or penoplex. The height of the insulation layer depends on the depth of freezing and the location of the septic tank in the ground.
If the plastic contacts only the upper part of the frozen soil, the insulation is designed accordingly.
If the septic tank is in a zone where the temperature of the soil in winter will be below zero, warm the side walls or at least part of them. So the design will not freeze even at abnormally low winter temperatures.
But pipes are recommended to insulate roll materials, for example, mineral wool. Minvata absorbs moisture very well, which is a significant drawback in the issue of insulation for the winter.
In order that similar surprises did not occur, it is important to approach responsively to waterproofing of pipes. Use sealants for sewer networks and film materials - it is convenient to wrap pipes with them.
How to preserve a septic tank for the winter
If the installation of a septic tank is carried out in the winter, but no one plans to use it yet, the system must be mothballed. It is important not to leave the structure without water for a long time.
A number of recommendations on how to preserve a septic tank for the winter, so that it does not freeze and break, will help you to do everything right and to prevent mistakes:
- Disconnect and dismantle electrical equipment: pump, chopper, etc.
- Fill the septic tank with at least 70% water. If there is less water, the structure can float; if it is more, it can crack from the expansion of frozen water.
- Place in each chamber by capacity with sand. Plastic bottles on the rope will do. Fill them with sand, but so that the bottle retains its buoyancy. This simple reception will reduce the load on the body.
- Close the lid tightly and replace the insulation.
If the above cannot protect the water inside the septic tank from freezing, it will be able to prevent equipment failure or deformation of the body.
If your sewage plant is frozen, do not rush to panic.
Since all the elements of the system are in order, you only need to break the ice and continue to use the autonomous sewage system.
Melt iced pipes will help hot water or saline. In this way, it is easy to bring the septic tank to life in the winter and continue to use it.
More information about the preservation of septic tank for the winter, the rules for servicing the sewage treatment plant during the cold season are written in the following articles:
- How is the preservation of septic for the winter: a step-by-step instruction
- Rules for maintenance of septic tank in winter: cleaning and maintenance activities
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Videos with visual information will help you understand how to install a septic tank in winter, as well as preserve it until spring.
Installation of a plastic septic tank in the winter - instructions and recommendations from a specialist:
Installation and connection of the popular model of ready-made septic tanks “Topas” in winter:
If it became necessary to preserve the septic tank until the next season, this video shows in detail how to do it.
As you can see, you should not be afraid of installing a septic tank in the winter. This is a normal working moment and experienced builders encounter it regularly. Now you know how to avoid most installation errors, as well as the installation process from “A” to “Z” step by step.
Share with your readers your experience of installing a sewage plant during the cold season. Please leave comments on the article, participate in discussions and ask questions that interest you. Feedback form is located below.