- Required Tools
- Types of radiators
- Aluminum radiators
- Steel radiators
- Bimetal radiators
- Cast iron radiators
- Heated towel rails
- Plinth radiators
- Steel pipes
- Copper pipes
- Pipes made of stainless steel
- Plastic pipes
- Small calculations
- Disconnection of water supply
- Preparation of radiators
- Dismantling of the old heating system
- Mounting the radiator
- Piping assembly
Comfort and comfort of the house depends on many factors. One of the main things is heating the house. It is quite possible to install a heating system by one's own hands. But in order to avoid mistakes and get a good result you need to understand the basics of the installation process and determine the type and method of heating.
First of all, you need to calculate such parameters as the area and number of rooms, the amount of time during which you need to turn on the heating. And it will be determined with the choice of radiators, pipes and make a list of necessary tools and materials.
First, let's look at a number of tools for carrying out the work. Some of them are quite specific and will need only one time, so look, ask friends to not waste money.
- Hammer, ruler, tape measure, pencil;
- Fum tape, paste for sealing threaded connections;
- Sandpaper, hedgehog;
- Level (laser can save time);
- A wedge and a wrench (preferably small and large of each kind);
- Screwdriver or set of screwdrivers;
- Drill, in some cases a puncher;
- Pipe cutter manual or with electric drive;
For plastic pipes:
- Apparatus for soldering plastic pipes with various nozzles;
For copper pipes:
- Soldering lamp for soldering copper pipes;
- Solder for copper pipes, flux paste;
Types of radiators
This is one of the most important moments. It is through the radiator that the air and the room itself are heated. When choosing the type of heating element, be guided not only by the appearance and aesthetics, but also by its main characteristics: power, working and maximum pressure and operating temperature. This is especially important if you plan to connect it to a centralized heating system, where 4-10 atmospheres are the usual operating pressure. And with the onset of the heating period, it increases by one and a half times (to check the tightness).
But if the plans for autonomous heating - then these nuances fall away. You will have enough radiator working under pressure to 6 atmospheres.
The most popular today are 4 types: aluminum, steel, bimetallic and cast iron radiators.
Aluminum radiators are considered very effective because of the high heat transfer of the material. After turning on, these radiators quickly heat up the room and cool down just as quickly if you turn off the heating. This is also due to the small volume of the device.
Very often aluminum radiators are installed together with a control thermal head, to automatically raise or lower the supply of hot water.
Outside, aluminum radiators are very aesthetic. Rectangular plates, mostly white, covered with special heat-resistant enamel, which is resistant to high temperatures. This is another plus, as it will not be necessary to paint again every year. Like cast iron radiators, in aluminum it is possible to increase power, changing the number of sections. They do not respond to condensation and moist air, so they can be used safely in the bathroom and in the kitchen.
If the advantages of this type of radiators are low weight, high working pressure and compactness, thenfrom the minuses the possibility of corrosion. Aluminum easily reacts with copper parts, and it is difficult to tolerate a large pH level (permissible,). For this reason, it is better not to use them for a centralized heating system.
In connection with possible chemical reactions, aluminum radiators are installed together with the Mayevsky crane to divert the generated gas.
Another disadvantage when used in the CSO is the operating temperature. The aluminum radiators are 45-60 degrees, and in the CSO it can reach 85 degrees.
Modern steel radiators have a very attractive design. As well as aluminum are covered with a special paint, mostly white, but can be painted in any shade at the request of the customer. The advantage of these radiators is their relatively small price and high heat output. Also this type of radiator is one of the most hygienic.
There are two types of steel radiators - panel and tubular.
This type has been used in the heating system for about 60 years. The working pressure is quite high and reaches 10 atmospheres.
The construction of the radiator consists of welded steel plates, which create a panel. Inside, between the panels there are horizontal collectors and sometimes a convective grate, so that the space warms up rather quickly. Several threaded connections in these radiators minimize the risk of leakage.
Of the minuses, you can allocate a small area of the radiator, and exposure to corrosive processes under the influence of oxygen in the coolant, but this is not a problem with a closed heating system.
These radiators primarily differ from the panel type by a much larger heating area. You can adjust the power at the stage of purchase (order) by increasing / decreasing the height of the pipes, and their number. On the theme of color and cover all the same as in the panel.
Greaterthe plus of this typethere is the possibility of creating a variety of radius or angle forms of the convector.
The structure itself is represented mainly by vertical pipes forming sections with a width of up to 45 cm which are connected by welding of collectors. The working pressure is also 10 atmospheres, and the temperature is 120 degrees.
Already from the title it is clear that this type combines the advantages of both materials. The inner sheath, directly in contact with water, is made of steel and covered with a layer of aluminum. Because of this, the radiators have excellent heat dissipation, low weight and aesthetic look.
The system of bimetallic radiators is such that a coolant is supplied along the steel core (mainly water) and then heat is transferred already along the aluminum plates, heating the room. Heat transfer in such designs reaches 170-190 W.
Working pressure from 20 to 40 atmospheres, which will significantly increase the longevity of the radiator. Of course, the price for them is higher than a conventional steel or aluminum radiator, but it justifies itself.
Cast iron radiators
Probably the most common form of radiators today. Partly because of the fact that almost everywhere where the batteries have not changed for a long time, there are cast-iron ones. This oldest type of radiators is also the most reliable, with an average life of 50 years.
Significant negativeappeared after the distribution of individual heating systems with automation. The huge inertness of cast-iron radiators is incompatible with modern electronics.
But a great advantage over other types of radiators is absolute resistance to corrosion. They are also insensitive to seasonal water drains.
Speaking about the inertness of cast iron radiators as a bad side in terms of adjusting the temperature in the room, do not forget that this has its plus. When other types of radiators are turned off they immediately cool down, while the cast iron still continues to radiate heat.
Another plus, which many consider a minus: slow heating of air and power of section about 100 W, that in, times less than other radiators. Here is my trick. The fact is that cast iron, unlike other radiators, has a radiation type of heating. This completely compensates for shortcomings, since heat from cast iron radiators except air also walls and objects, which themselves begin to radiate heat.
The weight of the cast iron radiator is the largest of all (one empty section weighs 5-6 kg), but this is not a very significant minus. Another drawback was the appearance of standard radiators. But with the development of technology today, so beautiful radiators are created that you can equate them with works of art. Well, such a thing is not cheap, so the choice is yours.
Heated towel rails
A special kind of heater for the bathroom, whose name speaks for itself. To divide towel warmers it is possible 4 groups:
- Standard - the shape of the letter "P" and "M" with a heat transfer coefficient, kW;
- Modernized - similar to the previous ones, with additional sections on each pipe;
- Elegant - differ heat transfer to, kW and various forms;
- With a double heat exchanger - here the feature is that the stainless steel pipe is separated from the construction of the heated towel rail and mounted in a riser with hot water, which increases its circulation to the system.
Towel rails are made of stainless steel, ordinary steel and non-ferrous metals, the heat transfer of the latter is the highest. When buying, pay attention to such indicators as:
- Permissible pressure;
- Pipe coating;
- No seams on the pipe (less risk of leakage over time);
Technologies do not stand still, and plinth heating is becoming more popular today. There are two types - electric and water.
Water typeconsists of parts such as a radiator block, a collector part and plastic tubes. The principle of operation is based on the law of physics on the attraction of air flow to nearby surfaces. The air is heated by a plinth radiator in a convective way. He enters the slot in the lower part of the plinth, heats up and exits through the upper slot, rising along the wall. So, after a while after turning on the heating, you will get heated walls, which themselves will radiate heat into the room.
The convector design uses aluminum and copper, which have excellent heat transfer. Thus, at the operating temperature of the baseboard convector 40 °, the walls are heated to 37 °.
Out of advantagessuch heaters can be distinguished:
- Uniform heating of the room;
- Disappears the problem of moisture on the walls, leading to fungus and mold;
- Small size and aesthetics of the radiator, as well as ease of installation and repair in any room;
- Ability to connect automation;
- Heating to a comfortable temperature for the body;
- Absence of accumulation of warm air masses under the ceiling;
Of the shortcomingsthe price is set at , 00 rubles per 1 meter, the maximum length is only 15 meters and the most problematic is the need for free space, not obstructed by furniture and other items.
Types of pipes
A very important element in the installation process is the correct selection of pipes. There are such varieties as:
- Steel pipes;
- Copper pipes;
- Pipes made of stainless steel;
- Plastic pipes;
In most cases, all these types are suitable for your heating system. But nevertheless there are cases when one is better, and others are worse in certain situations. Below we will look in detail at each species.
This type of pipe is very strong but, despite this, it has some flexibility. That allows them to bend, cut and weld. From the strengths of steel pipes - a small expansion under the influence of high temperatures, so they can be poured into concrete.
There are 3 types of these pipes - brazed, suture, seamless. For home heating, the best option will, of course, be seamless, the risk of leakage is several times smaller. Diameter from 10 to 25 mm.
From the minuses of these pipeswe can distinguish the following:
- Low resistance to aggressive environment in comparison with other pipes; 6-7 years - the tube will last so long before the corrosion begins.
- Poorly withstands a pressure shock;
- Externally, very poorly combined with the interior of the room;
- High price;
- Low bandwidth;
There is an important point to be aware of when buying steel pipes. Sometimes they are covered with zinc to avoid corrosion. In such cases, never use welding to connect pipes. Cover zinc simply burned, and the place of welding will turn into the weakest link in the heating system.
The first and most important quality of copper pipes is that they almost can not be corroded. The only thing that can seriously harm copper pipes is a galvanic pair formed as a result of a chemical reaction with other metals. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor which radiators you are going to install. In some cases, manufacturers can cover the pipes with a layer of polyethylene, which improves the appearance and protects against external moisture and condensation.
Copper pipes with a diameter of 10-54 mm are produced. There are two types - soft and hard. Of the remaining benefits, it should be noted the operating temperature range from -200 to +200 ° and bactericidal action. Copper pipes better withstand pressure jumps, and the service life is up to 100 years. The price is certainly far from average and large thermal conductivity is also a significant minus.
There are 3 ways to connect pipes:
- Thread cutting;
Pipes made of stainless steel
Another type of pipe, characterized by high resistance to any type of corrosion. There are two types: seamless and electrically welded. The first are a diameter of 5 - 126 mm, the second - 6 - 1420 mm. As in previous cases, it is recommended to use a seamless option.
- Greater throughput;
- Withstanding pressure surges;
- The service life reaches 100 years.
A significant disadvantage for most buyers is a high price. Yes, and high thermal conductivity will have a bad effect on the temperature of the heater. Connect pipes from stainless steel also with the help of couplings, threads or welding.
Some of the most popular pipes today are plastic pipes. The most important advantage of these pipes, making them so popular is absolute resistance to the likes of types of corrosion. The plastic pipes will be serviced for at least 50 years. An important point is the absence of noise from the flow of water through them.
An important factor is the lowest thermal conductivity among all types of pipes. This will save some heat. Also plastic pipes withstand high pressure and its jumps, they are the cheapest and easy to install. Below we will consider the types of plastic pipes.
The structure of these pipes is the outer and inner layer of plastic and aluminum foil of thickness, mm between them. Polyethylene itself is very durable, has a roughness of about 04, a break line of 70 bar, and an operating temperature of up to 95 °.
The aluminum ball in the pipe design plays a very important role. Thin and elastic it is at the same time strong, prevents deformation of the pipe and its elongation when exposed to temperature.
Metal-plastic pipes withstand pressure up to 10 bar at 95 degree temperature. Some time can transfer the temperature rise to 130 °. The service life of the pipes reaches 50 years.
Polyethylene pipes are environmentally friendly, also resistant to corrosion and abrasion resistant. Also, the advantages include small weight, strength and flexibility, easy installation.
- Features of polyethylene pipes:
- The service life is 60-100 years;
- Withstand very low temperatures;
- They withstand pressure drop and mechanical influence, due to which they are used in seismically active zones;
- Working pressure at 0-25 ° reaches 25 bar;
- A short period of time can work at a temperature of 100 °;
This kind of harder than the rest, because they bend under a large radius. Also, for these pipes, more corner fittings are needed. The process of installation is more labor-consuming and costly than for the same metal-plastic pipes.
- Operating temperature = 70 °;
- Working pressure 10-25 bar;
- The term service is 50 years;
PVC (polyvinylchloride) pipes
PVC pipes are made of thermoplastic polymer. The temperature of these pipes is the lowest of the family of plastic - 70-90 °. The peculiarity of PVC pipes is chemical stability and low flammability. Like other plastic pipes, they are resistant to corrosion, durability, low price, high working pressure.
Installation of heating system
This process involves the disconnection and dismantling of old radiators and pipes. Selection of new radiators by calculation and determination of the type of pipes to be used in the heating system. Soldering pipes and fixing pipes and radiators to the walls. Connection of all elements of the system and connection to a heat source.
To choose the right radiators for your heating system, you need at least to determine the place where it will be installed, the number of windows and the number of external walls.
To warm a room with 1 window and 1 external wall, up to 3 meters high, you need about 100 watts. Then simply add power based on the following calculations:
- +1 outside wall + 20% to capacity;
- +1 outside wall and 1 window + 30% to capacity;
- +1 window that faces north + 10% of power;
- If the radiator is closed by the panel, then + 15%, and if it is in the niche, then + 5% to the power;
When adding several points, additional percentages of power are added together.
Approximate dimensions of the radiator are determined by means of some rules:
The distance from the window sill to the radiator is at least 10 cm, from the radiator to the ceiling 6 cm. The width of the radiator should be at least half the width of the window, and better than 75%.
Disconnection of water supply
Very often there are problems with switching off the riser, for replacing or repairing the heating system. Stojak is public property. Access to it has a municipal service. If you received a refusal to turn off the riser during the work, be sure to require that the refusal be submitted in writing. Then you will have something to go to court. Everybody understands this perfectly and in most cases does not reach it. The management company is simply obliged to fulfill the requirements of the tenant. But this service (turn off the riser) is paid. The price varies from 500 to 1500 rubles per hour in different localities.
There is another underwater stone in the process of replacement or repair - the neighbors. There are situations when access to neighboring apartments is necessary and "friendly" neighbors refuse to provide it. Of course, this is their private territory, but there are standards (Housing Code, Articles 3, 8, 36, 37, 129), according to which permanent access to the public riser can be provided even without their consent. Therefore, you again have the opportunity to go to court. Having well explained this to your neighbors, you can do just one conversation.
Preparation of radiators
Before installing the radiator you need to pack it. This is the name of the process of installing the plugs, fittings and the Maevsky crane into the holes of the radiator.
First, take the futurki and screw it in 4 places. Usually there are 2 with the left and 2 with the right thread, tighten them with the adjustable wrench with medium effort. They already go with a silicone gasket, so that they are not unnecessary to compact them. Next, find the front side of the radiator and determine by the old radiator, from which side is the feeder. For example, on the left. Then, from the right, from below, we screw in the cap, and on top the Maevsky crane. It is needed to drain air when the radiator is filled with water.
Now, on the left side, from below and from above, we install 2 fittings with external thread and crimp for the supply of pipes to the radiator. Take the tape tape, wind on the external thread of the fitting and apply a paste to seal the threaded connections. The paste layer should be approximately 2-3 mm. This paste in the cold season during the heating period will wither and additionally make the connection more reliable. We put the fittings on the thread and tighten the adjustable wrench until the futurka begins to twist, then with the same key we reach back the futurka. Remove excess paste with a towel. Actually, the preparation of the radiator is completed.
Dismantling of the old heating system
After the water in the riser is blocked, you need to drain the radiators. To do this, attach the hose to the drain valve of the radiator, and the second end is released to the street through the balcony or into the sewer. Under the place where the hose and valve are connected, replace the empty container in case of leakage. If the system has air cocks - open them to speed up the drainage process. Then you can proceed to the next stage.
With the help of the grinder make two notches on the pipe, which you plan to replace. The cuttings are made at a distance of 5-15 cm from each other, deep, almost completely cutting the pipe. Now take the gas key and, clamping the place between the cuts, break this section. Completely cut the pipe is not worth it, it is fraught with jamming the disc of the Bulgakov and even traumatic.
We remove as much of the old pipe as possible. It all depends on the specific situation. In most cases, this is the distance from the radiator to the wiring in the riser or to the pivoting fitting or to the plug of the neighboring radiator. Next, remove the old radiator from the wall. Here either we remove from the hinges, or together with them, if they "have grown together" for a long time. If the hinges are left in the wall they can be unscrewed, but sometimes they hold very firmly then, just saw off the loops by the Bulgarian near the wall.
Then, using a gas key, unscrew the remaining parts of the old pipes. Do this carefully, so as not to damage and not disturb the rest of the pipes and joints. If the thread does not give way, you can tap on it. In especially severe cases, heating of the problem area with a blowtorch helps.
Now you can proceed with the installation of the radiator.
Mounting the radiator
We take a level to make marks. We put it against the wall opposite the threads of the piping, from which a piece of the old pipe was twisted. Place the marks at the middle of the feed and return opening. In this way, we reach the holes of the radiator. Now you need to substitute something under the radiator so that the middle of its threaded holes coincides with the marks, and makes a notch on the wall for the fasteners.
Next, drill holes for dowels and screw the hooks, which will hold the weight of our radiator. Hang the radiator and use the level to check how exactly it sat down in place.
So far the work with the radiator is over. We pass to the pods from the riser. They need to screw in two ball valves. For this, the tap must be with external thread on one side and internal with the other. If you have a tap with two internal ones, then simply screw in on one side a special nipple. All the diameters are selected based on those already available in the piping. Usually it is ¾ inch or 20 mm. To twist the cranes it is necessary, having wound a place of carving with a tape and having greased with paste; You can also use the patch and linen. Now put the valve on the thread and tighten with a wrench, protrude the remainder of the paste with a towel.
Tip: try to screw the cranes so that the vent handle is at the bottom. This will avoid accidental opening or closing the crane, if you hook it up with anything. It is very important if the house has children.
Pipe diameters in most cases take 20 mm for house heating and 25-32 mm for riser.
We take transitional fittings for soldering copper pipe or plastic and screw it into the wiring. It all depends on what type of pipe you chose. Next, consider in detail 2 ways to install a pipeline for copper and plastic pipes.
If there are copper pipes, then twist the fittings only to try on, then unscrew it. Measure the desired pipe length to the rotary fitting. Take the pipe and cut off the desired piece. After that, clean the edges with the same grinder. Lay it lying down and drive the end of the tube along a rotating circle. Prepare the blowtorch. It is desirable with a narrow end of the flame, but these are slightly more expensive, so if there is no possibility, then you can get by and the easiest for 150-200 rubles. Preparing the solder. To solder the adapter (from the riser routing) to the tube it is necessary separately, and then the fitting with the tube must be screwed into place. If you do the opposite, there is a risk of burning the valve in the ball valve.
The end of the tube, which we need to solder, must be cleaned. This is suitable for ordinary sandpaper, just need to wrap it with a tube and rotate in one or different directions until the end becomes noticeably lighter. Next, use the hedgehog to clean the inside of the fitting. Lubricate the end of the tube with flux paste and insert it into the fitting until it stops. We remove the excess paste from the towel. Now we heat the soldering place with soldering iron and within 30-40 seconds (the paste starts to turn white) and lower the solder. The same thing we repeat with another tube (we need them 2) and wait until it cools down.
Then twist the fittings into the feed and return, pre-wrapping them with a tape and covering it with paste to seal the threaded connections. Next, we place the rotary fittings on the tubes and measure the length of the required pipe segments, cut off and insert them same rotary fittings, and at the other ends we again install rotary fittings and also measure the remaining distance.
Now solder in the same way, just start from the radiator. First we put the tubes into the radiator and fix them with clamps. In these places it is better to use this kind of connection, as in the future it may be necessary to remove the radiator. Next, there is a spike in turn of all the connections. Last weld the tube from the riser to the swivel fitting, pre-connecting the entire system together and adjusting the movement of the radiator to the left and right. That's all, the heating system using copper pipes is ready.
Plastic pipes expand noticeably when heated, so they can not be cemented in the ceiling or walls, and when installing, you need to leave a little room for them to "move."
By analogy with the previous version, all sections are measured and pipes are cut. It should be noted that for the soldering of plastic pipes about 15 mm will go inside the fitting. Here we need a soldering iron with removable attachments. Turn on the machine and wait until it warms up completely (the indicator will turn red). Then the tube is inserted into the soldering iron coupling, and the fitting is put on the nozzle-mandrel.
Heating time of pipes:
- 20 mm - 4-5 seconds;
- 25 mm - 7-8 seconds;
- 32 mm - 10-12 seconds;
At a low temperature in the room where work is being done (+ 5 ° C and below), the heating time should be increased by 50%. Manufacturers of pipes recommend the temperature of the device at 250-300 ° C. It is undesirable to solder two tubes of different materials and manufacturers. If the heat is weak, the connection will not be strong, and if it is overheated, the permeability can be significantly reduced or the tube can be completely glued together. The surfaces that are soldered must be clean and dry.
Having sustained both halves the specified time, pull it out from the apparatus and connect it together, then keep motionless for 5-6 seconds. To avoid deflection when welding perpendicular or angular parts, make a notch on both halves. In this case, retreat a minimum of 15 mm, so that the serifs can be seen when connecting pipes.
Always draw a conditional diagram of pipes and knees where they will be mounted (on the wall or floor). It is not always necessary to weld the elements in a strict order, it is better to assemble several large segments and then connect them to the whole system.
If the length of the sections and the system itself eventually becomes large, then use special fasteners for plastic pipes (if mounted on a wall). This point should be determined before commencing soldering the pipes to mark and drill the dowel holes in the wall.