Refrigerator allows you to continue the life of foods, enjoy them and get the most nutrients. And in winter you can enjoy if only yesterday gathered berries or vegetables.
However, to have the opportunity, you need to know what the temperature should be in the refrigerator and freezer and be able to choose the optimal mode of storage.
The content of the article:
- Cause food spoilage
Cooling in the main chamber
- Areas for product placement
Storing food in the freezer
- Device freezer department
- The European approach to freezing
- Terms of storage of meat
- Features storage of eggs
- Correct approach to fish
- To cure the poison was not ...
- Equipment advantage zoning
- Two main functions of temperature
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Cause food spoilage
Forgetting to put the meat or fish in the fridge and leave for several hours under high temperatures can say goodbye to her - a bad smell will that make to throw a failed dish in the trash. But why products deteriorate rapidly when exposed to heat?
The main reason - the multiplication of bacteria. Due to the increase in their number and activity is released gases, acids and other chemical compounds. The lion's share of micro-organisms remain in the product and less into the environment.
With spoiled food in the body may enter dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter, E. coli, Listeria and Toxoplasma
From some odors caused by bacteria, to get rid of problematic. And stores where microorganisms have time to build a whole "megacities", it is not recommended to use. It is better to forget about the money spent on food and not to neglect health.
The bacteria are found in any food product. 100% get rid of them - is unrealistic. However, refrigeration reduces the intensity or even suspend their livelihoods.
As a result, increases shelf life and practically does not decrease the nutritional value of provisions. Consumers save money, cherish health and enjoy your favorite dishes.
Low temperature inhibits bacterial reproduction processes products on the surface and inside them, as a result significantly extended shelf life, practically does not deteriorate the quality, not lost nutritious and healthy properties
Cooling in the main chamber
In most cases, the product packaging contains information about what the optimal temperature should be in the refrigerator to preserve its nutritional value.
To select the correct shelf, you can use the instructions for the equipment - manufacturers indicate operating temperature of a particular unit, which may differ significantly for different models.
For example, it is important for Samsung and Atlant refrigerators. The average temperature of the refrigerating compartment is in the range 2 ° C 5 ° C ...
Manufacturers of refrigeration units in the attached instructions to the product clearly identifies areas for storing a variety of products tailored to their specific qualities
Areas for product placement
Refrigeration chamber equipped with multiple shelves, the side branches 1-2 and vegetable boxes. Sometimes there is another tank - freshness camera.
The latter has the lowest temperature in the tank and is used for storage of food supplies, which quickly deteriorates.
Do not forget about the simple but effective rules of use of the refrigerator:
- Do not place hot food.
- It should tightly close the door.
- In the cooling chamber to place the products in accordance with the storage areas.
Each zone of the refrigerating compartment has the same temperature. This is incorrect, because some products the optimal index is close to zero, while the other "freezing" at 7 ° C.
Cooling chamber, in turn, can be divided into several zones differing in temperature indicators, which should be considered when installed in equipment products
Vegetables and fruits stored at 3 ° C... 7 ° C. They are placed in special boxes on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. Some current models are complemented No Frost system.
Seafood, meat, sausage, milk, cheese belong to the group of goods that are perishable. Their environment is very favorable for the rapid growth of bacteria. Preferred storage mode - 0 ° C... 2 ° C.
The refrigerator can not store bread, tropical fruit in the freezer - apples, pears, onions, garlic, beets, carrots, potatoes, and many other food products
If the refrigerator is equipped with a camera of freshness, it is better to use it. There is not - then place the food on the top shelf. Here it is advisable to place and alcoholic beverages.
You also can not keep for a long time, and other dairy products. To them are optimal temperature 0 ° C... 6 ° C, which corresponds to the second or third shelf. Given the large range, please see the package storage conditions. At 0 ° C... 3 ° C should be stored semi-finished products that are going to soon be prepared and cakes.
For chicken eggs, cream or salad with mayonnaise, bread, soups optimum temperature - 3 ° C... 6 ° C. It is the middle part of the cooling chamber, typically the third shelf.
The lower compartment intended for storing food at a temperature of 6 ° C... 10 ° C, is optimal for pickles. The special boxes, place the vegetables and fruits.
If you are cooking, use products that are already in the refrigerator. You can significantly save and literally throwing money away
Branches on the door - of the refrigerator with the highest temperature. Here are stored various sauces and juices.
Freezer can be placed at the top or bottom of the unit. But in any case the important rule: the farther from the freezer, the warmer.
Each food product has a special approach to storage. Consumers are afraid or do not know that they can change the temperature settings. Conscientious seller take an interest in what is most often will be in the fridge and make the necessary adjustments.
the latest generation refrigerators are easily adjusted to the required temperature. Setting can execute the seller at the request of the buyer and the recommendations or the owner of equipment
However, with a special panel can and should be independently set temperature, if meat, salads and other products do not fit in the respective zones. Then you pay less for electricity and will be able to acquire more goodies.
Storing food in the freezer
The refrigerator compartment - addressing short-term food storage. Today - put, tomorrow or the day after - taken. Sometimes you need to keep the freshness of the product is not for a few days, but in a couple of weeks.
Device freezer department
Q freshness solved by a freezer. It is - an integral part of almost any appliance. May have a different volume from 40 to 100 liters. and more. Manufacturers offer specific options and a few hundred liters.
Ordinary plastic bags and food film is not suitable as a package for storage in the freezer. They will crumble and break from the cold. We need a tight polyethylene
Most often in this department store seafood, meat, vegetables and fruits. He is also a haven for saving in the terrible heat of ice cream.
The average temperature in boxes / compartments of the refrigerator freezer is in the range -17 ° C... -18 ° C. Depending on the filling characteristics of the product changes:
- if a large part of the chamber is free, then -14 ° C;
- meat during storage or when the freezer for more than 50% - is -20 ° C... -24 ° C;
- rapid freezing mode is relevant for several hours - Temperature -30 ° C.
Freezer equipped with special drawers or shelves. The first available if the cold compartment stir into the bottom of the refrigerator. And the other will have to limit at the upper location.
For convenience of storage in the freezer and the separation of products in portions or batch freezers equipped with shelves or containers
The European approach to freezing
According to European standards, freezers are divided into several classes. Thanks to the latest, there are different temperature regimes. Such approach allows to save energy, reduce the level of wear of the refrigerator and prevent deterioration of product quality.
If you freeze some foods, they become unfit for consumption. For example, the recommended storage temperature mayonnaise - 0 ° C... + 18 ° C. Feel free to put it on any shelf or side compartment of the refrigerator.
It is advisable to defrost the freezer 1-2 times a year to ensure its normal operating conditions. If the room is an elevated level of moisture - can be and more
margarine storage conditions are quite different. At a temperature of 11 ° C... + 15 ° C it is edible 30-15 days at 5 ° C... + 10 ° C -. 20-45 days at 0 ° C... + 4 ° C - 60-35 days at -9 ° C... 0 -75-45 ° C day at -10 ° C... -20 ° C - 60-90 days.
Margarine in the freezer compartment is suitable up to 6 times longer than in the refrigerator. If you have purchased a lot of this product, keep it at low temperatures.
European laboratories conducted a similar analysis, taking into account the dozens of other products. They have created a universal notation for ordinary consumers.
On-temperature control panels, manufactured in accordance with European standards of cold rooms, you will find the following symbols:
- no stars - a few degrees below zero Celsius;
- 1 asterisk - -6 ° C;
- 2 sprockets - -12 ° C;
- 3 sprocket - -18 ° C;
- 4 stars - too -18 ° C, but for another group of devices.
The lower temperature component in a freezer compartment of a refrigerator, the more power it consumes. The cost of devices with such adjustment somewhat higher. But the panel can reduce energy costs.
Control panel assemblies produced in recent years allows to select the temperature conditions required for the storage of specific products. If high performance is not required, reducing the temperature will ensure energy savings
Terms of storage of meat
Of course, buying margarine in reserve - a dubious savings. And even if you messed up one or two product packs - small problem. But to buy a few kilograms of meat for 2-3 weeks before the New Year - the ability to avoid becoming a victim of pre-holiday price hikes.
The dependence of the duration of storage of meat from the next temperature.
- Fresh meat at -14 ° C... -18 ° C - 5-6 months.
- Fresh meat at -8 ° C... -12 ° C - Week.
- Meat products at -18 ° C... -22 ° C - 3 months.
It seems that the difference of a few degrees Celsius - not so much. However, the shelf life can change once in several times. Therefore there is a choice: pay a little more for electricity, or, in the case of insufficient low temperature, throw away the meat.
Do not eat meals prepared from meat that has been stored properly. As a result of food poisoning can hurt the kidneys, lungs, spleen and vascular system
From school physics lessons well known that thermal insulation is ensured by the flow of energy. But potential is formed as a result of temperature changes. Therefore, in parallel with the "cooling" in the freezer rising energy costs.
Features storage of eggs
With a decrease in temperature in the freezer and increase the shelf life of most foods. But there are exceptions.
For example, chicken eggs for a long time does not deteriorate under the influence of low negative temperatures. At 0 ° C... -2 ° C in the freezer, they will be useful to 3 months. A good way to forget about the rotten eggs, is not it?
What will happen if the temperature will drop at least another ° C to -3... -5 ° C? Embryo perishes even at -4 ° C. As a result, decrease the density of the yolk and protein. Since the coefficient of thermal embossing liquids more than solids, shells burst.
The people accepted that the eggs do not spoil 2-3 weeks at room temperature. But it is necessary to take into account the norms of GOST 51121. The paper notes that for 0 ° C... + 20 ° C should be stored:
- dietetic eggs - a week;
- table eggs - 25 days;
- washed eggs - 12 days.
The aforementioned normative document clearly indicating the dates, but given a sufficiently large temperature range. Therefore, people are more right than not. Humidity of about 45% and the temperature to 20 ° C - good storage conditions. However, the freezer a few degrees below zero - the best option.
Food in the freezer should lie loosely to allow air to circulate. Otherwise, the device will cool problematic
Correct approach to fish
Fish is much more useful than meat. It is rich in valuable protein to an organism, constituting as much as 20% by weight. It contains fatty acids that prevent heart disease and problems with blood vessels, vitamins A, D and E, responsible for cell growth, strong bones and muscles. If stored properly fish flesh does not lose most nutrients.
According to GOST 1168, the Far Eastern salmon, perch, carp, whitefish, perch, pike, catfish and other representatives of the freshwater stored at -18 ° C up to 6 months. But cod, sea bass and other inhabitants of the seas and oceans at the same temperature - up to 4 months. If the freezer compartment is less than 10 ° C, duration of storage is divided into two.
For efficient cooling fish products and meat mark Samsung refrigerator, for example, equipped with Fresh Zone - freshness zone ensuring optimum storage of fresh fish
To cure the poison was not ...
Medicines for appliance manufacturers have come up with special refrigerators. Recent very accurate regulation, the presence of light or audible messages in the event of deviations from the optimal temperature range and special modes.
Such devices are more expensive than normal domestic counterparts. However, when at stake is the question of life, can not be choosers.
In the freezer the maximum negative temperature should not fall below -30 ° C, although the new models this indicator the user can control
When purchasing a refrigerator for medication pay attention to compliance with the temperature modes of operation types of medicines to be stored. Such models are protected against hacking. In fact, except for the basic operation of the refrigerator serves another function and safe.
In most cases, a lower temperature has a positive effect on the duration of storage. However, if the eggs is the best indicator of a few degrees below zero, it is necessary to put mayonnaise in the refrigerator compartment only.
In the domestic market are mainly of the freezer to the operating temperature at -18 ° C... -24 ° C. Manufacturers are willing to save, denying the possibility of the customer to adjust the temperature.
However, when viewed in the long term, it is better now to purchase the freezer control panel to tomorrow to save on electricity
Equipment advantage zoning
Modern refrigerators are manufactured according to the zonal principle. All countries or some of their territory classified in accordance with the peculiarities of the climate.
For example, for a group of Scandinavian countries are relevant model with slightly less insulation values. Several deformed and compressor. And for the hot tropical countries need more powerful and resistant to wear the device.
It is logical that if the average temperature in the room a few degrees above the fridge will work harder. Therefore, the device model for hot countries is worth more than the equivalent for the Scandinavians.
Follow the rules of operation of the refrigerator. will not be at their violation actual value equal to the nominal temperature at the selected operating mode
compressor often operates almost without a break in the tropical countries. However, under such conditions, it is problematic to provide a temperature corresponding to the selected mode. Which is not surprising when warm conditioned air with a temperature of 40 ° C heats the device on all sides.
Refrigerators for tropical countries are slightly more expensive than analogues for cold. They are difficult to find in our market, but they look more convincing the majority of specifications.
Two main functions of temperature
Fierce competition is forcing manufacturers of household appliances to invent ever new ways to attract the attention of buyers.
Marketing moves they are no longer limited, and introducing interesting technological innovations in the work of the refrigerating and freezing chambers. As a result, consumers are getting interesting possibilities.
"Supercooling" option allows for a short period of time to lower the temperature in all zones of the refrigerating compartment to a low of 1 ° C... 2 ° C. You can quickly chill foods from several packages.
Take in the refrigerator shelf for products with expiring. So you'll know what to cook in the first place
Freezer relevant "Superzamorozki" mode. The temperature is lowered to -24 ° C. It is possible for several tens of minutes to freeze products overflowing chamber.
Do not forget to set the equipment in normal operation, to not to waste electricity and store supplies at an optimum temperature.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
What is not recommended exposed to low temperatures. About this video:
The basic rules of storing provisions discussed in the video:
How to organize the storage of stocks in the freezer:
Terms of storage of fruits, vegetables and berries:
The shelf life of provisions in the fridge:
Each food has its own characteristics storage. This information can be found in a few seconds on the packaging or, in the absence thereof, on the internet.
Do not forget to place the food in the respective zones of the refrigerating chamber. Temperature settings allow you to create optimal storage conditions, in vain do not wear the device and do not pay for electricity.