Let's talk about what an LED is, what are the reasons for buying a high cost item that is not different in appearance from a simple lamp. Let's tell how to choose LED lamps for bright lighting of the house or apartment.
The history of the creation and use of LEDs, their advantages
The disadvantages of LED bulbs are so insignificant that it is easy to put aside. The luminescence was noticed by an employee of the Marknoni laboratory in 1907, when he equipped the crystal detector with a small sample of silicon carbide. Independently, in 1923, our compatriot Losev did a similar thing, but did not realize the significance of the experience. It became clear that henceforth it becomes possible to create small-sized, low-voltage light sources that do without a vacuum tube. Future prototypes of modern LED bulbs.
It is curious that the concept of pn transition was absent, no explanations were given to the effect. Losev in 1927 received a number of patents, successfully forgotten. A father of modern LEDs since 1962 is still considered Polonyak, the first to submit to the public a semiconductor device emitting in the visible range. Let's see what happens from the point of view of the man in the street:
- Radiation at the junction of semiconductors of an LED light bulb occurs due to the presence of electron states suitable for the level of transitions. Energy is equal to the quantum of light.
Recently, mass use LEDs have not been found, it was not possible to create a sufficiently clear crystal lattice to realize the advantages inherent in the idea. But! In the early 2000s, the leading countries of the world adopted the concept of the development of nanotechnology and the creation of the element base of the new generation. In short, it was promised that the efficiency of devices will increase dramatically, and the radiation coherence will be acceptable for designing lasers based on advanced LEDs. When the terms of the program expired, the market was flooded with a new product - LED energy-saving lamps.
Lasers are not mentioned by chance, radiation is required to receive only in the visible spectrum. The reason is the spectral width of the emission band. Incandescent bulbs are active in the infrared. Thus, a mountain of energy turns into useless, sometimes harmful, heat. With LEDs, otherwise - a hard-coded frequency is generated by the volume of the semiconductor junction, with a similar luminosity, the power consumption drops by an order of magnitude.
- The emission spectrum of the LEDs can be flexibly adjusted.
The incandescent light bulb due to the increase in the temperature of the helix has a warm shade, further growth will cause an increase in the number of failures. In the case of LEDs otherwise. The frequency of the waves( the color of the glow) depends on the structure of the semiconductors. Therefore, without deterioration of the operating conditions, it is possible to obtain cold tones. Warm tones create an atmosphere of comfort, in such a situation, perfectly fall asleep. She is good at the end of the day. If you need to strain, it is better to use cold day tones.
It is not fair, the use of incandescent bulbs during the day is capable of knocking down a person's daily clock. During the day, she will become sleepy, and in the evening - difficulty falling asleep. As for the LEDs, applying different shades in the plafond will make it possible to create the “day” with the first key and the second “night”.There are lamps where the regulator adjusts the warmth of the shades. For example, the internal switching elements with different temperatures of illumination.
- Not all electrons passing through the p – n junction emit light.
Some provoke a warm-up or follow on without doing work. This determines the efficiency. With LEDs, it is much more convenient to use the lm / w ratio. It shows which luminous flux creates 1 watt of lamp power. The parameter is easy to calculate yourself right in the store.
For example, the Paulmann 28209 LED lamp has a power of 6.5 W and a luminosity of 470 lm( for comparison, a 60 W incandescent lamp gives 710 lm, and 40 W - 420 lm).We divide and get efficiency = 470 / 6.5 = 72.3 lm / W.We go to the English-language Wikipedia domain and find typical numbers: for red LEDs - 72 lm / W, for green LEDs - 93, for blue ones - 37, for blue ones - 75. At the same time, the standard efficiency in percent does not exceed forty-five, although devices for60%.For a 6.5-watt diode lamp power, 45 watt filaments are equivalent. This means that 40 Wh or 1 kWh per day of continuous glow is saved every hour.
With a tariff of 4 rubles, the LED lamp will pay off after 500 hours of work( at a cost of 2000 rubles).This is 60 workdays. Sellers promise that the light bulb will work 30,000 hours, give a guarantee. Evaluate the benefits yourself.
It turns out that the cover heats up less, the room is cooler, the shade has the right to choose and not worry about the constant replacement. The LED lamp is not afraid of shaking like a filament. Prices are reasonable. In shades: already said, for the bedroom you need warm, for the study the cold.
The luminance temperature is stamped on the LED lamp. Already in magnitude from 2700 to 3000 K, we see that this is in the upper limit of red dwarfs. Our sun is much hotter. Information from Wikipedia says that the temperature of the LED lights in the specified interval is called warm. An important difference is immediately visible: when the parameter is increased, the operating conditions do not change. It is easy to buy an LED light bulb with a luminosity temperature of 4,000 K, but with a power of 4 W and a flux density of 30 lm( equivalent to a 30-watt incandescent bulb).Without labor, the necessary conditions for work and rest are created.
Main characteristics of LED lamps
Lamps for home use are distinguished by a set of special characteristics. To continue to make a competent choice in the store, prepare now. Study the markings on the packaging and the lamp. Especially worth mentioning 4 characteristics.
Luminosity has replaced power. Measured in lumens, 935 lm is equivalent to a 75 watt bulb. The figure has a table where the ratios are painted in detail. LED bulbs from 900 lm are called bright lighting. The bottom figures are suitable, only an adjustment according to needs is required. For the corridor or the lavatory large values are not needed. Another thing when it comes to the office, where you want to distinguish what is written, or the bathroom, where ladies often bring themselves up. Large values are not needed for the bedroom.
LED power shows the energy consumed per hour of work. Depending on the efficiency, products with the same value can produce more or less light density. Efficiency is measured in lm / W and is calculated directly in the store. The power of the light bulb is indicated on the body, the luminosity on the price tag. If not specified, ask to see the product passport.
The temperature of the light bulb indicates a hue on the scale of visible frequencies. Warm colors are good for bedrooms - glow temperatures up to 3000 K inclusive. The coldest tones will fall on the range of 5000-6000 K and higher. Suitable for offices. Understanding this feature, manufacturers often produce light bulbs with high luminosity, providing the ability to read. Of course, the power consumption rises accordingly.
The life time of the LED light is important. The benefits will not convince if the product burns after 50 hours of operation. Most stores give a decent warranty on products. When buying, carefully review the terms of the option. No warranty about the benefits of the product can be forgotten.
The specific qualities of
LED bulbs The advantages of LED bulbs can reduce the curious quality to zero: blinking. Blinking LED lamps to the eye unnoticed, but the brain perceives. Fast blinking can cause significant disorders to the diseases of the nervous system. To analyze the quality is simple. We need to take a low-quality video camera. For example, a cell phone, iPad, camera. Such unsuitable for shooting rollers products perfectly convey flaws.
On non-professional devices, defects are visible, indistinguishable by the eye. When shooting, the camera brings to the person the real situation, just the frequency is low, and the response time of the matrix is high. Due to the inconsistency of the parameters in the Photo mode, frames appear where, for example, the monitor screen is turned off.
Flicker is familiar from the gears of the early 90s, where the first displays on cathode-ray tubes were shown. Low-quality LED bulbs have a similar blink. It is not difficult to detect by filming the result of work on a cell phone camera or iPad. Ahead of the question, let's say that the incandescent bulbs and energy-saving discharge do not have such defects.
No need to skimp on benefits. Need to think about health. Spend money on an unblinking LED light. Check possible on the stand without the participation of sellers. Already said that when working daily for 8 hours the light bulb will pay off in 2 months. This is much less than the guaranteed lifetime. Savings come out in any case from a financial point of view, but the health benefit is obtained only from a quality product.
LED Light Device Design
In the basement of the product there is a miniature power supply unit of the required power. Losses in it significantly reduce the overall efficiency, this will have to be tolerated until they invent the element base capable of operating at 220 V. Then the connection scheme of the LED lamp will be as simple as possible, and the price will fall.
Inside there are several LEDs under the glass. And most of the light bulbs understands, anyone can see. In some products, the power part is filled with a heat-conducting compound, in others the sides are substituted by the wind( due to this the price is reduced).
Whether to install LED lamps instead of fluorescent ones, decide for yourself. There is a chance to buy a single lamp for life, given that individual products work for 50,000 hours.