In warm and comfortable homes often have problems with natural ventilation, and therefore the oxygen content drops sharply. This affects the health and activity of homeowners and employees of enterprises.
To solve the problem using forced ventilation type. Modern air conditioning with an influx of fresh air - a sample of efficient and affordable climate control equipment. We will tell you how the equipment works and how to choose it correctly.
The content of the article:
- Comparison of conventional and air conditioners
- What is the feature of multisplit-systems?
Stitched channel models
- Distinctive features of the air conditioner with the influx
- The principle of operation of the supply system
Types of equipment with mix
- Traditional wall models
- Cassette air conditioning systems
- Floor-ceiling devices
- Column models of split systems
- The advantages of multi-zone air conditioning
- Tips for choosing air conditioners
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Comparison of conventional and air conditioners
A common mistake among users is that they consider any air conditioning system to be ventilating. In fact, in the mode of active air exchange with street air masses only certain types of equipment can work. To make it clearer, to begin with, we will consider the device of a conventional split system.
Air conditioners for domestic use, which are called split systems, are a set of two separate modules having a different structure and located in different places.
The first module is an evaporative unit, which is installed on the floor, hung on the wall or partially masked with a ceiling facing. The second module is an external condensing unit, usually mounted on the facade of a building.
Schematic image of the device with an internal module mounted on the wall. The two modules are connected to each other by thin copper tubes, along which freon moves. The tubes are hidden in the shade for decorative trim or plastic box (+)
The principle of operation of the air conditioner is simple. Through the intake grilles, the room air enters the inside of the unit, where it is cooled and then discharged through the air ducts to the outside. The change in air temperature is not based on the production of cold, but on the transfer of thermal energy.
The carrier is freon, which enters the remote module in a gaseous state, and returns to the liquid. To enter the gaseous phase, freon takes some of the heat from the exhaust air in the evaporator.
In fact, no replacement of air masses occurs, and cooling (as well as heating and filtration) is carried out by recirculation. Supply equipment is arranged differently. An example of a split system with the organization of fresh air intake is a duct-type device.
The design scheme of the channel air conditioner, which performs the functions of ventilation and temperature control indoors. Mandatory design element - heater built into the pipe (+)
Of course, ordinary split systems are easy to install, have many additional functions, have beautiful modern design, but they, unlike fresh air, do not refresh the air in the room - and this is their main minus.
What is the feature of multisplit-systems?
Speaking of air conditioners in a general sense, it is necessary to mention multisplit-systemswhich are also used for the equipment of multi-room apartments, private houses, office and industrial buildings.
They differ from the usual ones in that they have only one remote unit, whereas there may be several internal units. The minimum number is two modules, the maximum is limited to four. If you use a larger number of indoor units, the system will lose its performance and will not work at full capacity.
The number of pipelines increases, respectively, increases the cost of equipment and the complexity of the installation of some parts of the structure. It is important to create conditions for the laying of all connecting elements (+)
Multisplit-system is not always used, but only in some cases when the installation of a large number of outdoor units is impossible for several reasons:
- the building is a historical or architectural monument;
- there is a ban on the installation of remote units on the facade;
- To attach the equipment to the architecture of the building, certain places are provided that are limited in area.
Sometimes the mounting of a large number of remote modules is abandoned for aesthetic reasons: a beautiful facade of the building, hung with overall buildings, looks unpresentable.
The rules of improvement of large cities are periodically amended to prohibit the placement of air conditioners on the facades that overlook the main streets. Exit - installation of the block on the yard wall of the building
The advantage of the multisystem is the installation of one remote module, the disadvantages are the complex work on the installation of pipelines, the decrease in performance and reliability. In addition, all internal modules must operate in identical modes: either for heating or for cooling.
Stitched channel models
The function of replacing waste air masses with air from the street is fully realized only in channel air conditioners, so we will analyze their performance characteristics in more detail.
Properly designed and installed channel split-system copes with the tasks of ventilation, and with the control over the indoor microclimate.
Distinctive features of the air conditioner with the influx
Recirculating models of ducted air conditioners (KK) are similar in principle to conventional split systems, but they differ in design and installation site. Internal modules They are built into suspended ceiling structures, and air circulates through the channels connecting them to the outdoor unit.
A photo of
The compressor-condenser remote unit is mounted on the outside of the building, and the evaporative (or several evaporative) units are placed inside the premises, under the decorative trim of the ceiling.
The internal module of channel models has a simple technical design, in contrast to the traditional indoor split systems. Often only the front part is visible - the lattice
The air mass through the intake grille of the internal module gets inside the ducts, then returns to the room through the distribution grilles
Curved air ducts and grilles create resistance to the movement of air; a rather powerful fan helps to cope with it
Features of the channel system design
Design of indoor unit QC
Air circulation within the system
Duct fan for forced circulation
This is a simple recirculation model that cannot supply fresh air. For the system to perform the supply function, a built-in heater is required. This is governed by the rules of SNiP, according to which the lower threshold temperature of air masses coming from the street must be +14 ° C.
If the outside air temperature is above -15 ° C, it copes with the heating function Heat pump. However, at lower temperatures, models of air conditioners with water or electric heaters are used. The equipment performing the heating can be either additionally installed or built-in.
The heating system is equipped with an automatics unit, thanks to which fresh air is regulated in different modes, depending on the season. The control of the automatic unit is made using the remote d / y
Programmable air handling systems are more expensive than ordinary room installations with wall mounting, but They are much more efficient and functional than their due to the combination of ventilation and conditioning. The amount of oxygen in the air meets sanitary requirements, the temperature is easily regulated, and appearance does not create discomfort, since all working parts of the system are in the invisible zone, above ceiling.
The principle of operation of the supply system
To transport air from the street to the premises, air ducts are provided, which conventional split-systems do not have. First, the air from the street through the outdoor unit moves into the warmed channel, then into the mixing chamber. There the incoming air connects with the exhaust, refreshing it.
Then the air mixture passes through the filters and, according to the selected mode, is processed. There is a drainage, heating or cooling of air masses. After that, purified, filtered, partially refreshed air of a given temperature enters the premises.
Channel modifications with a mix are used in large-sized rooms, which are separated by non-capital partitions. These are apartments with ceilings from 3 m, polyclinics, eating places, sports and educational institutions, offices, etc.
As a rule, the temperature maintained is completely dependent on the season. In the summer, the inlet ducted air conditioners operate on cooling, in the winter - on heating. In the cool season, it is enough to operate the heat pump, the heater during this period can not be used.
Types of equipment with mix
As you already understood, only duct equipment with air ducts and heating cope with the replacement of air with fresh air. However, some other types of models can also provide ventilation, but within 10% of their performance.
The share of fresh air is often referred to as “mix”; the main part of the air masses is occupied by “working out” processed in the internal unit.
Traditional wall models
Models, the indoor unit of which is mounted on the wall, are the most popular for the improvement of residential premises.
There are models that provide a comfortable microclimate over an area of 10 m², but there are also more powerful equipment designed for rooms up to 100 m². Not so long ago, inverter models equipped with a supply and exhaust fan appeared.
Regardless of whether the air conditioner is operating in heating or cooling mode, a supply and exhaust system can function in parallel. An example of a wall device with the function of air supply from the street is the Air Exchanger series of the famous brand HITACHI.
Before being fed into the room, the air mixture is cleaned by the filter system from exhaust gases, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, etc., while eliminating extraneous odors
The wall-mounted evaporative unit is installed anywhere in the room, but a zone near the window is preferred. The shorter the line between the indoor and outdoor units, the higher the productivity of the equipment. Wall models have a pleasant design and a large set of additional options.
Cassette air conditioning systems
Often in public buildings you can find air conditioners with internal modules of cassette type. Such systems are suitable for servicing large areas - from 40 m² to 150 m². They have high performance and advantageous minimum noise performance.
The working part of the models is located above the suspended ceiling structure; only a decorative grille of 60x60 cm standard size is visible. The moving parts of the grille are controlled from the remote control or at the control panel mounted on the wall
The performance of cassette air conditioners - from 3 kW to 15 kW, the main functions - lowering the temperature in the hall or work in the heat pump mode.
A structure is widespread in which air is taken from the hall through the central opening, and the supply is carried out along four guides in different directions. If a single cassette is used, it is mounted in a suspended structure in the center of the room.
Both traditional modifications and cassette mixes can be found on the market. For example, Airwell CK air conditioners are designed to install multi-split systems and, thanks to the built-in heater and air ducts, provide metered fresh air.
Advantages - beautiful design and high performance, disadvantage - installation only in a suspended structure.
In some rooms there are no conditions for installation of cassette models, and the performance of wall-mounted air conditioners is not enough. In this case, use universal floor-ceiling devices that are mounted and for installation on the floor, and for hanging from the ceiling.
The Japanese company Daikin specializes in the production of floor-ceiling devices with a mix of 10% of fresh air. New inlet models save up to 30% of electricity and have a high cost - from 60 thousand. rub. and higher
Air conditioning is provided by a stream of purified air, which is sent along the ceiling or wall - depending on the installation site. The highest device power is 15 kW, but for relatively small rooms (40 m²) there is enough equipment with parameters of 5-6 kW.
Column models of split systems
As the name implies, air conditioners in their form resemble columns directed towards the ceiling. They are superior to other types of power (an average of 17 kW) and can serve rooms up to 180 m².
The principle of operation of the column type models is the same as in previous air conditioners, however, they differ in the supply of purified air. The jet is directed not along the walls and not in the center of the room, but towards the ceiling. There, the cooled air disperses in different directions and falls, displacing the already heated.
An example of a column device with inflow mode is the General Climate GC. Air exchange is more than 1900 m³ / h, and the heating power is 22 kW. Cost - 109 thousand. rub.
Recycling models with a partial mix of clean air have high performance, but the noise level they have is higher than that of steel types - up to 50 dB.
The advantages of multi-zone air conditioning
Multizone room maintenance is a more advanced version of multi-split systems, which creates a certain microclimate over a large area. The fundamental difference from standard split systems - the increased length of the highways connecting modules placed in various places.
Advantages of a multizone system:
- up to 20 internal units can be connected to 1 remote unit;
- the distance from the internal module to the external one is up to 150 m (in some cases more);
- height difference between modules - 50 m.
Thanks to the listed parameters, the external outdoor module is installed in the most convenient remote locations - in the attic, roof, in the courtyard behind the fence, etc.
The scheme of possible installation of the outdoor unit. If for any reason it is impossible to carry out installation on the roof, the module is installed directly in the courtyard, ensuring safety
Multizone system is more economical, since management inverter climate equipment allows you to change the power of the system depending on the number of functioning indoor units.
At the same time, it is possible to use modules completely different in type and performance. Adjustment and control over the operation of all equipment can be performed in system mode, from one remote control.
You can compare the usual and invertonic climatic installation and get an idea of their pros and cons by reading article proposed by us. Before you make a decisive choice is to familiarize yourself with useful information.
Tips for choosing air conditioners
Before purchasing a split system for home use or for office use, you must first decide whether you need ventilation. Perhaps the room is equipped with an effective ventilation system and does not need additional devices of this type.
If air exchange is weak, pay attention to the models of air conditioners.
For rooms with high ceilings, any built-in models - duct, cassette. But do not forget that to mask the work items will have to build a suspended structure
If the ceilings are low (for example, 2.5 m), the idea of ceiling models will not work. Perhaps, according to the technical characteristics, you can pick up a device with a wall module that simultaneously carries air from the street.
For larger rooms will require a more productive model, for example, with floor-ceiling installation. Hotel lounges, lobbies and lobbies are distinguished by large volumes. In addition to channel systems, column models are installed in them that differ in performance and high air exchange rate.
Regardless of the type of device, it is necessary to analyze its technical characteristics and operational qualities: clarify what area the model is designed for, what is its capacity, is it possible to connect additional modules.
The newest programmable air conditioners with a large list of additional options are much more expensive, but some features are really important.
With reference points of the choice of a split system for the arrangement of a country house and city apartment will introduce next articlecontaining information with answers to questions from potential buyers.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
In order to better understand the structure and principle of operation of the inlet split systems, we suggest viewing video clips of an overview.
Video # 1. Overview of Haier duct air conditioners:
Video # 2. About the advantages of channel type models:
Video # 3. More about multizone systems:
To enrich the air in the room with oxygen, it is not necessary to keep the window open or install additional ventilation. Sometimes it is sufficient to correctly select the model of the air conditioner, which, if necessary, not only cools / warms the room, but also performs air exchange.
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