In the rooms were comfortable, and the air is correspondingly standards, each house is equipped ventilation system. This also applies to high-rise buildings, which represent the main segment of urban housing.
During construction of the default ones are applied ventilation systems in apartment buildings, which are implemented through a variety of modes of air circulation.
In this article we analyze features of traditional schemes fineness ventilation arrangement coercion and nuances ventilation arrangement sewer system.
The content of the article:
Schematic diagrams of natural ventilation
- Schemes traditional extraction system
- Features of arrangement of channels in a 9-storey building
- Forced type systems
- Organization of air circulating in the apartment
- How is the ventilation sewer?
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Schematic diagrams of natural ventilation
Our practice in the construction of apartment buildings has led to the fact that it was selected some of the most effective schemes of creating a ventilation system. The choice of a circuit depends on many factors: the shape of the building, number of floors, outdoor air pollution in an area of noise.
Schemes traditional extraction system
Recognized traditional ventilation system with a natural instinct, that is, when the air exchange in the rooms is carried out due to the difference of temperatures and pressures.
It is understood that the exhaust air is discharged through the ventilation shafts and channels to the outside (on the roof), and fresh flows through the windows, doors or special intake valves.
One of the variants of the device ventilation shafts of a multistory building
Option to seal the individual mines for each apartment is not being considered, as it was expedient in the era of low-rise building.
Clearly, for high-rise of 9 or higher floors to equip a plurality of parallel channels extending physically not possible.
Therefore, in the construction of two recognized apply rational scheme:
- All mines are displayed in the attic and there are combined horizontal channel. From channel output contaminated air is carried through a single outlet, arranged in the most convenient location.
- The individual apartments are connected to a common riser (Shaft) disposed in parallel channels, satellites, thereby the exhaust air output above the roof of vertical channels.
The fundamental difference lies in two points: the presence / absence of the horizontal collection in the attic and in the presence / absence of the common riser shafts.
Driving devices with ventilation channels, satellites. An important caveat: for the upper floors is implemented the idea of a separate direct output used air
Local drainage from the upper floors due to the fact that a traction on the flat horizontal channel must be not less than 2 m in height.
Separately derived channels, as well as total mine should be qualitatively insulated, or in the attic condensation, which occurs due to premature failure of the material appears mold.
Mounting horizontal attic duct made in view of specific requirements. For example, its diameter must be sufficient in order not to create a reverse thrust and air is returned into the channels. It is fraught with hit wastewater environment in the apartment of the upper floors.
Calculation of duct diameter should be conducted by experienced engineers. To the air moving in the predetermined direction and returning back to inside the channel set crosscuts
Sometimes it is not possible to mount a bulky horizontal channel. Then dispense a narrow cross-section of the pipe, but the upper floors are used all the same local system - entered the attic individual sleeves.
Natural ventilation, which are equipped with almost all the houses of the old building, has a significant advantage - does not need a power supply.
However, its effectiveness depends on the temperature difference between the building and the room, and mine and channels require constant cleaning, Which in practice is rarely made.
Features of arrangement of channels in a 9-storey building
In typical houses the air change process is carried out in a natural mode. Inflow of fresh air mass occurs in apartments, withdrawal of spent medium through ventilation shafts equipped with TV-satellites.
In most channels are routed from the exhaust holes in the flats on a "through the floor 2", but may be and floor.
Driving the ventilation device, which is characteristic for the standard high-rise building. Total exhaust mine goes straight to the roof, satellite channels run in parallel and are connected alternately
According to the norms, removal from 8-9 floors are not made via a common shaft, and separately. In drawing up such a scheme are taken into account average weather conditions, that is, the outside air temperature +5 ° C and no wind.
This scheme is recognized as a low efficiency, since changes in the natural conditions of natural ventilation functionality falls. For example, in a strong heat it is useless. It is also possible clogging of the vents, which completely covers the movement of air.
In the absence of the normal extraction require extra cleaning. Although usually it is carried out every 5-6 years.
Forced type systems
In today's housing construction for sealing window and balcony openings used plastic and metal construction. Glazed polymers and aluminum durable than wood, but often completely cover the natural channels of fresh air intake.
Doors also closely adjacent to the floor, making the room completely sealed. Incoming air does not occur in the absence of an effective supply air and exhaust system becomes useless.
To solve the problem of fresh air in all the apartment, install special equipment in high-end homes - air handling units.
Example of installation of supply and exhaust system in an apartment building. Below, in the cellar or the basement, establish Ventilation equipment with the filtration and air heated in the roof - the chiller and fan
ventilation system is quite complicated, and for mounting its individual elements need to allocate space in the basement (heated supply air) and a roof (and the fan chiller).
Unlike natural ventilation, agitation is volatile. Additionally, it consists of a set of complex devices, the management of which is made from a single console.
SHUV installed near the supply air equipment in the basement, and access to it is only by qualified service personnel.
We can say that all three types of ventilation are present in residential high-rise buildings, and natural is the most common, and the forced installation or combined system until limited.
Organization of air circulating in the apartment
Consider how air circulates in a single flat without additional ventilation devices.
As mentioned above, the fresh air flows through the various window cracks and gaps, as well as through doorways - the open door and crevices beneath them.
The diagram shows clearly the direction of air movement. He enters through the windows or doors of premises and moved to the side air vents
Comfortable accommodation in the apartments is characterized by a number of factors, including the number of air and the volume of air is replaced regularly.
There are rules governing the flow of air currents.
Table air exchange, suitable for multi-family homes. air change must increasingly take place where there is high humidity, that is in the kitchen and bathrooms
In the homes of old buildings ventilation shafts do not always operate at 100%, and this can be checked in a simple manner. It is necessary to take a sheet of paper and attach it to the Technical vent. If the paper will not be kept by force thrust and fall - natural ventilation is compromised.
Instead of the sheet can be used burning candle or match. Motion Flametongue it becomes clear whether the craving to eat from the room to the outside.
Detailed rules for checking the ventilation in the apartment and search path issue, we reviewed in another article.
Problems with ventilation adversely affect the health of people living in apartments. Lack of fresh air is unhealthy drowsiness, fatigue, and headaches.
Particularly sensitively react to it people with heart disease and respiratory system. They always want to keep the air vents and windows open, and this leads to a sharp cooling of the premises and, as a consequence, increase in the number of colds.
Also see the information on how to restore ventilation and efficiency of air ducts.
Increase the effectiveness of natural exhaust system is possible using a simple device - a fan installed in the ventilation outlet in the bathroom
If installed above the cooker hood regularly switch from the air into the ventilation tap shaft, it will also contribute to rapid change of air masses in the kitchen and in the surrounding rooms.
If desired, the tenants can self organize and air flow. For this purpose, as an ordinary ventilation and special mechanical and technical devices, for example, air inlet on the window.
Quickly and in full, you can ventilate the apartment, throwing open the casement. However, this method is found to be effective only in the warmer months. In cold weather it will break thermal balance in buildings
The air is to be more productive, make better use for ventilation flaps. Fresh air is drawn not along the entire height of the window, and in the upper zone - so it is more evenly distributed through the rooms
To air can circulate freely without regular opening vents in the construction of plastic windows inserted intake valves. They do not spoil the look of the windows and do not create drafts
Not all split systems have the ability to supply air into the room from the street. Most of the works only in the cooling / heating. When you select should look for models with the influx of clean air
Open windows - a traditional way to refresh the atmosphere in the housing
Half-open window and shutters plastic windows
Ventilation valves on domestic plastic windows
Split systems with transporting fresh air up to 15%
The valves are installed not only in the double glazing, but also in the walls, most of all - the windows, near heaters. Outside air flows into the room through the small hole diameter of 5 to 10 cm and heated by the heat radiator or convector.
There are automatic models, which are sensitive to temperature and humidity change: once the parameters exceed the norm, there is ventilation.
But more sophisticated recognized centralized supply systems of channel type. Self-install it only in a private house, because in the high-rise buildings of this scale systems involved in special services.
Ducts and supply air / heating devices are on the premises, in the ceiling, the walls are in, so they set still under construction.
Supply air channel ventilation in new buildings equipped with the so-called elite class. One of the conditions of installation - high ceilings that allow to make installation without compromising interior
As you can see, the lack of well-established natural ventilation system can partially compensate for the installation of additional equipment. Minus only one - additional non-recurring expenses for the purchase of devices and regular - on your electricity bill.
How is the ventilation sewer?
Conclusion unpleasant sewer odors is also needed for a comfortable stay in apartment buildings. "Airing" sewage system is simplified to a minimum: gases are vented through the same riser, which carried effluent drainage.
To odors do not bother the residents, equipped with an extension of the riser, overlooking the roof - vent (sewer) pipe.
In the diagram clearly shows how to construct the sewer ventilation. All apartment sanitary devices "attached" to a common riser, which on the one hand finishes sewer pipe, the other - the release, leading to a centralized urban network
Knowing the diagram, you can understand why the work on remodeling bathrooms need to be resolved. If you change the location of the riser or to connect a large number of sanitary devices, ventilation system may be compromised.
At equipment sewer network with the ventilation system governed SNIP 2.04.01-85.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
To improve the ventilation on its own you should consult with professionals and to choose the most economical and effective way.
Expert opinions of specialists:
Uniform operation of two or more ventilation ducts:
What are turbodeflektory:
How to install the air inlet:
Natural ventilation mode, typical of apartment buildings do not always justify itself fully. If the building does not provide compulsory centralized network, organize the inflow / outflow of air you can own, with the help of home appliances.
Do you live in an apartment high-rises? Share your experiences arrangement of the ventilation system, tell us what devices you use to ensure full and timely air in all the rooms of the apartment. Leave your comments under the article of our - your tips may be useful to many owners of apartments.