often the owners of private houses on their own accounts to equip the local sewage treatment plant on the site. Cheaper and easier to carry out the installation of manholes in the form of a conventional sump or sealed storage. Properly arranged a cleaning or storage point perfectly cope with the task. Do you agree?
Here you will find out what materials are used in the construction of sewage treatment facilities and storage for independent sanitation. We described in detail the technology of construction of typical manholes. Taking into account our recommendations will be easier to decide on the best option for the price and the expenditure of energy.
The content of the article:
- Place a sump in the sewer system
The requirements for such a device structures
- From what we can build a cesspit?
- The choice of the location and volume of the reservoir
installation and assembly rules
- Option # 1: construction of concrete rings
- Option # 2: Drain pit of tires
- Option # 3: Design of plastic
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Place a sump in the sewer system
Often a centralized sewerage system in the private sector with low-rise buildings is simply absent. And from the need to dispose of household waste, do not pour them on the ground. For this purpose, constructing an autonomous sewer system comprising an inner and an outer portion.
Intra collects sewage effluents from plumbing fixtures, and its outer part is intended for disposal or storage for subsequent pumping scavengers. The receiving wastewater storage well Outdoor is the endpoint export local purification system.
If obscheposelkovoy sewerage network does not, in principle, that without sump or drive to a private house near the sewage can not do
Sewage effluents in sewage well clarified, resulting in a partially purified water and slurry. In the case of a cesspool first drained into the ground, and the second biodegradable state to secure the sludge from the biological point of view.
If you select a drive, then a sewage collected in a sealed container, as well as its content is pumped out with the involvement of assenizatorskaya machine.
Of course, you can set a full septic tank with several cleaning chambers, but it costs a lot. For a small cottage or summer house, where the family lives in a three or four people, would be enough storage tank or raking a few hundred liters of volume. Drains are not many, such a system will deal with disposal of sewage without any problems.
Drainage wells are sunk into the ground tank, performs a number of important functions. For this purpose, as the details of the factory production and the means at hand
Septic - sewer installations for the collection and purification of effluents with a view to subsequent utilization, include one to three wells
Cumulative wells designed to collect wastewater for subsequent export, constructed of plastic containers, sealed concrete or brick pits with the bottom
For cleaning and recycling of gray waste water coming from the bathrooms, showers, swimming pools, kitchens, arrange absorption wells. They have no bottom, instead it is arranged precoat filter for cleaning the liquid component of the waste mass
In suburban areas heavily used budget sewerage scheme of the device with drain holes of the old tires. They will be able to replace metal or plastic barrels
When the filtering device, or absorption well in sandy loam soils have low filtration properties, the two lower rings constructed of perforated rings to increase the area absorption
Fully assemble drains with all kinds of wells can be of plastic parts, specially produced for such tasks
Traditionally sewage system construction applied concrete rings suitable for the drainage device, audit, collecting wells, septic tanks and drain wells
Polymer sand elements for wells device
The device of multi-chamber septic tank rings
Cumulative cesspit from the barrel
Absorption well for gray wastewater
Cesspit of b / y tires
Filter well of perforated concrete rings
Assembling the pit of plastic parts
The traditional use of concrete rings
Fermentation and clarification of wastewater can be done in one or several series connected reservoirs. However, in the second case, the work for installing manholes become much more complicated.
Easier to arrange a structure from wells, and to accelerate the purification process to pour it in a chemical or biological reagents.
Most often on the local portion of the home owners of private houses do cesspool. But if the groundwater level is high, then the option of raking is not appropriate, it is necessary to install a holding tank. The volume of her selected large enough to reduce the number of scavengers calls.
Decomposition of the biological component in the sewer of sewage raking occurs by anaerobic microbes. They are not required for the life of makeup oxygen, so installing additional aerobic plants well is not required. The whole cleaning system turns volatile, requiring no electrical connections.
All the processes of decay inside the manhole occur naturally, due to living in the soil bacteria. In this respect they are quite successful, but "work" anaerobes slowly. Therefore, to speed up the processes in the pit occasionally add bioaktivatory.
The distance between the raking bottom draining layer and groundwater should not be less than a meter, otherwise purified water will have nowhere to go
The requirements for such a device structures
All sewage should be mounted on a predetermined plan, which specifies layout of all elements of the system and used building materials. The outer part in this case consists of escaping from the house sewage pipes and treatment plants.
It is governed by the design and installation of manholes in the following regulations:
- SP 55.13330.2016 'houses single family... ";
- SP 32.13330.2012 "Sewerage. External networks... ".
If you do not comply with specified requirements, the sewage system after assembly can be simply unworkable.
When choosing a place on the site do not forget about the need to leave free access to it, even draining cesspool from time to time for cleaning the construction should be cleaned of accumulated silt
Structurally, the cesspit comprises:
- neck with a cover or hatch;
- shaft in the middle portion (operating chamber);
- bottom (or draining sealed depending on the chosen embodiment for mounting).
Even this design, the same type of elements can vary greatly in size and shape. Much depends on the manufacturer and the design features of the treatment plant material, as well as the volume of the reservoir.
From what we can build a cesspit?
Achieved manhole construction can be of a variety of building materials.
When choosing the optimal variant should be considered:
- Climatic conditions (the maximum potential and the average temperature, the total value of rain water and snow).
- soil characteristics (depth of freezing, the composition and GWL).
- Parcel relief.
If the soil is strongly distending, the sewage well to be made of the most durable materials. For wet soils is necessary to select the most waterproof version.
The most inexpensive and quick to assemble a structure made of concrete rings, however, need to order the crane to install them in the excavated pit
cesspit can be easily done by hand from:
- brick and stone;
- in-situ concrete;
- w / w of the Rings;
- finished plastic constructions
- old tires.
Cheaper total cost for self-assembly brick drain pit or septic tank, assembled from the factory or self-made concrete rings.
But in the first case it is necessary to tinker with a clutch, and the second will be necessary lifting equipment. manually lower the heavy concrete products in the pit is not recommended at failure and the strong impact they may collapse.
Of bricks will make only cesspit drainage, to ensure complete sealing of the brick walls is extremely difficult and expensive
Monolithic concrete formwork arrangement option would require and preparation of the solution. If the final order is already in the kneaded in a mixer, it will lead to a serious rise in the cost of works.
Constructions of plastic (polyethylene or PVC), fiberglass and polimerpeska are quite expensive. But they are extremely durable and easy to install by hand. Weigh such products a bit, enough for their man pair installation.
Of used tires will come very cheap cesspit. They stand in shinomontazhke penny, but you can gather up a few tires at the dump for free. But here is the same problem as in the case of brick.
Tight structure is extremely difficult to do, and it is practically impossible to repair. absorbing well arrange of them as possible, but the drive is not.
The use of polymer products in the construction of the sewer system greatly simplifies and speeds up installation
For the construction of sewage systems of all types and sizes produce a wide range of modular elements, of which on the ground in a matter of hours is linked network
Of plastic parts arrange pipes and manholes and storm drainage systems
Plastic parts used in the construction of sewers, which discharge wastewater into the sewers and then to the wastewater treatment plant
For assembly and inspection of the collector wells produce stable bottom part with the required number of inputs and outputs
For mine devices from polymeric tubing cut the required length of the item, it is attached fixed in the bottom of the trench
To the upper edge of the shaft is attached neck to the top of which is attached hatch needed to serve both the item and the entire system
The mine shallow inspection chambers, which the service does not require immersion into the hatch is installed without the use of neck
Entering the sewer pipes in the well
Assembling the sewer of modular elements
Inspection of drainage well
Sewage system floatable item
Plastic bottom for the construction of wells
shaft device in the trench
The neck of a large sewage pit
Cover small inspection chambers
All about choosing a storage tank manhole device independent sewer you learn from Article provided by us.
The choice of the location and volume of the reservoir
When mounting the manhole should observe a number of sanitary and building requirements. If this is not done, it increases the risk of biological contamination. The situation can be brought to infection outbreaks that threatened the owner of the cottage serious problems.
Installation of manhole should be done away from:
- fruit trees and beds to 3 m;
- foundations of buildings on the plot of 4-5 m;
- roads, underground utilities (gas, water, electricity) is 5 m;
- wells for drinking water and water to 30 m.
A slight deviation from these figures is only possible when mounting a sealed storage container or device sump with powerful concrete walls with outer reliable waterproofing.
In the case of a well water absorbency, held multilayer filter of sand and gravel, should fall within the underlying layers of soil away from buildings, communications, drinking water wells, all types of water bodies and private pools.
Observe the distance should be not to change the composition of the groundwater for the worse, do not pollute the water bodies In case of insufficient cleaning and flush out the underlying foundation of his building designs and engineering services.
However, if the well structure for sewer drains away too far from home, in the pipeline between the two will have to arrange inspection (revision) wells every 10-15 meters, which will lead to considerable additional spending. But this will have to do, or when clogged pipes will have to open the ground to clean it corny.
Cesspit must be away from the house foundation, roads and drinking water sources, otherwise there may be damage to sewerage or outbreaks of infectious diseases
The volume of drainage manhole SNIP recommended to select a rate of 600 liters for each person living in the house constantly person (daily 200 liters of waste multiplied by three days). With such capacity raked will have time to clarify the water and soil to take purified water.
With the storage capacity is somewhat different. It should be large enough to call between scavengers was a gap in a couple of months. However, to make the installation too capacious reservoir is not worth.
The optimal variant will be slightly greater than the 3.5 or 5 cu. Effluent from the barrel is completely filled with a similar capacity assenizatorskaya car. Then we have to pay for the call, not the cubic capacity.
installation and assembly rules
When the device manhole constructions for outdoor sewerage necessary:
- Dig a pit with dimensions of width 30-40 cm wider than the chosen design.
- Compacted at the bottom of the pit of sand and gravel bed of 15-20 cm.
- Assemble the elements well.
- Lay and connect the drain line from the house.
- Run interface leak check.
- Install the vent stack.
- Backfill the trench and the insulation.
external sewage pipe It can be plastic, cast iron, ceramic, or asbestos. It should be laid at a slight incline to the well. Drains should drain by gravity into it seamlessly. And the smaller the pipe will have bends in the horizontal plane, the better.
Mounting sewer pipes of 110 mm diameter recommended sloping towards a well in 20 mm / per meter, while section 160 mm - 8 mm / meter
Tubular articles made of iron and asbestos have rough walls, their inclination must be slightly increased. In general, correctly calculate the right diameter and slope of pipes stacked in a state of only highly competent engineer.
It is necessary to take into account the pipe material, the volume of effluents and their speed. It is best to develop the project the entire sewer system to trust the professionals, then the installation is already possible to make your own hands.
Installation of manhole should be carried out so that the lid rises above the earth at 15-30 cm. When the rain and flood water under any circumstances, should not fall into the tank from the outside. This immediately lead to its overflow and damage.
As warming in warm regions lacking in the soil two feet thick over the main well casing and the lid of a small layer of insulation. In the northern areas it is not enough, will have to cover all engineering construction foam. He is not afraid of moisture and frost.
Option # 1: construction of concrete rings
Cesspit of concrete rings easy to install and unpretentious in operation. It is necessary to carefully perform a sealing seams between the rings by means of concrete mortar, and cover wall of the housing outside daubing based on bitumen.
Of large-sized concrete rings are building mostly pits, chambers of prefabricated septic tanks, of small diameter rings - Inspection and corner points
Before diving into the ground with aggressive towards concrete composition of the ring should be treated with mastic asphalt
The pit rings are installed in series. Installation of controlled building level. the shaft elements are joined at the edge-treated sealant and metal straps fasten
Above the shaft a concrete pit closed circular plate with a hole for the smaller diameter of the ring to which subsequently is fastened with the cover of the hatch ring
Excavation under concrete pit equipment
Handling concrete walls mastic asphalt
Installation principle, the well of concrete rings
Making concrete pit mouth
The main installation - constitute a ring on each other smoothly without offsets. Otherwise, in the walls of holes are formed, which are hermetically closed will not succeed. Pit for raking can dig right into the full depth and then get down to the ring.
A possible embodiment of the installation of one of the first concrete products and production gradually digging under it, finding formed inside the shaft.
Depth manhole determined by the amount of concrete rings and additional elements neck having standardized dimensions of 0.7 to 2 meters
When the device for forming the well of wash drain layer inside the gravel bed is poured about half of crushed granite. You can take a limestone (dolomite) rock, but it will serve no more than 20 years and can lead to salinization of soils. Gravel should be of medium size of a few centimeters. Finer fractions SPRESSO simply ceasing to drain water.
Option # 2: Drain pit of tires
Automobile tire rubber does not corrode, not crack in the cold and do not break when heaving soils. They produce a great sinkhole. But before of tires do cesspit you should seriously consider.
A cesspool of waste tires is cheap and easy to assemble, but leaky and completely unsuitable for repair
If at least one of the tires worn out, will have to dig out the construction of the well and to shift again. Replace or in any way it can not be repaired.
Plus, ensure the integrity of the seams between the tires is impossible. You can apply different sealants, but due to the thermal expansion of rubber is still little will "breathe" during the year, breaking the sealing layer.
Such Kolodeznaya design suitable as a sewer for a small house for one or two people or a problem with a non-regular visits. But if you want to clean the effluent produced by a large family, it is necessary to choose the construction of performance and greater capacity.
Option # 3: Design of plastic
The easiest way to install plastic containers factory performance. Price they have higher than that of concrete counterpart. But how many will be able to save time and effort in the installation of the manhole by hand. Due to the low weight of the crane does not need a structure, lower it into the pit can be together.
Putting tubes in a plastic well through already cut holes in the factory by means of a rubber sleeve, installation is quick and easy
Manholes made of plastic are available in different sizes and heights. You can always find an option under the desired volume. The housing is better to choose with ribs and fixings for concrete "anchor" underneath.
If plastic wells not fasten securely on the bottom of the excavation on a concrete base, he is under heave and floods can be squeezed out of the ground. design facilitates ease of installation, but it leads to problems with the "ascent".
If mounted sealed option, zero problems. It will be necessary only to fill the pit at the bottom slab of concrete of 15-20 cm thick, laying in a solution the iron hooks for mounting the housing.
But when installing drainage wells at the site of the bottom have to tinker. You will need to make a reliable heavy base, which does not block access to the water-drained soil. You have to set down the final assembly pour concrete ring or something like that with his own hands.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video # 1. How to make a cesspool of tires on their own:
Video # 2. Stages of construction of sewage wells concrete rings:
Video # 3. How to perform the bonding of the concrete manhole rings:
Make their own cesspit can be of different materials with a minimum of the effort and money spent. Difficulties are not here, the main thing correctly project the entire sewerage system and choose wisely for its external component space on the site.
Top waste reservoir may be removable mask flowerbed or artificial boulder.
Tell us how you organized cesspit on their own summer cottage. Please write comments in the box located below. Share your impressions, photos step by step construction process, ask questions.