In modern houses many rooms and a lot of consumer electronics. Leaving the house most of the electrical equipment left on unprofitable because of the empty power consumption.
You have to spend time on the tour of rooms, switching off appliances and lighting. There is a device that can disconnect all of the "extra" power in one motion - the switch card.
In this article we consider in detail the principles of operation of the card switches, their types and characteristics of the installation.
The content of the article:
- The principles of home enerosberezheniya
- Appointment card switch
- The benefits of the card reader in a building
- Switchable and nondisconnectable subnet appliances
Types vyklyuchiteley-Smartcard Reader
- Simple switches (passive)
- Improved switches (active)
- Intelligent switches (smart device)
- Features installation of switches kartopriemnyh
- Card power-saving switch in an apartment house
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principles of home enerosberezheniya
Until the 90th largest number of home appliances equipped city apartments. For the town houses from the local power grid simply does not have enough power - even the fridge worked intermittently.
Yes, and affordable consumer electronics in those days it was a little - TV, refrigerator, washing machine, vacuum cleaner, stereo recorder and radio.
Finally, the cost of electric kilowatt was low at the time - left turn on the lamp in the room or radio receiver is only slightly increased the amount of payment for electricity.
Using key-card for activation and termination of electricity supply points brownies disciplines
households, contributing to best reduce energy consumption. Left turn on the instrument in an empty house - aimless flow of funds
Today the situation is different: in every house, apartment appliances is not enough. One thing to watch out for five or six household electricity consumers like TV or room lamp. It is quite another - to try to keep track of more than 20 devices are regularly connected to the mains.
The rhythm of modern life does not allow it, constantly no time. But the willingness to pay for the extra kilowatts consumed wasted "forgotten" gadgets - it either.
Home electricity savings allow card switches. Installing the card slot beside the front door can only remove a card from him every time in the house no one else is - all the extra power lines are to be de-energized.
Of course, the card Wiring the product is unable to solve, de-energize what is inside the grid house. However, it is necessary to integrate properly into the power supply network brownie.
Appointment card switch
This device limits power supply is used for many years in the hotel complexes. Key card from the numbers inserted into the card slot after opening the door lock - in the rooms is included lighting and household appliances (air conditioner, TV, etc.).
When you exit the hotel room the guest has to take the card out of the "pocket" switch, de-energizing the secondary power system.
Optimization of electricity consumption encourages hoteliers to equip these devices guest rooms.
Modern power management active card reader also ensure the safety of personnel hotel property (e.g., content bar)
Thus hotel optimizes power consumption. Guests must pick up the key card when leaving the room, and then the lights in the bathroom or running a TV, air-conditioned, they can not leave.
We estimate the scale of the economy. For example, the left turned on for 10 hours LED lamp power of 22 watts will consume 220 watts of electric power. During the year, this lamp will spend wasted (in the room unoccupied) 80.3 kW.
In Moscow, at the rate of 5.38 rubles left for a year running lamp "nazhzhot" 432 rubles. Externally a bit, but at the dozens of lamps. And taking into account not turn off the TV, air conditioners and other appliances accumulates decent amount.
In addition to the functions of the electrical blackout subnet can use kartopriemny switch to shut off the water supply to the absence of the household.
It is only necessary to equip a special plumbing inputs (normally closed) water shut-off valves and output power wire group from them to the card device.
The benefits of the card reader in a building
For Hotel facilities Non-card-breakers - a necessary measure energy savings. But it must be similar device dwelling house?
Along with the card-breakers are manufactured energy-saving devices, controlled remote control.
There are contact and brelokopriemnye switches. The latter are more convenient, since the switch at the same time serves as a "storage place" keychain with a key
If in an apartment or cottage at least four or five rooms (including the kitchen, bathroom, etc.), The division of the house grid on compulsory and secondary line with recent blackout in the absence of household, in principle, is not particularly required.
For a small number of premises easier to follow than to build split The power supply, "tied" to the card slot.
However, the current reality of public utilities, has developed in many cities, forcing landlords to abandon the central provision of heat energy - to put electric water heater, mount warm floor with electric heaters.
Leaving the house for hours and leaving the system of thermal power generation in the active mode, the owner of even a small housing spending money for nothing.
As for the residential real estate area of more than 80 m2 - the use of the card switch in such a house is definitely beneficial. But the output is switched off household power lines on the switch-card slot is appropriate only in cases where in the house for a long time there are no household.
For example, if the apartment is empty in the morning (households diverge to work / school) and until the evening, or a country cottage, visited occasionally by the owners.
Switchable and nondisconnectable subnet appliances
Modern complex electrical wiring in homes is formed by several independent groups derived on individual machines in the cluster.
The main objectives: simplifying maintenance tasks and looking permissibility of various cables (desired) sections. Extension of these objectives will divide into two groups wiring subnet - basic (non-tripping) and secondary (switchable).
The division of power and power outlets on the consumer group with the conclusion on the individual machines is convenient for many
reasons, including the ability to power control for optional groups (subnetworks). In the picture
is an exemplary diagram form house mains groups
Subnet can not be disabled. It includes power point appliances that need a constant power supply - refrigerator, electric stove and microwave. Power to the last two types of household appliances is usually necessary to work embedded in these hours.
Also, continuous power supply is useful for automatic washing machine - it can operate in "deferred wash" mode, without participation of the owner. Perhaps, in the absence of the owners need to operate a computer.
For example, to download large files from the internet. wiring group nondisconnectable home subnet are displayed on the machines in the switchboard.
Switchable subnet. It includes all the group lighting (main, auxiliary, scenic lighting, etc.) And power points (sockets), which is not connected equipment from nondisconnectable subnet.
The switchable subnet as the group entered the wiring feeding the appliances whose operation is not needed in absence of households - for example, a boiler and a split system, TV and kitchen hood, floor heating and electric heaters on etc.
switchable subnet group output to a common switch - card slot.
Types vyklyuchiteley-Smartcard Reader
With a similar operating principle, energy saving switches differ on simple and complicated. The first suit apartments and houses a relatively small area, the second will be most convenient to residential complexes with a large number of premises, equipped with numerous electrical equipment.
If the "pocket" there is no card, the switch contacts are closed - external power supply does not enter the subnet space.
Inserting a card with certain characteristics, the user closes the contact device, activating the electric power supply to the power points on the premises. Usual dimensions for energy saving switch cards: length 80 mm; width 54 mm; thickness 0.8 to 1.2 mm.
Wiring diagram of the passive card switch network home electrical (flats). disconnection
electricity network interruption is achieved through the phase wiring
Simple switches (passive)
Inclusion The power supply in the power supply, such controlled switch, can be performed using a standard key-cards, and any other similar sized cards. For example, it is possible to insert a card or sheet calendar tumbler to turn off power to the card slot.
These devices are inexpensive and are effective enough, are therefore used in many hotels and housing estates.
The possibility of replacing the original card on cardboard fragment of the same shape simplifies the task of reproduction key card in case of loss of standard samples, or in a larger number of requirements (for the cleaner, eg).
Improved switches (active)
Key card for such devices comprises chip breakers activating only certain standard - Temic, Emmarin, Mifare and others.
As a full member of the complex security systems with the possibility of integration into the online access control system accommodations, active card reader will not accept counterfeit card (e.g., from cardboard) as a valid key.
With the ability to recognize the priority of the card, the card active switch manages the network with
more complex organization. However, the card reader connected to the subnet should be built properly - with the expectation of future uses of the masters and support staff
Intelligent switches (smart device)
Equipped with key-cards that can not only identify the key accessory this system, but also to recognize the range of its capabilities. Those. activation of the power in the entire subnet occurs only on the map homeowner embedded in the card slot.
If the smart-card reader is inserted into the cleaning staff card, then turn on power supply of well-defined networking groups. Map cleaners activated power lighting and multiple sockets required to connect a vacuum cleaner, but, for example, a whirlpool bath and TV will remain de-energized.
Note that with the exception of card-key home owners all other cards to smart correct programming card reader (need programmer device) with the assignment constraints each of them. Of course, kartopriemny unit also requires the introduction of programmable scripting access to the power supply for each key card.
Features installation of switches kartopriemnyh
Optimally, for controlling the supply of household subnets card devices are designed for 220V voltage and amperage 30A. This will allow the switches to safely perform switching current of the network group to which are connected the most energy-consuming appliances.
At lower operating characteristics, but the network management needs of groups with numerous energy consumers on energy saving switch the load is too high.
For example, among household appliances, developing an increased load on the grid, you can select the washing machine, air-conditioning system and an electric kettle. Therefore, the model kartopriemnyh switches designed for a current of less than 30A should be equipped with an additional starter.
Installation of the card reader is important to carry out a more responsible than push buttons. Particular attention is paid to the order of wiring to the terminals. In the picture - a switch assembly which is discussed below
Mounting the card reader design formed by two basic elements - a main body (mechanism) of the device and the mounting frame. Housing main mechanism kartopriemnyh devices equipped with some brands of removable decorative element.
Consider the order of the card switch assembly for the model Schneider Electric:
- picked up a screwdriver decorative insert in the machine frame, remove it. Unscrew the two fixing screws;
- to dismantle the frame and cover;
- electroline secure the wires by inserting their stripped ends of the braid to the corresponding circuit terminals, to tighten the screws;
- inserted in the body cavity of the mounting sleeve. Depending on the type of installation box or tighten the two screws spacer foot or two self-tapping screw;
- put the frame. Align the cover frame by shifting it from the top down to the clutch projections latches;
- tighten the two screws, put the trim.
Installing the card device is carried in a plastic mounting box designed under the thrust legs (GOST 8594-80) or by self-tapping mounting screws. In any case, tightening the screws alternately and exercise gradually.
Card power-saving switch in an apartment house
In everyday life it is most convenient to use a passive type device kartopriemnoe not require any programming; identical cards; permissible improvised application cards (e.g., cardboard) appropriate size.
As an option, you can not take the card with you - put or hang it next to the switch, then the key card will not be lost and will not be forgotten somewhere outside the home.
The local grid under the card switch control should contain circuit breakers that monitor the operation of network groups. The principle of integration of automatic switches shown on the picture
For active devices and smart switches will need a clear allocation of key-card access levels: basic (activating all the energy subsystem) card - for the owners of the house; limited (activating some power point) card - for staff (cleaners, gardeners, etc.).
Each active card takes place in a special programming device to the level of access, then marked for visual recognition.
It should be noted that once the owner forgets his active key card out, and the other way to start the power supply housing simply no. Therefore, besides the main access cards, portable household with him in the house you need to keep one or two copies of the pre-programmed cards as a replacement.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
After removing the card from the "pocket" switch de-energizes the home subnets happen after 30 seconds:
Master explains how to connect a passive type of card to the device serviced subnet:
Managed switch card along with energy savings will allow one movement turn on the lights throughout the house, which is convenient. Indeed, in the twilight of the evening to find the off switch in the next room can be difficult. Card reader - a simple device and use it a lot.
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