The issue of heating garages and business premises is relevant in the winter conditions of the northern regions. Demand creates supply, because the number of devices for heating on the market is very large.
To choose the right heaters for the garage, you need to understand the principle of their actions, evaluate the economy, safety and the ability to solve the problem.
We prepared an overview of the most popular solutions, outlined the pros and cons of different models, and also listed the basic rules for their operation. Step-by-step calculation of the power of the heater will help you choose the optimal heating device for the garage.
The content of the article:
Types of heaters and their features
- Option 1. Oil heaters
- Option # 2. Convective heating devices
- Option # 3. Electric fan heaters and heat guns
- Option # 4. Diesel and gas heat guns
- Option # 5. Infrared devices
- Option # 6. Heating cables
- Rules of operation of heaters of different types
- Calculation of the heat output of the heater
- A convincing benchmark - prices
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Types of heaters and their features
The principle of the ordinary heater is the transfer of heat to the air near you. Such devices, typical for use in garages, for a long time were electric stove, gas stove or stove-stove. These are devices and devices of the so-called direct heating.
Now it is possible to purchase heaters that exceed these devices in terms of efficiency, simplicity and safety of use.
Let us consider in more detail the types of heaters that can be used in the garage.
Option 1. Oil heaters
A typical representative of ordinary heaters is an electric oil cooler.
Simply oil heater can be represented in the form of an airtight container filled with mineral oil. Inside the body - the container is installed heaters, which heats the oil. When heated, heating elements transfer energy to the oil; it is distributed to the body, which is distributed by heat in the surrounding air.
The device does not require special installation, has a very simple design, rarely breaks down and you can do without special solutions to comply with safety requirements.
The advantageous difference between an oil radiator compared to an ordinary electric stove is in a larger area of the heating surface and, as a result, a much greater heat transfer.
Oil radiators have long been used for heating various types of premises, so there is wide range of options at the time of buying. It will not be difficult to find a device of suitable power.
The electronic panel of the oil heater with the ability to turn on the device at a specified time allows you to come to the heated garage
In the first place for use in the garage, you must have a rheostat that regulates the temperature. When heating the room, you can turn on the radiator at full capacity, and to maintain the temperature - reduce to the required values.
The presence of an automatic protection against overheating, as well as a sensor that fixes the inclination of the device and turns it off in case of overturning, will not interfere.
The presence of a thermostat that determines the outside temperature is not a priority for the garage. But equipping with a timer that allows you to turn on the device on a schedule is a very convenient option if you need to warm up the garage room by morning.
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Oil heater is an excellent solution to the problems of the garage, which provides rapid heating and drying of the room
Outdated model used once in the apartment, will perfectly cope with the task
But the usual room heater is hardly suitable for garages with an area of more than 30 m². This will require a device of large size and efficiency.
According to the principle and similarity of factory-made heaters, you can make a homemade unit. The main thing to consider is that when heating oil, a reserve for expansion is necessary and to choose a suitable heating element.
Oil heater for garage
Moving old apartment appliance
Heater for technical rooms
Homemade pipe heater
The advantages of oil heaters for the garage:
- rarely breaks;
- difficult to damage on impact.
A weighty plus of oil-filled instruments is the safety of use in a technical room in which flammable substances are stored and used. If you accidentally touch it, you do not have to fear that the casing will crack, oil will spill, and rags, paper, etc. in the garage will ignite.
Among the shortcomings of oil devices, thermal inertia occupies the leading place: the radiator must heat up itself before it begins to give off heat. The second impressive minus is uneven heating of the room.
Option # 2. Convective heating devices
The principle of operation of convective heaters (convectors) is based on the difference in air density at different temperatures. Cold air enters the device through the lower holes, heats up, it becomes lighter and comes out through the upper holes.
According to this simple principle, natural air circulation occurs with its heating inside the device. The access of cold air to heating elements increases their heat transfer, compared to standard heaters.
The principle of operation of a convector heater is based on the natural circulation of air mass when changing its temperature and density
Convectors, as a rule, are mounted on the walls, because it is necessary to provide space for incoming cold air from below and outgoing warm air from above. The upper holes are equipped with special guides blinds, the position of which determines the direction of movement of the outgoing warm air.
According to the principle of heating convection heating devices divided into electric, gas and water varieties. Electric convectors are easier to install and operate than gas, but the power of the latter is higher.
A prerequisite for gas convection heaters is the installation of exhaust hoods for the inflow of fresh air and removal of combustion products. For small spaces only gas convectors with a closed combustion chamber are used.
The advantages of convection heaters for the garage:
- the case of the device is not hot, therefore it is impossible to get a burn when touched;
- almost complete fire safety for electrical devices;
- the absence of complex structural elements that can fail.
Convective heaters also have disadvantages. For example, an electrical device is more suitable for maintaining temperature than for quickly heating a room.
Subject to use in the garage, it will be necessary to regularly disassemble and clean the devices from dust.
A gas convection heater with a closed combustion chamber does not burn oxygen in a heated room. It is also one of the most economical ways to heat.
Option # 3. Electric fan heaters and heat guns
According to statistics, the share of fan heaters is almost half of the sales of all heating devices intended for domestic purposes.
The fan heater also functions according to the principle of convective action, only the replacement of heated air with cold air occurs by force using the built-in device. As a rule, this is an ordinary blade fan.
With choosing a fan heater Pay attention to the type of heating element. Usually use nichrome spiral, heaters or ceramic plates.
Ceramic heating elements have a lower temperature, so dust or other particles burn in a smaller volume and produce less burning odors.
Bladed fans are of two types: axial and tangential. The tangential type of fan is less noisy and is equipped with column heaters that are installed vertically. Their cost is more expensive than ordinary horizontal fans.
Column electric heater can be equipped with low noise axial or tangential fan
When using fan heaters for garages, the issue of having a filter on the rear surface of the device is relevant. The filter must be.
Rarely what kind of garage is kept clean, and the intense ingress of dust inside the appliance will lead to a quick breakdown of the heating element and the fan. It will become clogged with dust quickly enough, so cleaning the filter should be simple and replaceable cartridges cheap.
Electric heat gun - this is the same fan heater, only high power (from 3 kW). When choosing such a serious device, it is necessary to take into account the nominal voltage, because powerful heat guns are designed for 380 volts.
It is also necessary to properly assess the ability of electrical wiring and sockets to withstand high voltage power. Quite often use the option of using a combination of an electricity generator for liquid fuel, complete with an electric gun.
In the presence of a gasoline or diesel generator, you can heat the non-electrified garage with electrical appliances
The advantages of electric heaters for the garage:
- are cheap;
- equally well capable of both heating and maintaining temperature;
- evenly distribute heat around the garage.
The disadvantage of using electric fan heaters in arranging a garage is the need to effectively protect against dust getting inside the device. During operation, the device creates noise and stimulates the movement of air with a harmful rise in dust.
Option # 4. Diesel and gas heat guns
Heaters of this type are used mainly when the need for rapid heating of the room. Principle of operation diesel and gas guns similar to electric, only heating occurs due to the combustion of fuel or gas.
The fan of such guns also works on electricity and, thus, access to electricity is still necessary. Diesel heat gun - the most expensive, but also the most economical installation of all other types of heating.
Guns are of two types:
- direct heatingwhen, together with a stream of warm air, the products of combustion enter the room, which is unacceptable for small areas;
- indirect heatingwhen the combustion chamber is isolated from the heated air and the combustion products have a separate outlet.
The gas heat gun is also economical, but the combustion products fall into the heated room. Moreover, such a gun burns a lot of oxygen.
Therefore, from the standpoint of the safety of people, it is very important to know what the main function of the room is: if people work in the garage, then for him a gas heater of this type is better not to use.
The scheme of operation of a diesel heat gun of indirect heating involves the removal of combustion products outside the heated premises.
The advantages of non-electric heat guns:
- equally well capable of both heating and maintaining temperature;
- evenly distribute heat around the garage;
- The use of diesel fuel and gas is much cheaper than electricity.
It is worth noting and disadvantages. By analogy with other types of heat guns, diesel and gasoline equipment burns oxygen. Creates noise when working, stimulates the movement of air, which raises dust in the garage.
Those wishing to purchase a diesel or gasoline heat gun to heat the garage should be responsive to safety measures. It is necessary to exclude the possibility of fire and regularly air the room, as the device quickly burns oxygen
Option # 5. Infrared devices
Infrared (IR) heaters use the same principle of operation as the sun warms the Earth. Long waves of the radiation spectrum fall on objects and increase their temperature, and they are already heating the air.
The designs of such devices may differ, but the main part of infrared heaters is still the radiator.
Heaters with a radiating surface temperature up to 600 degrees Celsius are intended for domestic purposes. In addition to electric infrared heaters, there are gas, but their use for poorly ventilated rooms is contraindicated.
Infrared heaters take up little space in the garage and their radiation can be directed to the vehicle.
In modern electric infrared heaters, the following types of radiators are used:
- Metallic. Low-temperature heaters made of stainless steel in combination with aluminum radiating plates with an anodized coating. The simplest and reliable heating design. Cracking occurs when heated and cooled.
- Ceramic. The metal spiral heats the ceramic panel covered with black glaze. Not too high efficiency.
- Mikatermicheskie. Radiant wave plate covered with mica. Very low surface temperature of the emitting panels - only 60 degrees. Relatively high cost with the previous two options.
- Quartz. Tungsten filament is enclosed in a vacuum tube made of quartz glass. Like all bulbs, requires careful handling.
- Halogen. The tube does not contain a vacuum, but an inert gas. The temperature of the filament is higher than that of the quartz heater, but there is a noticeable glow.
- Carbon fiber. Carbon filament is enclosed in a quartz glass vacuum tube. Higher efficiency than the previous two tube heaters, but also a higher cost.
Usually infrared heaters with radiators based on aluminum plates are used for heating garages.
First, they are cheaper. Secondly, they are very reliable and work for a long time. And finally - they are resistant to mechanical stress (shock), which is important for the conditions of the garage.
Inside the panel infrared heater there are no complicated technical devices and fragile elements. Many models are equipped with thermostats and temperature response sensors. Outdoor versions are usually equipped with tipping sensors (+)
The temperature of aluminum plates during heating, as a rule, does not exceed 300 degrees Celsius, which is lower than the ignition temperature of paper and wood. Therefore, the emitter itself meets the requirements of fire safety.
At such temperatures, there is also no burnout of oxygen, so the heater can work for a long time without harm to humans.
When choosing a heater with a radiator of the plates, it is necessary to pay attention to the thickness of the anode layer. It is desirable that it was not less than 25 microns. The body of the heater should be stainless steel, then it will not rust when used in wet areas.
Advantages of infrared heaters for the garage:
- by decision of the owner, we realize uniform heating of the garage or heating of a separate section, for example, a working area in a garage-workshop;
- it is possible to heat garage spaces that are difficult for other devices, for example, under the hood of a car.
The disadvantage of infrared heaters for the garage is that these devices are more suitable for maintaining the temperature than for warming up the room quickly.
Regarding infrared heaters, there are many speculations about their harm to the human body.
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Infrared heaters do not form convective air streams, along with which dust and suspended chemicals form characteristic of garages
The operation of the infrared heater is aimed at a zone limited by its radius of action, in which the required temperature background is quickly reached.
Infrared equipment can serve as both a primary and an additional type of heating. Portable models are great as a supplement.
It is important to choose a heater whose power corresponds to the area of the treated room. This information must be found in the data sheet before purchasing.
Depending on the financial capacity of the garage owner, the devices are selected according to the type of power. Operation of electric will cost more gas
However, if the garage is not connected to the central power grid, and the purchase of its own electric generator is only in the plans so far, the choice is justified not only by savings, but also by real technical conditions
The list of electrical options includes film systems that are easier to place in small garages on the ceiling.
Installing the film system on the wall in small premises is not recommended because of the traditional garage blocking, which results in a significantly reduced radius of action.
Advantages of IR heaters
Economical power consumption
Portable IR heater option
Selection by area
The important factor of choice - nutrition
Gas infrared heater
Ceiling heating system
The option of placing the IR film on the wall
Option # 6. Heating cables
At first glance, the idea of organizing a heated floor for a garage may seem unnecessarily luxurious, but in one case it works very well. It is about solving a problem with starting a car in extreme cold.
Can arrange electric floor heating just under the parking lot of the car and turn it on in winter in severe frosts. Since the warm floor radiates not a very large amount of heat, it is necessary to limit the heating zone.
In this case, you need to throw a cover over the car, so that it reaches the floor of the garage from all sides. Then the heating zone will be limited to the space under the car and the car itself.
Air movement between the heating zone and the rest of the garage space will not be, and the heat loss through the cover with a temperature difference of no more than 20 degrees will be insignificant.
This method for a car can be achieved quite comfortable temperature environment in the range of 10-15 degrees Celsius below zero, at a temperature in the garage minus 30-40 degrees.
The advantage of heating cables for the garage is that the power consumption of the heated floor is small and any wiring can withstand it.
The lack of heating cables for the garage is that the work on competent laying warm floor quite complicated. Laying underfloor heating in the garage is the most difficult work compared to installing other types of heaters.
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To build a "warm floor" in the garage makes sense if it does not have a viewing pit and basement
For the device of a heat-insulated floor it is possible to get the complete set including the heating cable, the monitoring system and metal assembly strips
The heating cable is easier and easier to fasten to the reinforcing mesh, which is used to strengthen the future concrete screed
The pace of laying an electric heated floor will increase significantly if mats with an electric cable are used in the building
For electrical flooring with the use of mats, they are simply rolled out on a flattened surface.
Electric floor mats are connected according to the serial circuit and are connected to the power supply in accordance with the requirements of the electrical installation code
If the garage is divided into zones, then where it is not supposed to transport the load, it is not necessary to pour the coupler, it is enough to apply tile glue
In the working area, tiles are laid on tile adhesive; in the area where the vehicle is located, the screed poured over the mats can be simply polished
Conditions for the device "warm floor" in the garage
Assembly of a cable heat-insulated floor
Fixing the cable to the reinforcing mesh
Mats for cable systems
Laying electrical floor strips
The device of the heating floor system
Applying adhesive under the tile
Laying tiles on top of an electric floor
Rules of operation of heaters of different types
Electric heating devices are safer to use than gas or using liquid fuels.
When operating electric heaters of any type in the garage, in addition to the elementary rules for working with electrical appliances, it is necessary to pay attention to the following:
- the ability of sockets and electrical network supplied to the garage to withstand the power of the heater;
- the increased humidity of the garage room during the transition from negative to positive temperatures.
When operating gas, diesel and gasoline heaters, it is necessary to pay attention to the following:
- the possibility of gas leakage or gasoline evaporation;
- the need to take increased fire safety measures due to the presence of open fire;
- the likelihood of poisoning by combustion products;
- the possibility of oxygen deficiency in the garage.
Focusing on savings in heating the garage should be preferred diesel or gasoline options. If security is the basis of choice, it is advisable to prefer electrical appliances.
Non-observance of safety precautions when operating heating devices is one of the main causes of fires in garages
Calculation of the heat output of the heater
There is a formula for calculating the required power to maintain a constant temperature in the room:
N = V x dT x K,
- N - power (kcal / h);
- V - volume of the room (cubic m);
- dT - temperature difference in the room and outside;
- K - empirical coefficient of dispersion (dissipation) of heat.
The coefficient K takes the values:
- 0,6 – 0,9 - at high thermal insulation;
- 1,0 – 1,9 - with medium thermal insulation (concrete garages with insulated doors and the absence of special ventilation);
- 2,0 – 2,9 - with low thermal insulation (concrete garages with metal doors and ventilation holes);
- 3,0 – 3,9 - without heat insulation (metal garages).
The translation formula for kcal / h and watts is as follows:
1 W = 0.86 kcal / h or 1 kcal / h = 1.163 W.
Let's solve an example. A standard cooperative garage shell 6 x 3 x 2 meters is given. Good insulation: rear, right and left - similar garages; on top of the roof 30 cm of snow; the gates are insulated with foam; hoods for the winter plugged foam.
At a temperature of -35 degrees, it is necessary to reach a temperature in the garage of -10 degrees and keep it for three hours for the factory of a diesel car. We use a fan heater as a heater.
- V = 6 x 3 x 2 = 36 cu. m;
- dT = 25 degrees;
- K = 1.5;
- N = 36 x 25 x 1.5 = 1350 kcal / h = 1570 watts.
This is the value at which the temperature in the garage will be kept within -10 degrees. For heating to this temperature it is necessary to use twice as much power for an hour.
The answer to the problem: for one hour, the power should be 3 kW, for 3 consecutive power should be 1.5 kW.
Insulation of the garage reduces heat dissipation and saves on heating, as well as the use of less powerful heaters
A convincing benchmark - prices
The price of a heater of any type of action depends on its power, functionality and manufacturer.
For comparison of various heaters for the required parameters take the maximum power of 2.8 kW, the presence of rheostat for power control and elementary safety features relevant to the use of the device in the garage. For electrical models, the prerequisite is 220 volts.
Oil heater Termica Comfort 1120 (China). Three levels of power adjustment (2900 W, 1500 W and 1000 W). Shutdown function in case of overheating and overturning, frost protection. In the presence of a small fan. Price 3 300 p.
Electric convector AEG WKL 3003S (China). Maximum power 3 kW. The presence of a thermostat, protection against overheating and overturning. Floor or wall mounting. Price 5 700 p.
Gas convector Bartolini Calorama FB 4000 (Italy). Maximum power 4 kW. The closed combustion chamber, electric ignition from batteries. Price 12 900 p.
Electric fan heater Comfort TPK-3000 (Russia). Two levels of power adjustment (3000 W and 1500 W). Ceramic heater, overheating protection. The price is 3 700 rubles.
Gas cannon Ballu BHG-10 M (China). Maximum heating power of 10 kW, power adjustment using a gearbox. Fan power consumption 32 watts. Price 4 900 rubles.
Diesel gun indirect action. The maximum power of heating is 25 kW, the power consumption of the fan is 290 W. Thermostat with support for automatic shutdown. The price is 28 500 rubles.
Infrared heater NeoClima Shaft-3.0 (Greece). Two levels of power adjustment (3000 W and 1500 W). Quartz heating element, thermostat. Wall and floor installation. Price 3 600 rubles.
Before going to the store, you must carefully consider the issue of heating the garage, otherwise the probability of improper purchase is high
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Option garage arrangement infrared heaters:
How to heat a garage with a diesel heat gun:
There is no type or model of heater that would be ideal for all cases of garage heating. Depending on the conditions, you can use various, including combined approaches to solving this problem.
A large selection of heaters available for purchase allows us to make high-quality heating for a car parking and comfortable work in the garage under any conditions.
Looking for a garage heater? Or have experience using such heating devices? Please leave comments on the article and share your impressions about the use of heaters.