Any electrical network must have a safety device, but that is the RCD and a principle of its operation knows not everyone. Deciphering abbreviations is as follows - residual current device.
This low-voltage electrical apparatus designed for switching off the protected circuit portion when creating a differential current exceeding the rated value for this device.
This article will try to analyze in detail the device and operation of the RCD, to consider existing varieties and to deal with the kind of information includes the protective device off.
The content of the article:
- Purpose of protection device
- The design of the RCD
- The principle of operation of the protective mechanism
- The feasibility of using the RCD
Types of devices and their classification
- Classification # 1 - by inclusion method
- Classification # 2 - leakage current of the genus
- Classification # 3 - for the time delay type
- Classification # 4 - the number of poles
- Classification # 5 - method of installation of the device
- Full transcript labeling values
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Purpose of protection device
Grounding device RCD circuit PE is neutral conductor or conductive housings of electric resistance mechanisms parts with not greater than 4 ohms.
In can be energized occurrence of leakage current these items of equipment that It poses a risk to human life and animals in contact with them, as well as to property generally.
Save from an electric shock - calling the review apparatus. Upon detection of the leakage current are turned off voltage.
The greatest danger lies in the fact that such violations in the chain are invisible and rarely noticeable when at the touch of the instrument can feel a slight electric shock.
The main cause of this phenomenon is the contravention wiring insulating layer. Uncontrolled processes can cause great harm, so protective equipment becomes more popular in the domestic environment.
The impact of the conductive networks in the human body can result in dire consequences. This problem was solved with the help of instrumentation RCD relating to the protective segment. Basic Installation and use requirements are described in IEC 60364
The use of an RCD is most prevalent in single-phase networks with alternating current and grounding the neutral line, and a voltage up to 1 kW indicators in a format domestic electricity supply.
The design of the RCD
Optional features of the protective mechanism will help to understand the principle of the RCD action, namely reproducible reaction unit to the current leakage.
The key operating sites are:
- Transformer differential sensor;
- Starting bodies - the mechanism Tearing properly functioning electric circuit;
- electromagnetic relay;
- control unit.
Counter connected to the sensor coil - and zero phase. In normal network operation, the semiconductor elements formed in the core magnetic flux having opposite direction in relation to each other. Due to this magnetic flux is zero.
The transformer consists of a closed steel core on which wearing two coils: the primary - is connected to an AC power source, the secondary - is connected to the load. How many times the transformer increases the AC voltage by the same factor decreased amperage
To a secondary winding wound on the magnetic core of the transformer is connected type electromagnetic relay. If you met the standard working conditions, it is not involved in the network.
all work is changing dramatically when leakage occurs. The phase and neutral conductors are beginning to pass different current values. Now the value of the force and direction of magnetic flux in the transformer core will also have different parameters.
It appears in the secondary windings when the current and predetermined values, reproduced tripping electromagnetic relay. It is connected in tandem with the trip mechanism. This ligament in the right moment and responds disengages the grid.
According to the requirements of fire safety control checks differential protection device is produced on a regular basis, at least once a month. To do this, the instrument has a special button "TEST"
Check node is represented by resistance mechanism - a certain load connected to bypass the differential sensor. This element simulates the leakage current and thus checks the operating condition. More we talked about validation methods in this article.
Action / RCD operation principle is as follows: the current supply line in phase with the reference resistance, and after that - to the neutral wire, bypassing sensor.
Thus, the conditions of different indicators of current input and output device. This imbalance and should lead to the launch of off site.
Depending on the development, schematic device can vary, but the principle used in the RCD, is identical in all models.
The principle of operation of the protective mechanism
Consider what you want to use an RCD. The functioning of the protective device based on the measuring method.
Fixed parameters of the incoming and outgoing currents flowing through the transformer. If the first value is greater than the second, which means that the electrical circuit occurs the leakage current and the instrument plays off. If the parameters are identical, the device does not work.
The two-wire system, a differential device is not triggered if the wires on the neutral and phase current passes, the same strength. If there is a difference in these values, then the network insulation breakdown and defense mechanism disconnects the damaged area
For a better understanding, let us consider how to work the RCD in the household distribution panel with a two-pole system.
To the upper terminal blocks connected to the input two-wire line (phase and neutral). To the lower terminal blocks connected phase and zero padded up to a load portion, e.g., to an outlet of the boiler or the power kettle. protective earthing device will run the cable, bypassing the RCD.
In the standard operating mode, movement of electrons is performed on the phase line from the incoming cable to the electric heater of the boiler / kettle flowing through the differential protection unit. They move back to the ground again through the RCD, but the line-to-neutral.
If a person touches a conductive body of the device, which because of the breakdown of the potential there was in this situation, leakage current will flow through the human body, to which the device responds almost immediately, turn off the system feeding
For example, the insulation has been damaged appliance PETN. Thus, through the water that is inside, the current will be conducted partly housing, and then go into the ground through the wiring protective device.
Residues current return on the neutral line through the RCD. However, its power will be reduced by the amount of leakage compared with incoming.
Difference indicators calculates the differential transformer. If the figure is higher resolution, the device instantly reacts and breaks the circuit.
In another article, we have given our recommendations on the selection and proper connection RCD for boiler.
The feasibility of using the RCD
Consider, for which you want to use and RCD from any negative factors impact device provides protection.
First of all - the closure phase on the electrical enclosure. Basically to problem areas include heating elements heaters and washing machines. It should be noted that the breakdown is formed only in the case where the heat generating part is heated by the current.
Also, if incorrect wiring. For example, if used without twisting the terminal box, which are subsequently recessed in the wall plaster and closed. Since the surface has an increased moisture content, this will breakdown and twisted giving a leak in the wall.
Differential protective mechanism in this case will always perform blackout line portion until completely dry or until a rebuilt connector assembly.
Automatic protection is effectively applied in everyday conditions: in the electrical panel for the bathroom, kitchen and sockets, with a lot of feeding devices. Ideally, when such devices are installed on each group of outlets
Scope of the review of devices is quite varied - from public buildings to large-scale enterprises. They are equipped with electrical structures and circuits for reception and distribution: shields in homes, current supply systems for individual consumption, etc. The main thing with etoom - correctly select the RCD power.
Types of devices and their classification
Firms developers endow their products with diverse features that must be considered in determining the right type of RCD, building on the specific operating conditions conductive network.
To an ordinary consumer was able to pick up the necessary residual current device among diversity of the proposed models, classifying system was created based on the following characteristics:
- operation principle;
- kind of differential current;
- time delay tripping of the differential current;
- number of poles;
- installation method.
Next, let us consider in more detail each of these classifications.
Classification # 1 - by inclusion method
There are only two switching method - electromechanical and electronic. In the first case, the machine will shut off power to the damaged line, regardless of the mains voltage. The main working body - toroidal core with windings.
In the formation of leakage in the secondary circuit formed by the voltage for activating the operation of the polarization switch, which leads to the activation of switch mechanism.
It does not require an external voltage for electromechanical devices. The source for their operation is the differential current on line damage
The functioning of the device in the electronics depends entirely on the additional stress that is external power required. Here, the working body is represented by an electronic board with an amplifier.
Within such a mechanism there are no additional sources of accumulating energy, so the operation of the circuit uses electricity and the external network, if there is no voltage, - the device does not break the chain.
Determining the type of device: to the terminals penlight batteries "AA" to solder two wires. Turn on the RCD and connected to the input of the protective block and the next - to the output. Lines are attached to one pole. If the machine is switched off - this means that the electromechanical type is represented, if not - electronic
An example operation of an electronic RCD, an on-line with the socket, is fed from a microwave: breakage occurred zero phase, in addition to this, in the same period, malfunction of the microwave is formed and wiring occurs phase ground fault, i.e. it appears dangerous potential.
If you touch the stove, electronic security type will not be used because No power supply. It is because of insecurity in comparison to electromechanical analogue of this device was less common.
Classification # 2 - leakage current of the genus
All models are manufactured security automata further divided by the load current passing through the device. They are treated with a predetermined format voltage fluctuations.
In the case of all devices in the passport prescribed nominal value of the operating voltage. This parameter should match the range of the nominal electrical current.
AU type will be activated upon occurrence of instantaneous AC voltage controlled leakage circuit or when its capacity undulating. These devices are marked with the inscription "AC" or symbolic sign "~".
The most appropriate form factor for domestic use - RCD-AS. The model is the cheapest of the instruments of similar effect. The passport to the electrical manufacturers often indicate a specific model circuit breaker that is suitable for this product
Type A is triggered when the instantaneous formation of alternating or pulsating current breakdown in a controlled circuit, or with their slow increase.
This mechanism can be used in any view of the situation. On the housing of the machine applied to the abbreviation "A" or symbol as in the graphic image in a rectangle .
In most cases, the A-type is connected to the circuit, where the load regulation is reproduced by cutting the tops sine wave, for example, the adjustment parameters of the engine revolving speed movements thyristor converter.
A cost model several times more expensive in comparison with the AU, as here additionally monitored DC voltage occurring in the power converter equipment
The RCD subspecies effective for playback in the subject reaction wiring DC, AC or converted (rectified) leakage current.
This is expensive equipment designed for industrial activity sites. In a domestic environment, they do not apply.
Presented disconnection protection device types A, B and AC were calculated for the period from the activation of 0.02-0.03.
Classification # 3 - for the time delay type
This classification involves the distinction of two types: S and G. Automatic protection type can be characterized by reacting S selective format. Exposure of the response time corresponds to the range 0.15-0.5 seconds. It is advisable to select in the case of group connections RCD.
Scheme flats flap with two load groups connected where two different types of safety devices: AU or A and S
According to the scheme, in the panel taken two load groups in the form of sockets and №1 №2, which is connected RCD type A, and the input of the second machine space - S.
If there is a breakdown in one beam, the opening device is activated only when a collective unit does not perform its function and shuts down the defective portion.
Selectivity open circuit activation can be performed using another method - by setting the leakage current. This method is most prevalent.
Scheme flats flap with two load groups connected where two different types of safety devices: AC breakdown with the setpoint, and a second A, but with a large value
Take analogous to the preceding scheme, and to modify it thus: a group select automatic type SS only has to set point diftoka 0.03 A, and is analogous to the device input only 0.1 A.
There are situations where residual current circuit damage exceeds the nominal setting of the two protection devices. For the first scheme selectivity will not be broken, and the second - the current cut-off can apply any of the connected devices.
Apparatus form factor G is also represented drawdown selective principle and has a shutter 0.06-0.08. All these sample types are designed to withstand extreme currents - up to 15 kA.
Some models have the RCD diforgana setpoint control system, others do not have this capability. However, for domestic purposes suitable second embodiment
The current limit is an important parameter of choice, because It is due to this and ensured security.
For example, in environments with high humidity, electrical power is supplied in connection with trip devices circuit with setpoint 0.01 A. For standard household conditions - 0.03 A.
For fire safety organizations buildings - 0.1-0.3 A. We encourage you to read tips choice of fire RCD and the intricacies of its installation.
Classification # 4 - the number of poles
Since the automatic device operates by comparing the current values passing through it, the number of poles in the machine is identical to the number of conductive lines.
Pole RCD referred to as 2P. It includes a single-phase circuit to ensure the protection of man and the prevention of possible causes of the fire.
Marking four-RCD - 4P. They are designed to work in a network with three phases. It is also possible setting combinations, e.g., the device with four poles is introduced into the two-wire network.
However, it is not implemented the full potential of the device, which is economically disadvantageous.
When installing the circuit breaker should take into account the likelihood that the load current to exceed the maximum operating value of the device. Therefore additionally installed circuit breaker with a rated voltage not more than the security system operating current
Classification # 5 - method of installation of the device
Since differential protective devices are performed in different housings, they can be used as a stationary or portable.
In the second case, the machine is equipped with extendable wire. Devices are fixed to the din-rail, mounted in a switchboardThat is placed either in the corridor or in the apartment.
There is also a kind of performance options RCD-socket and RCD-plug. Both in the first and in the second case an appliance and connected by a mechanism at break is not dangerous for humans.
Full transcript labeling values
It is mandatory on the device is present name of the company-developer. This is followed by a standardized marking the designation of the serial number.
To decipher the abbreviations we use an example [F] [X] 00 [X] - [XX]:
- [F] - a disconnecting device;
- [X] - execution format;
- 00 - numeric or alphanumeric designation of the series;
- [X] - the number of poles: 2 or 4;
- [XX] - characteristics of the leakage current view: AC, A and B.
Also, there will be indicated and the nominal parameters of the device, which in the selection should pay special attention.
Deciphering abbreviations: 1 - brand; 2 - type of device; 3 - selective type; 4 - compliance with European standards; 5 - rated operating current and the setpoint; 6 - maximum AC operating voltage; 7 - nominal current that the device can withstand; 8 - differential and breaking capacity; 9 - wiring; 10 - Manual performance testing; 11 - marking the position of the switch
For maximum parameters, which are designed devices include voltage Un, current In, The differential value circuit breaking current IΔnThe ability to enable and disable im, switching capacity with closures Icn.
Basic labeling values must be arranged so as to remain visible after installation of the device. Some parameters can be applied to the side or at the rear, visible only to the product installation.
Outputs intended only for connecting the neutral conductor, denoted by the symbol of the Latin "N». RCD to trip mode indicated by the symbol "ABOUT"(Circle) included - short vertical line"I».
Not every product marked optimum temperature environmental indicators. In those models, which is a symbol - This means that the operating range of -25 to + 40 ° C, unless there is no designation - refers to the standard values from -5 to +40 ° C.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Footage detailed overview of all the constituent elements review protection mechanisms, their purpose and the principle of interaction with each other:
A description of all types of circuit breakers, as well as advice on how to make a choice:
The answer to the age-old question, on what to choose - at the differential machine, or to the RCD + mounting secrets:
Use of RCDs - a profitable and correct decision not only on the part of economy, but, in terms of fire safety and protection of man.
It is recommended to use the maximum of its potential in the domestic environment by installing all the electrical engineering group to provide complete isolation from the impact of electricity.
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