greenhouse drip irrigation system maintenance.
greenhouse irrigation system maintenance. The main task for gardeners is to provide the soil with an optimal amount of water. Not only the quality of the crop, but also the viability of the plants, the complexity of the irrigation itself and others depend on the solution of this task.
In our article we will tell about the varieties of automatic irrigation in the greenhouse, about the pros and cons of a particular type of irrigation. Provide advice and recommendations on the selection and installation of irrigation systems for the greenhouse.
The automatic watering system is a set of specialized equipment with the help of which high-quality water is supplied to a specific area of the greenhouse or greenhouse. This type of watering is considered multifunctional, rational, most modern and suitable for each individual plant.
Basic principles of designing and arranging the irrigation system of the greenhouse
When drawing up a plan for the future of automatic irrigation in the greenhouse, landscape features and the area of the greenhouse are taken into account - a visual assessment of the agro-site, taking into account the topography of the area, the map of the adjacent territory, if desired, you can use a dendroplan.
It is quite possible to do watering yourself in a greenhouse with your own hands, but you need to keep in mind the following nuances:
- choose control type automatic irrigation systems - manual, distance( remote) or fully automated;
- size of the watered plot a - full water irrigation or partial;
- cost - thorough watering of all growing crops, a specific section of the greenhouse or selective irrigation with water, with a well-regulated automatic irrigation program and depending on the number of sprinklers;
- selection of the type of moisture supply - drip, underground( complex) or sprinkling.
Greenhouse irrigation options
Today there are three leading irrigation systems for the greenhouse: rain, drip, and subsurface .These systems are united by the fact that the watering in the greenhouse is automatic. After all, you can still traditionally water the plants with the help of hand watering cans.
Auto-irrigation of the greenhouse by sprinkling method
Rain type irrigation - the simplest and most popular of those used in greenhouses. The entire system is located at the top of the greenhouse and consists of a small number of sprayer supply pipes, and simulates rain droplets. Also such sprinklers can be at the level of the soil.
Sprayers are stationary, stably fixed, and pivoting around its axis. The latter have a more complex structure and evenly distribute water throughout the territory.
The advantages of such a system include the fact that watering is carried out by one sprinkler and covers a large area.
The disadvantages of sprinkling include:
- the possibility of waterlogging in the greenhouse;
- water droplets on crop leaves may cause sunburn;
- is too laborious process - after watering is finished, you need to shake off the drops from all bushes;
- for the operation of a developed system, a strong water pressure is needed - you have to spend money on expensive material and make the correct installation;
- inefficient waste of water - a certain proportion evaporates and does not feed the root system of the flora;
- using such rain irrigation to fertilize the ground is not possible.
Aerosol type of automatic watering in the greenhouse( drencher)
A variant of the irrigation system of irrigation - drencher irrigation, using a powerful motor. Water passes through the pipes and rushes inwards through small-diameter nozzles with sprinklers.
For mounting foggy automatic irrigation in a greenhouse, drencher sprinklers that are used in automatic fire extinguishing devices usually set in motion.
Aerosol type of irrigation in the greenhouse has with a narrow focus - for growing tropical plants that love wet rain "weather", for example, orchids. Such a system can be used when forcing seedlings in the soil.
The main advantages of drencher irrigation:
- during irrigation the temperature of the plants decreases and the room cools;
- is air exchange( aeration) of the soil, when watering does not form the crust( solid "peel");
- impressive reduction in water consumption;
- uniform water distribution over the greenhouse or greenhouse;
- , if it is necessary to disinfect grown plants and the room itself, thanks to the drencher nozzles, this process occurs quickly and thoroughly.
Intra-soil automatic irrigation system of the greenhouse
Underground irrigation system is considered the most effective and at the same time time consuming in the installation of automatic irrigation, and forces the personal participation of the gardener.
How to make watering in the greenhouse yourself? It is not difficult. First of all, the gardener will have to make grooves in the ground and constantly control this process. It is also given the opportunity to combine watering with fertilizing plants with various fertilizers.
The advantages of underground irrigation include:
- soil is enriched with air microbubbles( aeration);
- economical water consumption;
- provides a constant level of moisture in the greenhouse, which has a beneficial effect on plant health and protects them from putrefactive diseases.
Intra-soil simplified irrigation for the greenhouse. Usually, hybrid methods of installation are used for these purposes - an ideal and less expensive option with the use of plastic containers, plastic canisters, or cuttings of perforated pipes are taken. Tanks are immersed in the soil up to the neck.
It is clear that waste in this case will be minimal. This method of watering is considered the cheapest and requires minimal costs for plastic bottles. Simplified subsurface irrigation is not entirely automatic — a gardener will still have to periodically fill water tanks dug into the ground.
. Greenhouse drip irrigation system.
. Drip irrigation is by far the most efficient, affordable, profitable and progressive method of irrigation.
Through the main pipeline from the source, water is supplied to special tapes and droppers, thanks to which it enters the soil “targeted”, directly to the roots of vegetation. Maximum moisture saturation occurs. Due to the fact that there is an increased amount of water in the ground, plants do not need to be afraid of sudden frosts.
Drip irrigation in the greenhouse with your own hands is quite possible. All hoses with the help of which the water supply is carried out are placed on the ground surface or inside it. A distinctive feature of drip irrigation is that the portion of water supplied to the plants is small and is supplied with a gentle water pressure.
Drip irrigation in a greenhouse has many advantages:
- increases yield;
- the soil is not over-wetted, there is no dampness, solid crusts are not formed, it is not necessary to perform aeration and loosen the ground all the time;
- easy and simple fertilizing with fertilizers - their uniform delivery to all green crops;
- no conditions for the growth of weeds - easier maintenance of the territory;
- does not need a large water pressure;
- thrifty water consumption - saves about 30% of water in comparison with traditional irrigation.
It is necessary to list the disadvantages of drip irrigation:
- the complexity of the irrigation system;
- is quite expensive;
- need to carefully monitor the purity of the water and prevent contamination of droplet tapes.
Drip irrigation of the greenhouse with their own hands( installation from handy tools)
Device drip irrigation system
Installation of drip irrigation can be done without special skills. For this process, you will need such consumables:
- Hoses. The optimum thickness of the product - 8 mm. This length is sufficient for irrigation at a distance of 25 meters from the junction;
- A variety of fittings. These include - angles, plugs, tees, crosses. All of these elements have cones at the connections, and they easily interlock with polymer hoses without the use of special construction tools. Such compounds withstand a water pressure of 3 atm;
- Devices that reduce pressure: anti-drain valve, minicrane, gearboxes. Reduce the pressure of the flow of water in the pipes about 2 meters 1.4 atm. Typically, such devices are used to smooth the pressure and uniform water distribution in an automatic system;
- Tips. Part required for the supply of moisture from the main hydraulic hoses directly to the rhizomes of plants. The tips are divided into simple and labyrinth. The first ones are adapted for irrigation of one node, and the second - evenly direct moisture to several points( about 3-5).
The following tools should be acquired:
- pneumatic punch;
- set of keys;
- pipe cutters;
- plastic shears.
The installation stages of the irrigation system for the greenhouse:
- laying a trench for the future pipeline;
- directly pipeline installation;
- installation of additional special equipment depending on the type of irrigation - droppers and ribbons, sprayers, automatic taps;
- connection parts of the system of automatic irrigation and automation;
- installation of a pressure hydraulic unit of automatic watering in the greenhouse;
- at the end of the installation, a test of the irrigation system is carried out.
The main components and description of the operation of the automatic watering system in the greenhouse:
- Source, namely, well, well, reservoir, water supply. Watering with too cold water can cause overcooling of plants, a kind of “stress” that will negatively affect the overall development of the flora and, accordingly, the yield. Therefore, the temperature of the supplied water must be the same as the air temperature;
- Pump. Element that creates the necessary pressure in the system. Required if the water source is a tank, a well, a reservoir. Plumbing requires a pressure reducer, sincemost often it is inconstant and unsafe for pipes, droppers and tapes;
- Filter. Mandatory input to the irrigation system, independent of the selected water source. In the absence of a filter, the system will immediately fail and require thorough cleaning;
- Solenoid valve. Recognizes the electrical signal and creates pressure on the desired irrigation line, i.e.opens and closes the flow of water into the system;
- Controller or timer. Performs an important “smart” function in managing the entire system — it sends warning signals to the solenoid valves, “talking” about the need to turn on the water supply and controlling the irrigation process. After irrigation, the controller automatically shuts down. If necessary, it can be equipped with a variety of sensors;
- Sprayer. With the help of sprinklers or filters full moisture irrigation takes place not only of vegetation, but also of the whole land plot;
- Distribution Highway. This refers to the pipeline that supplies water to the nozzles or tapes drip. Often, the pipes are made of metal, PVC, steel.
Features of the installation of drip irrigation in the greenhouse:
- right in the greenhouse is a project of the location of all the tubes and droppers;
- determines the place of connection to the selected source of moisture - it marks where the watering barrel of the greenhouse should be located;
- visually assesses the remaining free area for the installation of other necessary equipment - a controller and a timer, as well as a filter;
- calculates the required number of rows, chains of droppers and tubes;
- installation plan is transferred to a paper sheet, where all dimensions are necessarily written;
- in the workshop, which has optimal conditions, the cutting is done according to the size, as well as the mounting of basic parts of the whole structure;
- is installed and connected directly in the greenhouse.
What else you need to know about the arrangement of the drip irrigation system for the greenhouse
Drop irrigation for the greenhouse from the barrel is done this way: on the territory of the agro-site, the tank filled with water rises above the ground surface at a distance of 1.5-2 meters. Mounted barrel with a horizontal strong support. At will, it is possible to connect the central highway or to fill capacity with water in the manual way. Some craftsmen organize the collection of water from the surface of the roofs of nearby houses, buildings.
It is imperative to install a filter that will provide fine water purification.
When determining the location of the barrel should be aware that direct sunlight adversely affects the water, can cause its flowering and rapid heating. During the day the water will heat up, and at night the plants will receive soft irrigation with warm moisture.
Installation of a tap or water pipe is done in the lower part of the tank, using a special hole. For water it is better to buy light opaque plastic pipes with sealed walls. They are resistant to corrosion, easily and simply connect to tees and a variety of connectors.
Laying trunk pipes is carried out in three basic ways:
- burying in the ground;
- mount on poles;
- directly onto the soil.
The first test start of the irrigation system is of great importance - is tested for tightness of pipes and connections, the necessary pressure is established for an even, high-quality water supply. The video watering the greenhouse shows how to do it correctly.
You will appreciate the ability to quickly assemble a structure thanks to detachable connections. Also this useful feature is useful during storage of the system when it is not in use( all hoses are washed and purged).
Irrigation adjustment can also be carried out manually - by opening or closing the water tap. Gardeners sometimes get an electronic timer , which irrigates at a specified time and a certain amount of water. The lifetime of the timer will last if you pre-install an additional filter for cleaning before it.
Drip irrigation for the greenhouse from the barrel can be combined with fertilization. For this, fertilizing is introduced directly into the barrel. Sometimes for these purposes additional capacity is used, which is installed parallel to the catchment barrel and connected to the system.
Maintenance of the greenhouse watering system
- The maintenance of the structure includes two main processes - seasonal storage( preservation) and re-storage.
- In the fall, the system is being prepared for long-term storage - the condition of all mechanisms is checked, pipes are cleaned with special means.
- Cleaning the catchment tank. It is necessary to constantly monitor the purity and quality of the liquid in it, to prevent water stagnation. And periodically perform cleansing.
- Rinsing filters. The purity of the water depends on the condition of the filter. To prevent clogging of filters and ensure a good flow of water, it is necessary to rinse them from time to time.
- Timely cleaning, blowing and subsequent proper conservation of the automatic irrigation system for the greenhouse guarantee a long service life.