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Evergreen junipers, in the nature settled from the polar regions to the subtropics are recognized not only as one of the oldest plants, but also the most valuable crops for gardening. Having studied common junipers, species and varieties with photos, descriptions and features, it is possible to transform both a summer residence and extensive garden and park areas.
All the existing varieties of these plants have:
- creeping, shrubby or tree-like form;
- scaly or acicular leaves;
- fruits in the form of small dense cones with closed scales.
Due to the highest degree of adaptability, junipers could survive the climatic cataclysms of the past and settle in various natural areas. This property, as well as exotic beauty attracted attention to plants that have become indispensable in the design of stony corners, rock gardens, curbs.
Juniperum vulgaris (J. communis)
One of the most common species of juniper is found on the territory of Europe, the north of Africa, in Asia and even on the lands of the North American continent.
The common juniper shown in the picture has the form of a shrub or a small tree. Under favorable conditions, the plant with a dense, consisting of branches covered with acicular, up to 15 mm long leaves, reaches a height of 3-8 meters. Sometimes junipers, dividing into female and male specimens, grow to 12 meters.
Ordinary juniper, like all its relatives, is a long-lived and slowly growing culture. Often copies that survive to a centenary and older than age. And the beauty of the plant is better revealed with increased humidity of the soil and air.
Reminiscent of the pyramid or cone crown thanks to a stiff, prickly needle throughout the year retains decorativeness, without problems transfers haircut, which is important when growing juniper as a decorative culture. And the leaves themselves live about 4 years and gradually change.
The blue-blue cones of the plant mature only in the second year.
On the site, ordinary juniper, in the photo, shows unpretentious character, high frost resistance and undemanding to food. The popularity of this plant adds the presence of many varieties with traditional green, gray-silver or golden foliage, with the crown of a pyramidal, conical or squat flattened shape.
Photos of juniper varieties of this species are striking in variety, and their agricultural technology is available even for beginners.
Juniper of Depression is a cultural species of a plant found in Canada. According to various sources, this species is considered independent, Canadian, or recognized as a subspecies of the common juniper. From its usual form it is distinguished by a wide, drooping or spread out crown and a height not exceeding one and a half meters.
The needle-like leaves of the plant have a brownish coloration, which becomes almost bronzed by winter, increasing the ornamentality of the evergreen plant.
Juniper Depressa Aurea is similar in appearance to the sort described above, but its leaves are more attractive. Young shoots of the plant have a bright light green, almost yellow or golden color, which gave the name of the Juniperus communis species shown in the photo.
Juniper siberian (J. sibirica)
This species of juniper is named after Siberia, where plants with small needles and a squat crown can be found in a mountainous area. In addition to the Siberian region, the culture is widespread in the northern regions of Europe, the Far East, the Crimea, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Everywhere juniper Siberian plants prefer to settle on dry rocky areas
The characteristic features of the Siberian juniper include: short stature, slow development and decorative, due to the light strips of needle foliage, living for about 2 years. Rounded blue berries ripen in the second year after the formation.
In the wild because of the slow growth and small size juniper Siberian needs protection. In the garden, the plant is more comfortable even with minimal care. Undemanding view:
- without losses, experiences droughty periods;
- is satisfied with low-nutrient soils;
- not afraid of frost;
- accustomed to sites where there is a risk of increased gas contamination and air pollution;
- loves the light and does not need shading.
Over time, juniper shoots can become rooted, allowing the crowns to expand and create live curbs. The Siberian variety is ideal for the design of slides.
Juniperus Cossack (J. sabina)
Another common type of juniper is of interest to the gardener in that, in addition to endurance, it has needles of two varieties. The first, needle-like foliage up to 6 mm long, can be seen on young shoots, as well as on branches in the shade. The second, scaly type of foliage is the needles on adult branches.
On average, foliage with a characteristic, juniper-rich, resinous aroma lives for three years. rounded or oval dense berries keep up for the second year.
In comparison with juniper, the Cossack juniper shown in the photo is not so high and noticeable. The height of the creeping shrub with a dense squat crown is about one and a half meters. But this did not prevent to estimate juniper and from the end of the XVI century to use it for decorating parks and regular gardens.
By breeding varieties with dark green, blue and light needles, an undemanding, winter-hardy and easily tolerated drought plant will be indispensable on the slides. It is used to fix the slopes and create living, well-shaped curbs.
Juniperus Chinese (J. chinensis)
Among all junipers, this plant from the Kiparisov family stands out with impressive dimensions. The crown of a native of China, Korea and Manchuria grows to 25-meter height. Juniper, Chinese, in the photo, has needle on young shoots of needles, which, as the fine branches grow older, is replaced by small scaly foliage. Small cones of the plant can be painted in bluish, brown or black tones, covered with a bluish bloom.
The first specimens of Chinese juniper appeared in Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. In Russia, these plants were later planted on the Black Sea coast, where they are still found today. But unlike other species, the Chinese variety needs more moist soil and air, so it often suffers from drought. The limit of frost resistance of the crop is -30 ° C. Therefore, in the middle belt without shelter, plants can freeze.
Interestingly, despite the large size of adult specimens, the Chinese juniper, as in the photo, is often used for growing bonsai.
Juniper recumbent (J. procumbens)
In Japan and other countries of the region there is a juniper lying down with a crooked or drooping crown, covered with green or more often blue-blue needles.
Plants in height from 50 to 400 cm are adapted to wet marine climate, therefore in the Russian middle belt can suffer in dry air, and also from frosts in especially severe winters.
At home, the juniper of this species is one of the favorite plants for creating spectacular bonsai.
Juniper solid (J. rigida)
Many of the Far Eastern junipers are now actively used in the design of garden and park landings. Juniper is hard - the native of this fertile region chooses coastal sandy slopes and beaches as habitats. On windy clones, plants settle under the cover of larger trees. Here, junipers acquire a creeping shape and at a height of up to 40 cm, due to the two-meter shoots form dense, hard-to-reach groups.
Under favorable conditions, a juniper solid reaches a height of 8 meters. The crown, covered with yellow-green prickly needles, in men's specimens is dense, the female plants are more transparent.
Very unpretentious species of juniper is not often found in culture. In this case, the plant can be interesting for park gardening and the creation of authentic, eastern corners in small areas.
When growing juniper hard, you need to consider that on acidic soils the plant feels oppressed, loses decorativeness and already low growth rates.
Juniper alms (J. horizontalis)
The name of this species speaks eloquently of the appearance and characteristic feature of the plant. Juniper has a squat, even a crooked crown, 10 to 30 cm high. The plant comes from Canada, where it prefers to settle on sandy slopes, on the shores of lakes or in mountainous terrain, also called juniper horizontal. Although the species is frost-hardy, it is not desirable when selecting the soil and it perfectly strengthens the slopes, when planting it It should be taken into account that in drought conditions juniper feels depressed, its needles lose brightness and tone.
In ornamental horticulture, the juniper is valued horizontally for needles with two light, almost white strips. On the basis of the wild form today more than hundred cultural varieties have been created, differing in the coloring of foliage and the shape of the crown.
Juniper medium (J. x media)
While breeding with juniper, it was found that individual species can produce stable hybrids that are of interest to gardeners. An example of such successful hybridization is juniper medium, obtained from the crossing of the Cossack and spherical species (J. sphaerica). The first specimens of this species were grown at the end of XIX in Germany, and then spread throughout Europe and around the world.
Evergreen juniper plants of the middle, as in the photo, can have a crown of a spreading, spreading or wide spreading form. Depending on the variety of plants of this species grow to 3-5 meters. Needles of scaly and acicular type are colored in green, gray tones. There are varieties with a golden crown.
Although plants are winter-hardy, there is a risk of freezing. Therefore, in the central strip and north of the juniper for winter months are covered, which is not difficult with a squat, relatively small plant crown.
Juniperus rock (J. scopulorum)
The North American continent has given the world many ornamental trees and shrubs. In the Rocky Mountains, famous for their harsh beauty, the juniper rock presented in the photo was discovered.
This form is distinguished by a pyramidal shape and scaly pine needles, which, depending on the variety, can be saturated green or blue, almost blue. A slender evergreen plant in the first half of the XIX century is grown in parks and greenhouses. During this time, more than 20 cultivars were obtained. With minimal care and protection in severe frosts, adult plants easily support the pyramidal shape and slowly develop, reaching a height of 12 meters.
Juniperus virgin (J. virginiana)
Red cedar or juniper virgin - the indigenous inhabitant of the north of the American continent. An unusual nickname of the plant is due to a record for junipers growth. Adult specimens of this species are powerful trees up to 30 meters high with trunks whose diameter reaches one and a half meters.
A large tree-like form is not the only difference of a species. Juniper virgin, in the photo, has a fairly rapid growth. This circumstance was immediately appreciated by the Americans, who started cultivating culture back in the middle of the 17th century.
The plant has small needles of mixed type and the same small bundles that ripen in the same year after formation. In Russia, this species is suitable for growing in southern regions, at home the wood is used for making office pencils and obtaining essential oil. For ornamental horticulture, many compact varieties and interspecies hybrids with silvery, bluish and light needles are derived.
Juniperum scaly (J. squamata)
China, Taiwan and the Himalayas - the habitat of another species of juniper with a dense, ornamental crown up to a meter and a half.
This juniper shown in the picture is scaly, easily transferring the dryness of the air and the poorness of the soil, but it is not sufficiently winter-hardy for the central strip of Russia.
Juniperus Daurian (J. davurica)
The Far East of Russia, the northern regions of China and Mongolia - the birthplace of another decorative species of juniper, differing not only in creeping shape and slow growth rate, but also a long life.
Dahurian juniper plants can grow and develop over a hundred years, while their shoots in diameter do not exceed five centimeters.
The species described at the end of the 18th century, thanks to solid wood, the ability to settle on poor soils, including stony dumps, and compact sizes, the indigenous people call the stone heather.
The aerial part of the juniper does not exceed 50 cm in height, the trunk is often hidden in the ground, which helps rooting shoots and makes the plant very valuable for strengthening steep slopes, slides and mounds. Light green needles for winter acquire a brownish-brown hue. The same color in ripe globular cones. Daursky juniper is decorative, unpretentious and extremely wintery.