Black raspberries are a relatively rare visitor to our gardeners and gardeners. Already no one is surprised by the yellow variety. But her black sister is often confused with blackberries. Breeders harvested varieties of blackberry garden, black raspberries, so a man unfamiliar with their differences, it is difficult to say with certainty where the raspberries, and where - the blackberry.
In this article, we'll look at the Cumberland black raspberry variety, its difference with the blackberry, and the methods of care.
Table of contents
- The difference between black raspberries and blackberries
- Raspberry hybrid with blackberry
- Varieties of black raspberries
- Description of the Cumberland variety
- Advantages and disadvantages of black raspberries
- Useful properties of berries
- Characteristics of the Tiberberry variety
- Cultivation and methods of care for black-berry raspberries
- Pruning in autumn
- Planting of seedlings
- Exposure to diseases and pests
The difference between black raspberries and blackberries
Consider the main differences between black raspberries and blackberries.
- To quickly understand which bush grows before us, it is necessary to break the fruit. At a raspberry, whether it is a red or black berry, the inside is hollow. The berry breaks, but the colander remains on the branch. In blackberry, the flower-root breaks with the berry, and it does not remain empty.
- In the shape of berriesThe blackberry is more like red raspberries, having the same oblong form. Black fruit has hemispherical shape.
- They differ also by time of maturing. The Blackberry ripens a little later. Although some cultivars may have a collection time.
- Having examined the plants, one can also find differences in the stems. Blackberry has long (up to three meters) stems of green color with strong spikes. The bush of the blackberry is dense, like a tangle of hard wire.In black raspberries, the length of branches is less (from one and a half to two and a half meters). The stems are shorter, thinner and pale with blue. The size of thorns they have less than blackberry.
Raspberry hybrid with blackberry
Raspberries, crossed with blackberries, are called Tayberry, which was bred in Scotland in the late seventies of the last century. It is obtained as a hybrid of blackberries and raspberries by pollination of blackberry variety Aurora with raspberry pollen. As a result, red-violet berries of elongated shape are grown, reaching six centimeters. Ezhemalina Tiberberry is famous for its yield, pleasant taste and aroma of fruits.
Shoots with small spines grow to two and a half meters. The hybrid yields from July to late autumn. It is resistant to diseases, frosts and pests. The basic principles of care and reproduction are similar to the cultivation of ordinary raspberries.
Varieties of black raspberries
The first varieties of black berries were bred in America in the nineteenth century. In our country, the following types of popularity have gained popularity:
- Cumberlandis the most common, obtained from the crossing of raspberries and blackberries. It is distinguished by productivity and early ripeness, it has powerful long shoots that take an arcuate shape. Large berries blue-black to taste like a blackberry. Bushes are frost-resistant, well tolerated by Russian winters, resistant to diseases and pests.
- The second most popular variety, beloved by Russian gardeners -Boysenberry.The early variety is famous for its high yield of large sweet fruits. The absence of spines on long shoots facilitates harvesting. Like Cumberland, the Boysenberry variety is frost-hardy, rarely suffering from pests and diseases.
- New Logan- Another variety that came to us from across the ocean. Although its height does not exceed two meters, it gives a good harvest of early berries. But for the winter its shoots must be carefully covered from frost.
To the tested varieties of foreign selection, new varieties developed by Russian scientists make good competition:
- Coalbelongs to the early varieties. It is distinguished by a high yield, but the berries are small, sweet and sour.
- Variety Litachcame to us from Poland, where he was obtained as a result of breeding in 2008. Small round berries have a characteristic gray bloom. Bushes differ in long shoots with large spines.
- The Gift of Siberiais famous for its winter hardiness, it is frost-resistant, therefore it is recommended for planting in the middle belt of Russia, Siberia and the Far East. Small berries have a dense structure and dessert taste.
- The higher-yielding varieties includeLuck and Turn, giving up to six kilograms from the bush. The berries are not large, but dense, they retain their presentation for a long time.
Description of the Cumberland variety
On an example of the most popular and widespread grade of the black-fruit raspberry we will consider its features. Berries are black in this variety are large, by weight reach 5-6 grams.The yield from one bush is up to ten kilogramswith proper care, which exceeds the collection from a bush of red or yellow raspberries.
Although we are talking about the winter hardiness of blackberry raspberries, it is recommended to cover the bushes for winter, sprinkle with snow. Thanks to shelter for the winter and early maturation, black raspberries take root in different climatic zones of Russia. For the middle belt and the Non-Black Earth region, it is required to provide protection from cold winds and drafts during landing.
This allows her to tolerate arid periods well. But the lack of watering adversely affects the amount of ovaries and, accordingly, the yield.
The Cumberland bushes, which during ripening are densely strewn with ripe and ripening berries, represent a picturesque picture, therefore they will become an ornament in any garden. Their long shoots reach three meters, hanging down to the ground in the form of arches.The color of the stems, as they mature, becomes bluish, and the stems themselves are covered with spines..
Advantages and disadvantages of black raspberries
Despite not very wide popularity, black raspberries in many respects surpasses their relatives - red and yellow. Let's consider its main advantages:
- high yield;
- drought resistance;
- resistance to pests;
- undemanding to the composition of the soil;
- can serve as a hedgerow;
- does not form root offspring, which makes it possible to place it freely in the garden;
- berries have medicinal properties.
The shortcomings of the blackberry-like raspberries are:
- winter hardiness is less than that of the red variety;
- is susceptible to viral diseases.
Useful properties of berries
Consider the useful properties of black raspberries Cumberland. By the number of vitamins and other nutrients, the berries of black raspberries exceed the red and yellow berries. It is famous for blackberry-like raspberries with a high content of routine (vitamin P), necessary for strengthening the vessels.
You may also be interested in the following articles on the topic of raspberries:.
- The main diseases of raspberries.
- Description of the Raspberry Variety Indian Summer
- Characteristics of raspberry Pride of Russia
- Full description of Raspberry Patricia
Anthocyanins strengthen capillaries, purify vessels from sclerotic plaques.In addition, fruits and leaves contain substances that reduce the level of prothrombin, which normalizes blood coagulability. Berries are rich in trace elements - iron, manganese, copper.
The taste of them is sweet and sour, like a blackberry. Thanks to the dense structure, the fruit is stored for several days, transport is well tolerated..
Characteristics of the Tiberberry variety
And now let's talk about the description of a variety of black raspberries. The appearance of the bushes is somewhat different from the usual red relative. Long shoots can reach three meters, depending on the variety. Such long stems hang to the side, forming arcuate arches. Therefore, many gardeners spend tying the stems to the trellis.
They are formed on annual stems. Therefore, for this species, it is necessary to carry out correct pruning of lateral shoots and cutting in the autumn of old stems. Leave annual stems, which the next year will give fruit-bearing shoots..
Cultivation and methods of care for black-berry raspberries
Pruning in autumn
How to cut black raspberries? It is recommended to perform a two-pruned pruning during the season. At the end of June, the upper part of the shoots is cut at the height of human growth. This procedure will accelerate the formation of lateral fruit-bearing shoots.Weak shoots are removed, not allowing thickening bushes.
In autumn, before the onset of frost, two-year shoots are removed. Leave annuals, which are shortened to half a meter above the ground.
It is not so difficult to propagate a black berry. For reproduction, apical layers are used. For this purpose, in the beginning of autumn, after the fruiting process ends, the long processes incline and lay the tops in prepared grooves up to ten centimeters deep, filling them with earth.
From above cover with straw, sawdust. In the spring the layers will take root and give shoots, which are used as seedlings.
Planting of seedlings
Planting hybrid seedlings is not much different from other species. First you need to select a landing site and prepare it. The place should be protected from cold winds, be sunny enough.
Having planted a raspberry near a fence, it is possible to provide to it protection against a cold and a support for growth. At the same time, it can serve as a hedge due to strong spikes, which few people will be able to test.
Good predecessors will be the following garden crops:
- onion garlic;
- marigolds and marigolds.
It is necessary to observe the distance between the bushes, given the length of the shoots. In one row the bushes are planted with an interval of about one meter, and between adjacent rows - two meters.
Although black raspberries are not very demanding on the soil, to achieve good yields, the best soils will be loams, chernozem and sandy loam. Planted seedlings in autumn (late September - early October) or early spring.
For the planting of seedlings it is necessary to prepare a pit with a depth of half a meter.At the bottom of each well is a mixture of humus (6-8 kg), superphosphate (200 g), potassium sulfate (80 g). Mineral fertilizers can be replaced with wood ash (, kg). Composition is mixed with the ground, make a mound. Seedling is placed on its apex, roots are straightened down, sprinkled neatly with earth, gradually compacting with hands.
After watering the ground around mulch with sawdust, straw, humus. The layer of mulch should be no less than five centimeters.
To obtain powerful and simultaneously compact plants young annual shoots are plucked at a height of half a meter, which stimulates the development of lateral shoots.
Every three years it is recommended to fertilize plants with compost - about five kilograms for one bush.
After the end of flowering, the first top dressing is carried out with the infusion of manure (one part of the manure is taken with six parts of water) or chicken manure (ratio with water: 6). Add a wood ash (1 liter) and superphosphate (50 g) to the bucket of the infusion. Similar fertilizing is performed two more times -during the ripening and the beginning of the collection of fruits.
Exposure to diseases and pests
Ezhemalina is more resistant to diseases, less susceptible to attacks by insect pests than red. It is less likely to be affected by a disease characteristic of raspberries - verticillium wilting. This is a viral disease that is not treated. Affected bushes are cut, uprooted and burned.
To prevent infection, jemalina planted at a distance of not less than ten meters from the red raspberries. Rainy summer is recommended to organize drainage of the soil to prevent the development of fungal diseases. For preventive maintenance, sprays are sprayed with copper-containing preparations. Insecticides are also used.
Ezhemalina can be affected by anthracnose, which is manifested by a white coating on the leaves. For the use of fungicides, for example, Topaz, Mikosan or others, available for sale. Among organic remedies, infusions and decoctions are used. Well-established decoction of field horsetail.
One kilogram of grass is poured into a bucket of water, insisted for 24 hours. The next day the mixture is boiled for half an hour. For treatment, the strained solution is diluted in the ratio:. The horsetail can be replaced with nettle, but insist not one day, but two weeks. Bred with the same proportion.
Of pests, the most dangerous is the raspberry beetle. Before waking buds on the bushes, the first treatment with a solution of nitrophene (2% solution). The second treatment is performed with the appearance of flower buds infusion of wormwood and marigold.For two hundred grams of herbs pour a bucket of water, insist for at least a day.
As can be seen from the above, black raspberry refers to hybrids, combining all the best sides of blackberries and red raspberries. Berries are famous not only for good taste, but also for medicinal properties. The bushes are distinguished by high yield, unpretentiousness. Therefore, to care for the black berries for beginners will not be difficult.
Now you know the name of black raspberries, you know its characteristics and methods of caring for a hybrid..