- What should I look for?
- Basic stages of electrical work
- Drawing up the scheme of power supply
- Estimation of energy consumption
- How to draw a diagram?
- Corridor and anteroom
- Children's and other rooms
- Determine the height of the sockets
- Required Tools
- Necessary materials
- Repair time
- Shtroblenie walls and fastening podrozetnikov
- Cable laying
- Wire colors
- Plastering works
Replacement of electrical wiring is one of the most difficult stages of repair, which is usually trusted by professionals. Their services are not the cheapest, so if you are very limited in means, then you can try to cope with this task yourself.
What should I look for?
To replace the wiring resort, as a rule, in those cases when the old was laid during the Soviet era and completely outlived itself. Previously, there were completely different standards for such work, so today we need to pay attention to such key points:
- Aluminum wires need to be changed to copper.The fact is that earlier aluminum production was cheap and environmentally friendly, unlike copper. Now everything has changed: getting copper became safe, and over the years of operation it turned out that aluminum was completely unsuitable for wiring. Due to some chemical and physical characteristics after several decades of operation, aluminum in the wires becomes very fragile, and as a result, it can be damaged by the slightest touch. In addition, aluminum is also very afraid of corrosion, so even the smallest droplet of water can greatly weaken the wire and lead to accidents in the end, although the cable will look whole. Aluminum is difficult to solder, and contacts come out unreliable, and similar work is bad for health. This metal is still used for power lines, but the wires are renewed every 20 years and more often, so all the negative sides do not have time to show up. In apartments, however, aluminum is now banned, and copper is used.
- Previously, the TN-C power supply system was used, because it was necessary to quickly provide all with electricity, and resources were limited. Now such a system is prohibited, and is usedmore secure TN-C-S, but still in many high-rise buildings the Soviet system has been preserved, so the problem must be solved independently.
- Wire routing- another hello from the past, and used a similar system all for the same reasons as TN-C. Its essence lies in the fact that other wires were connected to the more powerful cable that entered the apartment, and the branches were in junction boxes. At the same time, each branch made means removed insulation, the presence of twisting or clamping. At the same time, when using wiring, branches of such drawbacks can be avoided, since each separate group has its own single piece of cable in reliable insulation.
Basic stages of electrical work
So, we have identified those problems that should be addressed, and which are solved by replacing the wiring. In order to clearly organize their work, we will outline the main stages of this event:
- drawing up a scheme of electricity supply;
- the development of a wiring system, its reconciliation and registration together with the power supply scheme;
- arrangement of temporary power supply;
- laying of wiring;
- connection of all necessary devices, sockets, switches.
Before starting work, it is advisable to take care of the arrangement of protective earthing to ensure maximum safety.
Now we consider all the above stages of work in more detail.
Drawing up the scheme of power supply
To begin with, you need to inspect the apartment well and understand where the electrical appliances, sockets, switches, etc. Then we think over where the wires will go and what they will be: two-phase, three-phase. In the diagram they are denoted by a crossed line: the number of dashes means the number of phases, the protective wire, as it goes, goes separately and is not crossed out on the diagram. Looking at an example, it's easy to understand the principle of drawing up such schemes and sketch something similar for your apartment.
Example of a power supply scheme
If you do not get a lot of drawing, then your sketches can be given, for example, to a student or a senior electrician who, for a small payment and in a short time, will do the laid drawing. An appeal to a specialist is an expensive pleasure, and there will not be any problems from it, since he will need all the initial data.
Estimation of energy consumption
In order to properly organize electrical wiring and draw the necessary scheme, you must immediately know the amount of electricity in the apartment. If before the limit was, a maximum of 2 kW per apartment, but now with the abundance of modern technology this may not be enough, so boldly lay the value at the level, kW. But even under such conditions, it is not possible to use a washing machine, a boiler and air-conditioning at the same time, but in multifamily houses it is necessary to reconcile with this.
Making a scheme for an average city apartment of 40-100 m², you needtake into account such nuances:
- main automaticchoose at 25-32 A, depending on the area of the apartment;
- residual current device (RCD)provide for 50 A;
- in the kitchen lay two lines of wiring4 mm2 with an automatic device for 25 A and a RCD for 30 A;
- if there is air conditioning, then for him a cable is provided, mm2 with a 16-A machine and a 20-A RCD;
- in each room it is necessary to provide rosette circuits and chains for lighting, in the bathroom and the bathroom can only hold a branch of lighting. The required cross-section of wires is, mm2, automatic is not required here, you can use the general apartment.
Energy supply scheme of the apartment
Such a set of initial data should be enough to make an adequate scheme of electricity supply.
How to draw a diagram?
If you still decided to draw a diagram of energy consumption yourself, then for the basis you can take an example in the picture. The top of the scheme can be safely copied to your version, and then if you are not sure of your knowledge and actions, you can get acquainted with the normative documents on this topic. itannex to the Rules for the installation of electrical installations of consumers and GOST 2.755-87.
Preparation of the drawing must be approached very carefully, and a person with an engineering education will cope with such a task quite simply. Thus, for example, if an electric capacitor is usually designated by two parallel lines of 10 mm in length and the thickness, mm, then it's exactly these that you need to draw, even if you use a huge paper for this A0.
We make the plan of electroconducting
The circuit, compiled at the previous stage, becomes the basis for drawing up a detailed electrical wiring plan on a scale with a mass of necessary designations and their explication.
An example of such a detailed plan is shown in the figure.When drawing up your own plan, pay attention to such things:
- for each room there is a minimumtwo branches of the wiring from the counter: one for lighting, the other for sockets;
- For bathroomdepending on your plans, provide a certain number of lighting points and output the wiring for the boiler, if it will be there;
- on the plan it is necessary to designate only the branches leading to stationary electrical appliances and sockets. And stationary in this sense is considered to be those devices that are rigidly attached to their place and feed not through a detachable connection. Therefore, we refer the warm floor and the boiler to stationary appliances, and the washing machine and refrigerator are not;
- although the diagram should show all the elements, yet such trifles as an extension cable that leads to the balcony, or LED illumination of the working area of the kitchen, can not be denoted. Such details often only irritate the inspectors. And even the most competently drawn up scheme may not pass the test;
- balcony and loggia- this is generally a separate topic. There should not be laid individual branches, and all appliances located there must be powered from outlets located in the room. If, however, such an organization of posting is necessary, they need not be designated on the scheme, since this is a violation of the above-mentioned Rules.
To simplify the whole process of drawing up a plan, you can take as a basis the plan of the apartment, which is developed by BTI or DEZ. It can be scanned: if it's large, then scan it in parts and paste it in Photoshop. If it marked the old wiring and the location of electrical appliances, then carefully remove it all the same Photoshop, and the new symbols are best drawn using a vector graphics editor, for example, Corel Draw. The important point: save the vector file, as the created plan can return for revision. Now it remains to divide the image in the same photoshop into several parts, print and glue, if the plan is large.
Example of a wiring plan
In addition, working on your plan,take into account some tricks. So, for example, in adjacent rooms the sockets can be arranged on one level: this way it will be possible to save cable and pipe, and two rooms should be fed with one branch. If the apartment has a layout "tram then in a room that is located farthest from the meter it is permissible to feed one group of outlets from the other - so you can save a little cable. Fixtures of bra type can be powered from the sockets, but for the ceiling it is necessary to provide a separate branch. If the interior solution assumes the presence of spot lighting, then on the plan it is designated as a chandelier, and the wiring for it is output to the center of the ceiling, and then, already during the installation, it is decided how it will be more convenient to organize all parts.
When the scheme and plan are ready, you can carry them to the inspection in the energy service authorities, which must check the created drawings and approve them.
Electrical equipment in rooms
To make your plan as accurate as possible, you need to carefully consider all the locations of electrical every user in any room was comfortable, and in the end did not break the finish, correcting their own misses. Since the tastes, requirements and layout of the apartment are different for all of us, then there can not be any universal norms and rules. But for each room there are some tips that will help you organize the space properly.
It is the bathroom when laying the wiringpay particular attention to. Firstly, there is constantly increased humidity, so the risk of electric shock increases, and, secondly, resistance of the body of a steamed person after taking a shower is reduced, so the consequences of electric shock become more significant. Plus, in the bathtub most often are such powerful electrical appliances as a boiler and a washing machine, they work in conditions of high temperature and humidity, and the risk of malfunctions and electric shock again increases.
In order to reduce the possibility of unforeseen consequences,Sockets in the bathroom installed through the RCD, but in this case there is also no 100% guarantee that it will work right after the malfunction occurs. However, the installation of a separation transformer will not give the best results, in addition, it is also quite a complicated matter.
To reduce the risk of electric shock in the bathroom, the rules recommend using only a ceiling light, and then in a waterproof housing. Following this logic, it is easy to make the followingconclusions about the organization of wiring in the bathroom:
- The boiler's cord should be replaced with one so that it reaches the socket in the next room;
- You can use an extension cord for three sockets with a shaped hole for suspension on the wall and grounding contacts. It is supplied with a three-wire cord;
- the wires of the extension cord are taken out to the next room, they are supplied with euro rollers, they are placed in a box, which is located near the baseboard, so that it does not catch the eye;
- the extension cord itself can be hung on a screw or dowel, the time of finding the boiler plug in the outlet is not regulated by any rules, so if it is there permanently, then in fact you do not violate anything, and in the bathroom you do not have a dangerous outlet, but only extension;
- The other two extension jacks can be used for a washing machine, hair dryer or other devices;
- The extension plug is plugged into an outlet in the next room and can be turned off if necessary.
With the help of such simple manipulations, it can be achieved that the bathroom will not be permanently exposed to the bare ends of the live wires. If you also follow the simplest rules of safety, the risk of electric shock will be reduced to zero.
If the bathroom in the apartment is combined, then the toilet can only hold a branch to power one ceiling light. If the lamps in the bathroom and toilet will be fed one by one in a row, then there should not be any problems with electricians in this case.
If the kitchen and bathroom are located nearby, then there are two branches of the wiring: for the kitchen itself and for the bathroom. If the kitchen and bathroom are separated from each other, then the second branch of the wiring is conducted to the adjacent room with a bathroom. But since most often these two rooms are adjacent, we will consider the option that the two branches of wiring go into the kitchen.
For the own needs of the kitchen space, it is best to provide not one but two triple sockets, as there are many electrical appliances. Almost every kitchen will have to supply electricity to the oven, combine harvester, spot lighting, and sometimes even a dishwasher. By the way, spot lighting is sometimes recommended to take out on a separate branch, but this is not economical, and the above mentioned rules do not correspond. Use of the other outlets can also be found: they will be fed by a refrigerator, a microwave oven, and an extension cable, which is necessary for temporary connection of a vacuum cleaner, a toaster, a mixer, a blender, etc. Extension for convenience of use hang on the wall or on cupboard.
Corridor and anteroom
In the hallway and corridor provide two branches of the wiring: for outlets and for lighting. A little trick: if the corridor is very long, then in its beginning you can use the sconce, which will be powered from the outlet, and in the end already hang the ceiling lamp, attached to its branch.
Children's and other rooms
In children's institutions it is common to use all the outlets and switches at a height of not less than, m. But since the children's room is still not exactly a children's institution, especially a child will grow, and the location of the outlets will remain the same, so the best option is to temporarily use a socket with a protective disk to protect the child from possible experiments.
The rest of the living rooms are taken out by the same two branches for powering out the outlets and lighting, as well as one additional one. In general, in order tounderstand how many branches of the wiring will be neededfor all rooms, you need to multiply the number of rooms by two and add one. So, let's say, you have a three-room apartment: a lighting room, an additional branch and a lighting branch, in the bedroom an additional branch can be fed from an additional branch in the living room, the same applies to child. An additional branch of the kitchen eats from the bedroom or the nursery, depending on the layout of the apartment.
Determine the height of the sockets
The height of the placement of the sockets is not regulated by any documents, but it is still most convenient to arrange all of them at a height of 25-30 cm: it is convenient to use it and they do not throw oneself into the eyes. The only exception is the socket for the air conditioner, which can be made a little higher, so that the wire does not drag through the wall. And one more thing: do not try to make too many outlets, two groups per room is enough, if you use triple sockets and extension cords.
Necessary tools and materials
- Punch with the necessary nozzles: a bit for concrete, a core drill, a drill for concrete, etc .;
- soldering iron;
- test-multimeter and indicator-phase indicator;
- portable electric lamp;
- pliers and screwdrivers (the presence of isolated handgrips necessarily);
- mounting knife;
- cord for creating the route of shrouds, spatula;
- terminal blocks. Our wiring method eliminates the soldering of wires and reduces the risk of a short circuit. Here, all connections are made in the terminal board on the terminal blocks, which need to be purchased in 3-4 sections (each section has 10 contacts). Pay attention to the material of manufacture: polyethylene is not very suitable, and all the rest can be safely used;
- podrozetniki. Here you just have to choose, since any boxes will do, however, pay attention to the presence of protrusions on the outside so that you can keep them in alabaster;
- cable. In order to save money, it's better to choose a single-core cable, and the advertised NYM does not meet its high price and is simply contraindicated for use in raw concrete, and guarantees that the walls will never get wet, no. Therefore, it is better to buy domestic VVG or PPP;
- Corrugated hose: they should replace old pipes. The latter is better to pull out without regret, since it is almost impossible to reuse them: a double-insulated cable will not fit there, often in corners the pipe is strongly bent and flattened. Therefore, it is better to hand all this over to scrap metal and partially pay back the purchase of the corrugated hose. As a material, it is better to choose a metal: corrugated PVC, decomposing, emits toxic gases, and if you ground the metal, it does not have any drawbacks;
- an opening shield should be such as to fit in itself the necessary number of automatic machines, RCDs, terminal blocks and wires;
- x / b of electrical tape;
- conductive paste.
Replacement of electrical wiring
During the replacement of electrical wiring, the main thing is to take care that you can supply electricity with all the necessary tools. To do this, we need a piece of wood plank or foam, which is attached to two or three sockets, a 16-A machine and a wire with a cross-section of 4 mm. It is necessary to take care of the presence of an extension cord with a long cord, so that it is sufficient for all rooms.
Now the most important stage: after the apartment is de-energized, you need to gag a dose near the meter, remove it and bring out all the wires to which the timepiece is connected. Everything must be carefully insulated, then the timepiece is attached to the wall, and already from this time you can start working.
It is better to invite an electrician for this stage of work. But if you are sure that you can handle on your own, then observe all the safety rules, take tools only for isolated ledges, do not touch the parts of the body with bare wires.
Shtroblenie walls and fastening podrozetnikov
In order to accurately hide the wires in the walls you need to make small grooves - strobes. They must be strictly vertical or horizontal, as inclined - the cause of accidents and injuries. A horizontal shtrobu make almost under the ceiling, 1 m from it.
Doing the stonecutting of the walls is best done by standing on the construction goats. Suitable and stepladder, but it becomes mandatory side supports, so that when working and tilting to the side there was no chance to fall along with a heavy constantly rotating tool. The process itself is very noisy, dirty and dusty, so it's best to coordinate it with neighbors and assign it to the first half of the working day. Stroblenie is carried out strictly according to the plan.
The stems are first made by the Bulgarian to the depth of the corrugation, the thickness is equal to the width of the drill bit. Then the required thickness is compensated for by chiselling the groove. Then the Bulgarian cuts the corners slightly and create a hole in order to fit the corrugation maximally and smoothly bend.
Now it's up to the youngsters: if the walls are brick, then holes for them can be created with the help of a crown, and for concrete walls, a chisel will be more effective. The chisel is also used to create the necessary notch for the input shield.
Some under the switches knock out a double bar, but without this you can do without using a corrugated hose, where two wires are placed.
The most important and culminating stage in the replacement of electrical wiring is the laying of the cable. To do this, you need to measure the required amount of cable and tighten it into a prepared measured and cut piece of corrugated hose. Then the prepared wire with the corrugation is placed in the strobes, and the ends of the cable must be brought into the jar, which is put on the alabaster. After the wires are wound up, the podzoletnik is grounded with alabaster to the required level. Alabaster is also used to cover the shrouds with corrugation through every meter.
When work on all rooms is completed, it is possible to connect the ends of the corrugations to the opening plate and lubricate them with conductive paste. Now they can be grasped with a tin clamp on the screw. And the latter must be connected to the earthing terminal of the guard by cutting the protective conductor.
Now you need to attach the shield to the wall and outline the fixing points: they are drilling, and then dowels are inserted there. Then we disconnect the vehicle, having previously de-energized the apartment. Then it is necessary to put in the shield of the meter wire and the protective conductor of the apartment, the same protective conductor is connected to the shield body. And only now you can put the flap in place and attach it to the wall, do not forget to carefully wire the meter, and then put it in the body of the flap.
While the apartment is de-energized, it is possible to do plastering to make the places of strobing almost imperceptible.
For convenience, all the wires differ in colors: zero denotes blue or blue, the phase - brown, red, black or white, and the protective conductor - yellow with a green stripe. Remember the simple truth: you can connect only one-color wires. To avoid extremely unfortunate consequences, do not create phase transitions to phase, phase to zero, and turn the breaker into a zero break.
When all the work is done, it's time to put everything in order: plaster, paint the walls, paste wallpaper, etc. But do not forget that the podzroetniki should be on the same level with the wall, so, most likely, they will have to stuff paper, foam rubber or rags. The shield and counter should be covered with a polyethylene film, fixing it behind the edges of the frame.
If you chose wallpaper as wallpaper, then after gluing them all the podzoetniki will be sealed. After the walls are finished, it is easy to find these places and carefully cut out the contour. Then it remains only to put the appropriate switches and sockets.
Now it's time to assemble the power circuit on the terminal blocks in the shield, but for now, do not connect the input from the meter. Before each branch is brought into the terminal block, it must be checked by the tester for a short circuit. For some time you need to turn on the power of the apartment and find using the indicator zero and phase that go from the meter. When everything turned out, you can turn off the power and wire the corresponding colors in the terminal blocks.
It is necessary to carry out a repeated check for the possibility of short-circuiting with operating automatic machines: turn off the machine, put electricity in the apartment and turn on the machine. If everything is in order, then the work is done correctly, and you can continue to repair.
Do not try to do all the work without previously agreed plans and schemes: at the first check everything will clear up and you'll still have to legalize your alterations, but in fact.
Remember that only people who are sufficiently versed in this matter can independently undertake the replacement of wiring, they will be able to independently create a wiring diagram and energy consumption. Otherwise, it will be cheaper still to appeal to specialists.