Do you want to build the house convector heating, which is used to heat the coolant heat pump "air-air", providing significant savings on heating costs? You agree that to get the full heating of hot water at virtually no cost - a very attractive event.
But you do not know how to build such a system, an alternative way to heat the room and get the hot water for domestic use?
We will help you deal with this issue - The article highlights the actions and the pump unit principle. The energy of such a system will have to spend only on the compressor, and the bulk of the heat will be taken only from the street from the atmosphere, for which we do not need money.
the benefits of its introduction into the system and significant deficiencies were also considered. Special attention is paid to the selection and sizing of the pump.
And fans do everything with their own hands, we propose to build a similar pump on their own, using the materials at hand. The present photographic materials and aid videorekomendatsii on the device and operation of a heat pump air.
The content of the article:
Characteristics of air-to-air heat pump
- The principle of operation and internal structure
- Pros and cons of air heat pump
- Fundamental differences from the air conditioner
- Selection and calculations of heat pump
- Scratchbuild of old refrigerator
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Characteristics of air-to-air heat pump
Any heat pump covers equipment from the scope of alternative energy. It collects thermal energy of air masses on the street, from the outside into the room to heat it residential and commercial facilities.
It does not use any combustible fuels.
Externally, the heat pump (TH) Air-to-air like a inverter air conditioner, split-system from external and in-house unit.
And according to the principle of action, he looks more like a refrigerator, only works "in reverse." But unlike them, both the heat pump is capable of both cooling and heating the air mass in the house.
The heat pump takes low-grade thermal energy from the atmosphere from the street and it heats the indoor air to a comfortable temperature
The principle of operation and internal structure
The operation of the air-to-air TH is uncomplicated physical phenomenon of thermodynamics - by evaporation cools the liquid surface from which it scatters. For example, steam over hot tea mug demonstrates the same effect.
On this principle works and the conventional refrigerator. Inside it there are tubes in which circulates the refrigerant under high pressure. He picks up the heat from the inside of the freezer, a little hot gas.
Then, the collected heat is given to the room air through the heat exchanger (cooler rear lattice).
In winter, the heat pump air-air heats the room air in the summer can cool it
And that after the refrigerant has cooled down to operating temperatures, it is compressed in the compressor. And for operating cycle Freon within the system compressor-condenser-evaporator continuously changes from the gaseous to the liquid state and back.
Air heat pump operates completely similarly. Only heat he takes from the street, not from a closed freezer. Even if the outside of the cold, the atmosphere there is still a lot of heat.
For the production of heat the heat pump needs only the energy expended in the compressor. The diagram shows in detail the heat transfer process
Comprising a heat pump air to air of those elements:
- evaporator fan forced ventilation;
- an expansion valve;
- copper pipes for pumping refrigerant between the street and the house;
- condenser fan supply heated air into the room.
The first three elements make up the external power, and the latter refers to the inside of the heat pump. Insulated copper tubes designed for continuous movement of the coolant between the modules of a split system.
Movement freon in the heat pump takes place in a closed loop, whereby it contracts and expands continually
The algorithm works to-air heat pump is as follows:
- Outside air is drawn into the outdoor unit fan and is forced through the outer edges of the evaporator. Freon circulating through the heat exchanger absorbs the available thermal energy in it, while passing the gaseous state.
- The gas enters the condenser, where it is compressed. And then it is pumped through copper pipes to the indoor unit.
- The house is located in the condenser gas goes back to a liquid, transferring heat to the indoor air.
- Then the excess pressure is vented through the expansion valve and the liquid freon is sent again to the primary evaporator.
Refrigerant temperature value supplied to the external unit, is always below the ambient temperature. Therefore, he always picks up the heat from the atmosphere.
But the level of "cooling" of coolant in the system is constant and the outdoor temperature is constantly fluctuating. For this reason, when severe frosts TN loses its effectiveness.
Cycle heat pump coolant flow air to air: 1. it is compressed by the compressor 2. It is condensed in a heat exchanger wherein the heat giving 3. in the form of liquid enters the outdoor heat exchanger 4. It evaporates there, taking the evaporation heat of the external environment 5. He returns to the condenser
To increase the capacity of the heat pump, the surface of the condenser and evaporator are made as large. And for continuity of service in winter outdoor heat exchanger is equipped with a self-defrosting system.
Pros and cons of air heat pump
Each has its advantages and disadvantages technically complex system. Brochures are one thing, but in reality, heat pump owners face the risk of certain problems.
Operate the heat pump air-to-air can be round. In winter, it supplies heated air to the treated areas, the summer releases the cooled air flow
Against the background of other heat pumps, air-to-air attracts the simplicity of installation. For its construction does not need a well or oversized collector laid in the ground or in a body of water
air-to-air system directly supplying treated air to the room, so the inner part of it is compact and takes up little space
The disadvantage of this type of heat pump is the inability to heat water. They are only suitable for air heating
Using a pump year round
air-to-air system is mounted near the house
Inside the air-to-air pump unit
The outdoor unit for an extensive system
heating / cooling installation type "air-air" beneficial for several reasons.
The main advantages include:
- Versatility. Systems allow you to heat and cool the room, depending on the purpose of the room, the needs and the climatic season.
- Environmentally friendly. Allowed to completely abandon the combustion of natural gas, coal, wood and the like, clogging the environment combustion products.
- Easy installation. Assemble the system components from factory production is not difficult. You can build his own heat pump improvised.
- Fire safety. The process of generating heat is not associated with the use of fuel. Even the irregularities in the installation will not cause fires.
- Economy. Attract high heat transfer coefficient at minimum costs (consumption of 1 kW of electricity they give 4-5 kW of heat). In addition, it pays off quickly.
- Affordability. prefabricated systems cost allows you to purchase a heat pump almost everyone. Personally made the installation will be virtually free.
- Ease of use. The most technically complex device in the system - the compressor, with service that is hard not cope. With typical heat pump load compressors rarely fail before the manufacturer promises life.
For the organization of heating in the room enough install split-systemHanging on the facade of the outdoor unit, and on the inside of the wall - convector. To heat several rooms need to equip the hot air distribution channels.
Per kilowatt of electricity consumed by the heat pump outputs to five kilowatts of thermal energy
All control the air-to-air heat pump is done integrated automation. Special attention is paid to work and set up this system is not necessary. You will only have to regularly clean the air filters and change them occasionally.
Among the negative aspects of heat pumps can be mentioned:
- albeit slight, but still background noise;
- direct efficiency dependency of the system on the outside temperature;
- electricity consumption growth at a cold snap in the street;
- constantly hanging dust in the air due to continuous operation of the fan and the convection of air in the room;
- dependence on the power supply (for the smooth operation of the generator is required).
At temperatures outside the -10 ° C up nicely, pick up the heat from the street is enough to create a comfortable environment in the house. But with further cold snap pump efficiency drops sharply.
If the cottage is built in an area with a cold climate and severe frosts of winter, then no additional boiler or fireplace can not do.
In warmer climates air heat pump to cope with the tasks for heating private house without any problems, but severe frosts additional source of heat will not prevent
For arrangement of air heating Such systems are ideal. Minimum spending power, efforts for installation and maintenance issues. But they can not heat the water. This will have an additional set boiler or connected to centralized networks.
Air heat pumps are the best way of heating buildings constructed of wood or CIP. Such buildings low heat loss, air heat pump for heating their facilities lacking in abundance.
In summer, the heat pump air-to-air can be used in the pool water heating
Fundamental differences from the air conditioner
Externally, the heat pump air-air similar to household air conditioners. But it has its own distinctive design features and specifications.
The first device is used as a main heating source operating round. A second longer intended for air cooling in the summer heat.
The main function of the heat pump - it's heating. However, many models are also able to cool the room air. But in this mode, they are much smaller than the energy efficiency air conditioner. It is rather an extreme case they are used.
In appearance, an air conditioner and TH are similar, but have very different purposes and operational characteristics
On the other hand many inverter air conditioners can heat indoor air. But at the same time the electricity they consume much more heat pumps. Each device its purpose.
Using VT "air-air" - is primarily a transition to renewable energy sources.
These systems are cost-effective, despite the large initial investment. Reducing payments for heating pays for all initial costs.
Selection and calculations of heat pump
Heat pump air-to-air will be effective only if it is to choose the right. its capacity to be calculated in advance, depending on their area of the house. And only then look at what the different manufacturers' prices.
In the calculations used energy coefficient COP (the ratio of power to energy expended VT).
When the "greenhouse conditions", he often reaches 4-5 points, while the latest model to 7-8. However, when the temperature outside to -15-20 ° C, this figure drops dramatically to only two.
The optimum efficiency of the heat pump to heating outputs when outside temperatures of -10... + 10 degrees Celsius, so it is up to ¾ of thermal energy takes Street
at calculating air heating should be considered:
- insulation and insolation premises;
- Square rooms;
- the number of residents in the cottage;
- general climatic conditions of the terrain where the house stands.
For the majority of homes for every ten square meters needs about 0.7 kW heat pump. But everything here is rather arbitrary. If the ceiling above 2.7 m or walls and windows poorly insulated, the heat will take longer.
Manufacturers of air-to-air heat pumps and many in Asia and in Europe.
Good reviews are a system of Daikin, Dimplex, Hitachi, Vaillant, Mitsubishi, Fujitsu, Carrier, Aertec, Panasonic and Toshiba. Almost all their models are adapted to the domestic operating conditions and well-proven.
Even when voltage drops, they do not break, continuing after a power switching function correctly.
The price of running air heat pumps ranges from 90 to 450 thousand rubles. Much depends not only on the unit capacity, but also on additional functionality and country of manufacture.
Some models are complementary:
• air purification and disinfection of the filters;
• The backup heater;
• power generators;
• GSM-modules for the control system;
• ionizers and ozone generators.
Practice shows that it becomes cool when frost below -15 ° C in heated air pump heat only smokers. And the comfort of the rooms do not smell frankly without additional heater.
However, in the southern regions, where such frosts are rare, TN is quite efficient and justifies the money spent more than made up for by energy savings.
Scratchbuild of old refrigerator
Of the individual compressors and condensers with their hands to collect the air-to-air heat pump without specialized engineering knowledge it is difficult. But for a small room or a greenhouse, you can use an old refrigerator.
The simplest possible to make the heat pump air out of the refrigerator, extending therein from outside the fan duct and hung on the back of the heat exchanger grid
To do this, the front access door of the refrigerator make two holes. After the first in the freezer will be supplied outdoor air and the second lower - output back to the street.
Thus for the passage of the inner chamber it will give part of the available heat in the freon therein.
You can also chiller is simply built into the wall the door open to the outside, and the heat exchanger back - into the room. But it should be borne in mind that the power of the heater is small, and the power it consumes a lot.
Indoor air heated by the heat exchanger rear of the refrigerator. However, such a heat pump is capable of operating only at ambient temperatures not lower than plus five Celsius.
This appliances is designed for use exclusively in the premises.
In a large cabin air heating system would have to supplement the air ducts, distributes the warm air evenly over the entire premises
Mounting air-air heat pump is extremely simple. You must install the external and internal units, and then connect them with each other with the coolant circuit.
The first part of the system is installed on the street: directly on the facade, the roof or near the building. Second home can be placed on the ceiling or wall.
The outdoor unit should be mounted a few meters from the entrance of the house and away from windows, do not forget about the produced fan noise.
And the inner set so that heated air from it spread evenly throughout the room.
If the air-to-air heat pump is planned to heat the house with several rooms on different floors, you have to equip the ventilation duct system with forced injection.
In this case, the project is better to order from a competent engineer, or TNA power may not be enough for all the rooms.
The meter and the security device must withstand load peaks caused by the heat pump. In sharp cooling outside the compressor starts to consume electricity at times more than usual.
The best thing for such an air heater to build a separate supply line from the electrical panel.
Particular attention should be paid to the installation of freon tubes. Even the smallest chips inside can damage the compressor equipment.
Here without soldering copper skills can not do. Refilling the refrigerant unit generally should trust the professionals, in order to avoid later problems with his leaks.
Step by step instructions for manufacturing the heat pump of the refrigerator described in this article.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation of the heat of a split system "air-air":
Air source heat pump in the house for the heating system:
Air conditioning inverter air or heat pump - which is better?
Heat pumps work on the principle of "air-to-air", are highly efficient devices. They are easy to maintain, easy to operate and economical.
On sale now a huge range of these systems for any home you can pick up the heating system. We only need to correctly calculate its power when it is effectively last for years.
What do you think about the effectiveness and feasibility of using heat pumps "air-air"? Share your thoughts, leave the use of aggregates reviews and ask questions. Form for comments is below.