The mechanical design of the wind generator in its pure form is only a part of a complete wind power plant. Fully serviceable system, in addition to the mechanical design, has a number of electronic components.
For example, a controller for a wind generator is required - a device that is functionally designed to stabilize the battery charge parameters during a wind turbine operation.
Let us see what functions the device performs and give the controller assembly diagrams with your own hands. In addition, let us designate the features of work and the expediency of buying a Chinese electronic unit for a windmill.
The content of the article:
- Wind turbines and battery charge controllers
DIY assembly solutions
- Work "ballast" scheme with a minus
- How does the "ballast" circuit with a plus
- Complicated version of the controller circuit
- Chinese electronic alternative
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Wind turbines and battery charge controllers
If it is quite possible to make a mechanical wind turbine yourself, can you also make a wind turbine controller with your own hands?
In order to have some idea about the controllers of wind generators and successfully reproduce such equipment with your own hands, basic information about these devices will not be superfluous.
Battery charge controller for a low power wind generator. Control of some parameters of the system is carried out through the built-in LCD display
The controller serving the batteries is designed primarily to control the process of charging the battery. This is its main function, but it should be conditionally divided into a number of subfunctions.
For example, one functional monitors the charge current and self-discharge current. Another functional implements actions aimed at measuring temperature and pressure. The third is responsible for compensating for the difference in energy flows, when the battery is charged along with the current consumption of the load.
Devices of industrial production are endowed with full functionality. But with respect to amateur designs can not be said. Devices made on the basis of the simplest circuit solutions in the home with their own hands - these are controllers that are far from perfect models.
Nevertheless, they work and quite productively allow to exploit different types of wind turbines. As a rule, only one function is implemented in improvised structures - overvoltage and deep discharge protection.
One of the many variations of controllers for wind turbines, made by hand. Such constructions are distinguished by uncomplicated technical solutions and the simplest mounting performance.
Why is the introduction of the controller in the wind turbine system is a must?
Because in the mode of energizing the battery without using a controller, unpleasant consequences should be expected:
- Battery structure degradation due to uncontrolled chemical processes.
- Uncontrolled pressure increase and electrolyte temperature.
- Loss of recharge battery properties due to a long-term discharge.
The charge controller for the wind generator installation circuit is performed, as a rule, as a separate electronic module. This module is removable and quick disconnectable. Devices of industrial manufacture must be equipped with an indication of the modes and states - light or visually transmitted through the display.
In practice, two types of devices can be used - those that are built directly into the housing of the wind generator and are connected to the battery.
DIY assembly solutions
For all the time since the first homemade wind turbines The number of controller circuit solutions has grown many times. Many of the circuit designs are far from perfect, but there are some options that you should pay attention to.
For home use, of course, simple schemes requiring small financial investments, effective and reliable, are relevant.
Based on these requirements, you can start with the controller for the wind generator, created on the basis of the relay-regulators of cars. In the circuit both relays with a negative control contact and a relay with a positive control contact are applicable.
This option attracts a small number of parts and simple installation. You only need one relay, one power transistor (field), one resistor.
The controller circuit, drawn by some electronic engineer with his own hands. Everything is simple and clear without further ado. Actually, as in the manufacturability of the solution. Minimum details - maximum savings (+)
The scheme is called "ballast", because it uses an additional load in the form of a conventional incandescent bulb. Thus, the list of parts will be added with one more element - a lamp.
A car lamp (or several lamps) at 12 volts is used, depending on the power of the system. Also, it is permissible to use another type of load resistance instead of this element: a powerful resistor, electric heater, fan, etc.
Work "ballast" scheme with a minus
The action of the automotive relay regulator is directly related to the charge level of the battery. If the voltage at the battery terminals rises above 14.2 volts, the relay operates and opens the negative circuit of the power transistor.
In turn, a transition opens on the transistor, which connects the direct-heat lamp to the battery. As a result, the charging current is reset through the filament lamp filament. When the voltage drops at the battery terminals - the reverse process. This maintains a stable battery voltage level.
How does the "ballast" circuit with a plus
A slightly upgraded version of the “ballast” charge controller for a windmill is the second circuit on the relay controller with a positive control contact. For example, suitable relays from cars "VAZ".
The difference from the previous circuit is the use of a solid-state relay, for example, GTH6048ZA2 for a current of 60A instead of a transistor. The advantages are obvious: the scheme looks even simpler and at the same time has greater reliability and efficiency.
Another simplest circuit solution for assembling a battery charge controller for a wind generator. Efficiency and reliability of the circuit increases due to the use of solid-state relay (+) in it
The peculiarity of this simple solution is the direct connection to terminals battery generator wind turbine. The charge controller conductors are also “planted” directly on the battery contacts.
In fact, both of these parts of the scheme are not related to each other. Voltage from the wind generator is fed to the battery continuously. When the voltage at the battery terminals reaches 14.2 W, the solid-state relay connects the load for reset. So the battery is protected by the device from overcharging.
Here not only the incandescent lamp can act as a ballast load. It is quite possible to connect any other device designed for current up to 60 A. For example, electric tubular heater.
What else is important in this scheme - the action of a solid-state relay is characterized by a smoothly increasing amplitude. In fact, there is the effect of a professionally made PWM controller.
Complicated version of the controller circuit
If the previous version of the battery charge controller circuit design only resembles a PWM device (pulse-width modulation), here this principle is implemented specifically.
This controller circuit for a windmill with a three-phase generator is somewhat complex, since involves the use of microcircuits - in particular, operational amplifiers on field-effect transistors comprising build tl084.
However, on the circuit board, everything does not look as complicated as on a paper sheet.
Schematic solution for the assembly of the controller with your own hands, where the TL084 microassembly is used. The principle of operation is also built using relays to switch modes, but it is possible to adjust the cut-off points (+)
As in the previous solutions, the relay is used as a switching element for the ballast load. The relay is designed to work with a 12-volt battery, but if you prefer, you can choose a model of 24 watts.
The ballast resistor is made in the form of a powerful resistance (winding on nichrome ceramics). To adjust the working voltage range (11.5–18 W), the circuit uses variable resistors included in the control circuit of the microelectronic assembly TL084.
Works such a battery charge controller wind turbine as follows. The three-phase current received from the wind generator is rectified by power diodes.
At the output of the diode bridge, a constant voltage is formed, which is fed to the input of the circuit through the contacts relay, additional diode, battery and further to the in-circuit stabilizer (78L08) and to the input of the assembly TL084.
The moment of trigger switching to one of the states is determined by the values of the variable resistors (Low V and High V) of the lower and upper voltage thresholds.
As long as there is a voltage at the battery terminals that does not exceed 14.2 volts (satisfying the setting of R High V), charge is in progress. As soon as the values change upwards, the TL084 operational amplifier sends a signal to the base of the transistor, which controls the relay.
A self-made product according to the TL084 microassembly scheme. Everything is very simple, even instead of a high-quality printed circuit board, a board for mounting is chosen. These moments are always pleased homemade designs
The relay is triggered, the circuit's power supply circuit is broken and shorted to the ballast resistor. The reset on the ballast runs until the battery is discharged close to the setting value of the variable resistor Low V.
As soon as this value is reached, the second operational amplifier TL084 switches to the reverse state. This is how the controller works.
Chinese electronic alternative
Making a wind generator controller with your own hands is a prestigious affair. But given the speed of development of electronic technology, often the meaning of self-assembly loses its relevance. In addition, most of the proposed schemes are already obsolete.
It turns out to be cheaper to buy an already finished product, made professionally, with high-quality installation, on modern electronic components. For example, you can purchase a suitable device at a reasonable cost on Aliexpress.
The range of offers on the Chinese site is impressive. Controllers for wind generators under different power levels are sold at a price of 1000 rubles. If you start from this amount, in terms of assembling the device with your own hands, the game is clearly not worth the candle.
For example, among the proposals of the Chinese portal is a model for a 600-watt windmill. The device is worth 1070 rubles. suitable for use with 12/24 volt batteries, operating mode up to 30 A.
It is quite decent, designed for a 600-watt wind generator, charge controller in the Chinese version. Such a device can be ordered from China and received through the mail in about a month and a half.
The high-quality all-weather controller case with dimensions of 100x90 mm is equipped with a powerful radiator of cooling. The enclosure design is IP67 rated. The range of external temperatures is from - 35 to + 75ºС. On the case, a light indication of the modes of the state of the wind generator is displayed.
The question is, what is the reason to spend time and energy on assembling a simple construction with your own hands, if there is a real opportunity to buy something similar and technically serious?
Well, if this model is not enough, the Chinese have very cool options. Thus, among the new arrivals, a model with a power of 2 kW for a working voltage of 96 volts was noted.
Chinese product from the list of the new parish. Provides battery charge control, working in tandem with a 2 kW wind generator. Accepts voltage up to 96 volts
True, the cost of this controller is already five times more expensive than the previous development. But then again, if we measure the cost of producing something similar with our own hands, a purchase looks like a rational decision.
The only thing that confuses Chinese products is that they tend to stop working in the most inappropriate cases. Therefore, the purchased device often has to be brought to mind - naturally, with your own hands. But it is much easier and easier than doing a wind generator charge controller with your own hands from scratch.
For lovers of homemade products on our site there is a series of articles devoted to the manufacture of wind turbines:
- Wind generator from a car generator do-it-yourself: wind turbine assembly technology and error analysis
- How to build blades for a wind generator with your own hands: examples of self-manufacturing blades for a windmill
- Wind generator with your own hands from the washing machine: instructions for assembling a windmill
- How to calculate a wind generator: formulas + practical example of calculation
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The desire to make home-use equipment with their own hands is sometimes stronger than a simpler solution - buying an inexpensive device. What came out of this, see the video:
Assessing the prospects of manufacturing electronics on its own, regardless of its purpose, we have to deal with the idea that the age of "DIY" ends.
The market is oversaturated with ready-made electronic devices and modular components for almost every household product. Amateur electronics engineers now have a single business - to assemble home designers.
Is there anything to supplement, or have any questions on the topic of assembling and using controllers for a wind generator? You can leave comments, ask questions and add photos of your homemade products - the contact form is in the lower block.