- №1.Production technology of sandwich panels
- №2.Type of cladding material
- №3.Type of insulation
- №4.What is the difference between roofing and wall sandwich panels?
- №5.Required parameters of
- sandwich panels №6.Appearance of sandwich panels
The appearance of sandwich panels made it possible to build buildings very quickly. Today, thanks to wall and roofing panels, not only warehouses, pavilions, terminals and other industrial buildings are erected, but also private houses. Such a wide distribution of sandwich panels owes a host of advantages: speed and ease of installation, ease of construction, aesthetics and cost-effective material, excellent heat and sound insulation qualities. The constantly growing demand for material has led to an increase in the range, and today, without preparation, you can only decide on color, and more than 600 shades are presented. But here how to choose a sandwich panel with the desired type of insulation, the appropriate thickness and profile?
Sandwich Panel Production Technology A sandwich panel is a multi-layered material consisting of a layer of insulation covered on both sides with metal or PVC.Its quality depends not only on the raw materials used, but also on the method of production. At the moment, sandwich panels are manufactured in the following ways:
- assembly from individual elements in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, where steel sheets, insulation and glue are brought. The process is convenient, but as a result, panels with not the best performance are obtained;
- foaming method consists in filling the cavity between two sheets of steel with polyurethane foam, which foams under pressure. If the insulation is uneven, but cavities will be formed that break the thermal insulation;
- conveyor method - the most perfect and thorough, it allows you to create a sandwich panels with the best performance. When choosing it is worth paying attention to the products manufactured in this way. There are not so many domestic companies working on this technology, one of these is the Nelidovo Roofing Plant.
№2.Type of facing material
sheets of steel, plastic, gypsum board or ASB-panels can be used as a facing material. Naturally, metal sheets are the strongest, their thickness varies from 0.5 to 0.7 mm, and the performance characteristics largely depend on on the type and thickness of the corrosion-resistant .Usually, steel sheets are zinc-coated , and the thicker the zinc layer, the more durable the panels will be. As an alternative, is coated with ( galvium) aluminum alumina coating, which was specifically designed to protect sandwich panels and is excellent against weathering and sunlight.
is also used as a galfan coating ( an alloy of zinc, aluminum, lanthanum and cerium), which with a smaller thickness surpasses the zinc coating in plasticity and resistance to mechanical damage. Often, panels are also coated with polymer over a layer of protective alloy. Thus, an improvement in resistance to atmospheric phenomena is achieved.
Drywall allows you to get lighter sandwich panels, but you can only use them for the installation of internal partitions. OSB-panels ( oriented strand board) - the basis of SIP-panels, which also includes polystyrene foam insulation. The structural features of OSB-plates allow you to securely hold the fasteners, thereby increasing the strength of the finished structure. Such sandwich panels are used for arranging floors, walls and roofs.
№3.Type of insulation
A layer of insulation can vary in thickness from 5 to 30 cm, and a sandwich panel with a thickness of more than 15 cm is used mainly in arranging cold rooms. As a heater, materials such as can be used:
- mineral wool;
- polyurethane foam.
All of them differ in a certain set of advantages and disadvantages. So, mineral wool does not support combustion and is environmentally friendly, rodents will not live in such insulation. Of the minuses it is worth highlighting the hygroscopicity, so the tightness of the finished structure must be given great attention, because when absorbing moisture, the insulating properties deteriorate. Nevertheless, it is mineral wool that is most often used today by domestic manufacturers in the manufacture of sandwich panels.
Polystyrene is a durable, moisture-proof material with high thermal insulation properties. It is exposed to the negative effects of sunlight, but due to the cladding with steel sheets, this deficiency can be avoided. Polystyrene burns easily, releasing toxic substances, rodents can live in it.
polyurethane foam is in great demand in several European countries, as it has a minimum of drawbacks with a huge number of advantages, for which it is so loved in European countries. Among the advantages of the material is to provide resistance to moisture: even if water leaks to the insulation, it will not cause any negative effects. This type of insulation is very light, which simplifies the transportation of panels, their installation, reduces the load on the foundation. The main advantage is low thermal conductivity, 2 times lower than that of mineral wool, and 1.5 times lower than that of polystyrene. Polyisocyanurate, a type of polyurethane foam, has self-extinguishing properties, and it is today that is increasingly being used as insulation for sandwich panels. In addition, insulation will not become a place for the development of mold and mildew. Among the minuses is to highlight the possibility of damage to rodents.
№4.What is the difference between roofing and wall sandwich panels?
The basic principle of wall and roof sandwich panels is the same, but there are some differences in the design that make it preferable to use one panel for the construction of walls and others for roofing.
The first difference is in the profile of the steel sheet .For the construction of walls are used smooth sheets or profiled under the log, siding, microwaves. Roof panels have a high profile for greater strength and stability so that the roof in winter can cope with the heavy weight of snow. Steel sheets can be profiled on both sides for even greater stability. In addition, for the roof panels used insulation of greater density.
Another difference is the type of lock , which connect the panel. Roof sandwich panels are more complex lock, which is necessary in order to overcome the pressure of the atmosphere and precipitation. Also, roofing panels are distinguished by an even more thick anti-corrosion layer than wall panels.
No. 5.Required parameters of
sandwich panels For the construction of walls, sandwich panels with a width of 1.1 and 1.5 m are used, while the length can vary widely from 2 to 18.5 m so that you can easily and easily build a buildingwith any necessary parameters. The width of roof sandwich panels is usually 1 m, length - from 1 to 16 m. In addition, it is important to remember that when installing roof panels, you should stick to a slope of 7 degrees.
If everything is more or less clear with the length and width, and their choice depends on the building parameters that need to be built, then the selection of the thickness of panels is a more responsible process. This parameter is calculated on the basis of heat engineering calculation: it is laborious, but not the most complex, requires consideration of many factors. The method of calculation is easy to find on the Internet, and even easier - use a special calculator for calculating or seek help from specialists.
When choosing panel thickness, you need to take into account the purpose of the building, the planned internal temperature, the climatic features of the region, , the coefficient of thermal conductivity, etc. For example, if the building is located in the Moscow region, and the temperature inside it is planned at + 180C, then the thickness of the wall panels with mineral wool insulation should be 15 cm, with the expanded polystyrene insulation 12 cm. Under similar conditions, the thickness of the roof sandwich panels withmineral wool insulation will be 25 cm, with foam polystyrene insulation - 18 cm.
When selecting the required thickness, it is also important that take into account the cost of heating the room .So, with a greater thickness of the panels, the cost of heating will be reduced, but construction will cost more, but these expenses will pay off in the first 2-3 heating seasons.
№6.Appearance of sandwich panels
Among the more than 600 shades possible in the manufacture of sandwich panels, everyone can choose the one that best meets their requirements. Moreover, besides the material with a smooth surface, panels with a rough invoice have appeared today, which imitate the surface of wood or stone, and this takes the appearance of buildings constructed in this way to a new level. As for the geometry of the panels, the necessary height and shape of the ridges and other elements will be able to be selected by specialists taking into account the gaps, outlets, undercuts, and abutments of sandwich panels.