Branched sewer network of pipes located underground. I wish that it were important components available for services, does not it? For these purposes, you have decided to build such a system element, such as a manhole for sewer, but do not know where to start?
We will try to help - in this material is discussed in detail this type of construction unit, important nuances that should be taken into account in self-assembly. Also given instruction on the arrangement of their own hands, which for clarity are selected step by step photo workflow.
To a novice in this case it was easier to understand the topic well structures to control the sewage system, we have added the video of the installation of manholes made of different materials.
The content of the article:
- Appointment of underground viewing chamber
- Types of manholes
- Location depending on the destination
- Features of different types of structures
- Dimensions of concrete structures
Solution installation issues
- Option # 1 - Build constructions from concrete rings
- Option # 2 - Installation of plastic wells
- Nuances waterproofing works
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Appointment of underground viewing chamber
Sewage circuit operative for pumping domestic sewage, rain and melt waters to designated clarifiers, manholes or collectors. Manholes installed in the most critical areas of the sewer network.
For equipment straight line length of 10 m the construction of the additional chamber is irrational, while 100-meter stretch from the intersection nodes, forced bends and level differences of the control point just needed.
They make it possible to freely inspect the pipeline function, located at a depth of up to 2 m or less, and in case of failure - to quickly repair it. In specially equipped camera, all shut-off and regulating valves is in sight, so replace worn parts with new is not difficult.
Functionality of the manhole is to provide access for inspection and cleaning of the technical state the conveyance system discharges
The accident at the underground portion of the network is not equipped with a manhole, is eliminated by excavating (including with the use of heavy construction equipment). It's harder, longer and more expensive.
Pinpoint the leak also help viewing chamber.
Inspection manholes in the CIS unified. For small items are on the pipelines with a diameter up to 60 cm
For networks with a diameter of over 60 cm erect large manholes. All types are set so that you can clean both sides
In form in terms of manholes being built for all kinds of systems are divided into round and square
In the apparatus used concrete manhole rings and construction, brick, plastic, fiberglass and the Polymeric Product
Plastic finished design
Device audit underground chambers humanity is engaged in for hundreds of years - from the time when the first communication system to move water.
During this period, any special rules for the construction of facilities that are currently contained in documents such as SNIP and GOST.
Structures device depends on the specific characteristics of the soil. There are structural differences in the construction of wells in water-saturated, malovlazhnyh and subsidence of loess rocks. The latter category further enhance tamper device bottom and thicker sand and crushed stone at the base of the pillow
For example, 2.04.03-85 paragraph (SNIP) called "Sewer. External networks and facilities ", reveals the rules of construction of manholes. This article contains information about where it is necessary to arrange these objects, how to choose the right size.
Accepted standards to help integrate the various networks into one unbreakable construction and simplify installation.
In Scheme well sectional visible basic parts: the bottom tray to connect pipes, the main working chamber, equipped for descent steps, and the hatch with a cover-facing surface
Types of manholes
Varieties manholes isolated from two factors:
- the main features and the installation site;
- manufacturing material.
According to the first factor, there are linear, nodal, swivel and Perepadnaya species. They are equally applicability and to household, industrial and communicative systems.
This means that any of these species, if necessary, for example, in connection with long sewerage pipeline can set in their area.
Installing linear manholes in the sewer system is running on the straight sections of the pipeline through regulated SNIP 2.04.03-85 the distance
The distance between adjacent manholes depends on the complexity of the relief and the pipeline diameter
Locations change the direction of the pipeline installed rotary manholes that are different from the line-type form of the bottom tray
The shape of the tray, located inside the pivot pit has smooth shape, angle does not exceed 90 °
At the confluence of two or three branches of sewage set the nodal point from which the one sewer
Device control varieties manhole made in places connecting the yard or quarterly system to a centralized network
In the initial parts of the system, in areas likely slow the flow of effluent washings constructing wells, designed to combat the formation of sludge
In areas of sharp changes in topography, location of underground objects to circumvent and where necessary speed reduction motion of sewage mass, put view Perepadnaya
Plastic manhole line
Manhole floatable sewerage network
Swivel sewer item from concrete ring
The specifics of the device turning point sewage
Nodal category manhole
The control type of sewage pit
Wash viewing option
Perepadnaya observation well
Linear mounted on the flow pipe. They are provided with one pair of nozzles or outlet openings which are arranged opposite each other.
Such wells are required even if no preconditions to occurrence of an emergency, however, recognized portion long enough (at SNP - from 35 m to 300 m).
Rotary type, as the name implies, is mounted on a turning towards the pipes. As a general rule that the angle of rotation should not exceed 90º, i.e. should not be acute.
Nozzles (holes) are not aligned, and in locations which depend on the angle of rotation, but at the same level in height.
The diagram shows three types of manholes, characterized by their design. Box pipes made nozzles arranged on different sides, depending on the function (linear, rotary and node types)
Nodal model is mounted at the intersection of two or more conduits, as well as where the center line has a branch.
Wells are distinguished structurally by the presence of additional nozzles (holes). As a rule, all inputs / outputs are on the same level.
Inspection of drainage facilities of precast concrete rings. An important condition for operation is a thorough sealing of joints and seams in order to avoid penetration of flood water
Perepadnaya serve to increase or decrease the flow, so the tubes are arranged at different levels: the feed is generally higher, closer to the neck, discharge - the bottom. By resorting apparatus Perepadnaya wells also reduce waste conveying speed as needed.
Despite the functional and structural differences, all types of wells are very similar. They are made of different materials.
Initially considered the best stone and brick, stone buildings are now almost gone. To replace them came practical and easier to install concrete counterparts.
Polymer prefabricated going on the same principle as that of concrete: calculated number of rings is chosen according to the diameter of the base and the neck
In concrete factories produce standard parts of which are folded when mounting the individual chambers: simply install separate elements to each other, then sealed seams.
The modern equivalent of concrete wells - plastic models that are corrugated containers and are particularly strength and integrity.
Location depending on the destination
According to specifications SNP, there are points mandatory installation audit chambers:
- in places turns and slopes, when changing the direction of the linear conduit;
- to the point of attachment to the center line of additional branches;
- on plots changing pipe diameters.
Inputs of private sewerage systems to the central system (or collector) is also equipped with observation cameras.
Diameter pipe depends on the length of the linear portion. For example, the conduit length of 35 m composed of elements having a diameter of 150 mm hundred meter portion - of the tubes diameter of 700 to 900 mm, the maximum possible 300-meter line - of the pipe whose diameter may be more 2 m.
Dependence is reversed, i.e. if the pipe diameter of 150 mm, then through the meter 35 necessarily requires the installation of a well.
The main location of the viewing facilities on private country site - the line connecting the rain water inlets to a septic tank, collector or filter field
Choosing the most difficult part of the auditing and mounted camera. In most cases this place tie additional sleeves, for example, coming from the bath.
Manholes for private use may be different from the industrial analogues size or number of nozzles, but fundamental differences do not matter.
Features of different types of structures
a reinforced concrete prefabricated elements are set out in the regulations GOST 2080-90Which is painted in detail the technical requirements for products, given their characteristics, labeling and provides links to related articles GOST.
The advantages of modular structures are monolithic in front mounting possibilities. Reinforced concrete parts are heavy, so to transport and install them it is necessary with the help of special equipment. It is much easier to ensure the delivery of individual parts than the entire structure in the finished form.
When installing additional measures are sometimes required - for example, the device impervious castle. Collecting design in part, to perform specific excavation work much easier.
Driving device manhole linear type, which is equipped as auditing or drainage points on the straight sections of sewer pipe
Thus, the lower part of the structure - a sturdy concrete slab, which is placed on a prepared foundation. To impart stability of the structure while ensuring the outflow of groundwater before installing a gravel pit to sleep. Bottom plate macadam laid on the base horizontally.
The lower part is called a tray, it is equipped with holes or nozzles for pipe mounting. Location of inlets depends on the purpose of the well. Assume a linear structures they are on opposite sides in the bending - depending on the angle of rotation.
The main working chamber size larger than the others - that it should come down to make check valves, sealing compounds, or worn parts. For convenience, the shutter is equipped with a wall staircase of metal clamps.
From above the working chamber closes the floor slab, which is attached to another element - neck. The diameter of the main part of it already.
Neck covered hatchWhich performs two functions - protects well against the penetration of unwanted guests and protects against street debris and sediment. To complicate matters from entering the chamber, the hatch is made from a heavy material - iron.
Setting the viewing chamber in the suburban area, not necessarily use cast iron parts. Now produce a variety of species plastic closuresMore user-friendly and aesthetically pleasing.
Hatches have a circular shape and standard dimensions (600 mm, 690 mm, 700 mm). They should be selected based on the size of a manhole
to the structure of polymer products are set out in GOSTVR №0260760. One common manufacturing material - polyethylene. Reliable design ensures production technology - a method of extrusion welding.
Products can not be exposed to chemicals present in the soil, characterized by durability, ecological compatibility and integrity.
Externally, they resemble large capsule with a hole in the neck. Unlike concrete counterparts, plastic camera purchase and install the shelf.
Products suited for rapid installation and connection pipes. With easy installation, many owners of country houses prefer plastic camera.
Dimensions of concrete structures
The full list of standard sizes can be found in the regulations, for example, Article SNIP 2.04.03-85. Sizes relate to the quantities of different parts of the structure and incoming pipes, and the distances between them.
If the diameter of the pipeline passing is 600 mm or less, the length and width well of concrete rings It should correspond to 1 m.
With increasing diameter values increase chamber dimensions:
- Rectangular w / w product - a pipe 700 mm D = D + well 400 mm;
- for round w / w products - a pipe 700 mm D = D well 1250mm to 1000 mm = 1500 mm, 1200 mm = 2000 mm.
There are types of wells that are not designed for the descent. If communications occur at a depth up to 100-120 cm, and the pipe diameter is 15 cm, suitable compact inspection chamber with a diameter of 60 cm.
It is used for cleaning procedures. These products are often used in cottages, the device is small in length stormwater.
Dimensions options plastic versions of the well according to TU, but with certificate of conformity GOST-R №0260760. Manufacturer - Company Zhilkomsnab (Mr. Korkino)
The height of the working chamber - 1.8 m, but there are models with reduced dimensions. Width -. Not less than 1.0 m diameter neck -. 0.7 m The dimensions of all parts of the well must be such that so that the worker can freely go down inside and make repairs or cleaning procedure.
Luc is typically coated on a level roadway or sidewalk, on the lawn - lying above the ground for 5-7 cm, no built-up area - 20 cm.
If necessary, the lid locking device set. One of the main conditions for sizing - safe operation of the manholes.
Solution installation issues
If you decide to build their own sewers, pre-study norm SNIP and requirements for the installation of all system components.
This also applies to manholes for livnevki. They are necessary, even if the underground pipeline laid along the perimeter of the cottage - each equipped with angular rotation Audit chamber.
The easiest way to build a concrete pit mine is assembled from prefabricated concrete rings
Harder and slower job runs, if it is decided to pour their own concrete elements in removable formwork
For devices shallow inspection chambers should be fine in terms of square concrete products
Maximum labor time and effort will require pouring concrete shaft in a self-built formwork
The construction of the well shaft of concrete rings
Production of concrete rings with their hands
Square in cross-section for the assembly elements wells
Fill monolithic shafts in a wooden formwork
Option # 1 - Build constructions from concrete rings
The place for installation is planned at the stage of drafting, so preparations are reduced to the following activities:
- accurate counting portion for digging the pit;
- cleaning the area from trees, shrubs, garbage;
- construction techniques for the temporary entrance (if necessary - dismounting preventing structures).
Once land is available, we begin to excavate - to get the soil to the desired depth (height of the building + pillow of crushed stone).
We align bottom fall asleep his 20-cm layer of crushed stone, tamped, sealing mastic asphalt if required. The foundation pit is ready for installation w / w of the well.
The soil excavated during excavation for digging a well, gently fold the vicinity, as it is usually used for the backfill (soil sometimes adding sand or cement)
We then proceed to the following plan:
- Puts base (finished concrete slab or make a pillow in the form of a 10 cm concrete screed from an M-50).
- Equip tray - forming a lower part of the concrete M-100, amplify mesh of galvanized steel.
- The ends of the pipes are buried layers of cement and bitumen.
- After 2-3 days to process concrete rings on the inside of bitumen and set on the tray portion.
- Mount the floor slab, the throat, all the sealing.
- Produce grouting cement mortar and bitumen (a snip 6.3.8 indicates that the presence of groundwater need waterproofing to 50 cm above the surface).
- Plasterer tray.
- We settle in the bottom of a clay locking (30 cm wide, 60 cm above the pipe D).
- Check the sealing quality - water and fill to leave day (outputs stoppered).
At one stage we connect the pipe.
Scheme clay lock device for inspection chamber similar circuit well devices for drinking water. Clay Castle necessary for protection against flood water and vadose
After successful verification produce backfill in the upper part do blind area (one and a half meter in diameter of the neck).
The upper part is left open setting on the hatch locking mechanism, or mask the - close decorative polymer cover.
Option # 2 - Installation of plastic wells
Installing plastic camera is faster and easier. Preliminary work carried out on the same plan as for the construction of concrete structures.
The main thing - to perform installation regulations, which is available from the manufacturer or specialists, realizing the product.
Driving device polymeric drainage chamber Perepadnaya type: tubes are arranged at different heights, wherein the feed is higher than deducing
Stages apparatus polymeric manhole:
- Excavation by excavating to a desired depth (width should exceed the size of the chamber 20 cm in all directions).
- Arrangement of base: the filter gravel backfill layer, the alignment layer of sand (15-20 cm).
- Installing plastic wells on the prepared base.
- Connecting sewer.
- Backfilling with compacted interval (every 3-5 cm).
Sometimes in the sand backfill add cement. Sealing prevents progress in waterlogged soils. Some models are provided because of the ease prigruzhnoy chamber (or several cameras) into which concrete is poured during installation. Kind of anchor provides stability during movement of groundwater.
Separately, it should be said about the peculiarities of installation of plastic well under the pavement (sidewalks) or expensive (the roadway). Wall to withstand the pressure and collapsed accommodate w / w plates.
Over time, when the road surface deformation will offset plates, and the well will remain in the original position.
Variant sight plastic wells node type, which is required for combining into one of three sleeves. Camera setup required for the purification procedure when clogging occurs
To protect requires two concrete slabs with reinforcement. In the center of the bottom plate - opening on exceeding the chamber diameter 1.5-2 cm.
The well is lowered into the hole so that it was above the bottom of a polyethylene product at 9 cm. A top plate resembles an ordinary overlap with a hole for the hatch, which is located directly above the stairway that is offset from the central axis.
Plastic wells in conjunction with plastic pipes form a robust system, durable and environmentally friendly, capable of serving decades.
For the operational sewerage assembly components produce an extensive range of plastic products, the use of which allows you to build the system in a very short period of time
On the bottom of the pit or tamped trench set plastic bottom, relief which corresponds to the number of inputs and outputs from the well
Assembling shahy of plastic parts produced using a seal ensuring tightness, and anticorrosive properties with fasteners
According to the design dimensions to the top broad conical neck shaft attached to narrow hatch structures directly with the fixing ring
Assembling and connecting pipeline
Installing plastic bottoms
Mine construction of plastic parts
Installing and mounting the well mouth
You may also be interested in information about Polymer wells discussed in detail in this article.
Nuances waterproofing works
Manholes are the technological facilities, dry type, which are often in moist soils.
When the device data structures waterproofing conduct binding activity is guaranteeing the safety valves and pipe work effectively cleaning or flushing tubes.
Practice shows that leakage in precast concrete structures occur more often than not due to defects in products, and due to improper handling of joints. This means that the sealing of the joints - a serious and responsible procedure.
The compositions are used as waterproofing 3 types of insulation:
By bitumen-polymer waterproofing materials include obmazochnye (mastic) and fusing rolls for adhesion which is necessary heating to a certain temperature. The second embodiment is used less frequently, as required special skills to use a gas burner.
One solution grouting using local Penetron waterproofing materials and Penekrit. Origin - penetrating the insulation resin type, the second - the suture, which is sold as a dry mixture
Cement-polymer compositions are cheaper, have excellent technical characteristics and are suitable for self-administration. The prepared mixture was applied with a spatula for 2-3 layers moistened cleaned surface, aligned and allowed to dry.
Polymeric waterproofing different elasticity and strength. Mastics and rolled membranes are ideal for potentially mobile structures - even with a small displacement sealing joints remain.
In addition to the walls to be insulated and the base of the well. Normally, it is produced at the stage of laying the concrete slab before mounting rings. Plate coated with cement-polymer composition, they also obscure the lower joints.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Materials of videos to help you choose and install manholes for sewerage.
Interesting information about Polymer wells:
Installing concrete rings for drainage well:
Installation of plastic wells:
The drainage system for the garden:
manhole device resembles the construction of other types of sanitation facilities - filtration or storage. However, there are nuances that you should know before starting the installation.
To avoid mistakes in the choice of products and installation technologies, refer to the regulations and consult with professionals.
Do you have experience in construction inspection manhole? Or you just want to take his arrangement? Perhaps you have after reading the material have questions? Ask for advice or leave your recommendation in the comments section, located at the bottom of the article.