When to get used to water and other foodstuffsis vulnerable to any disease, as its blood contains a small amount of immune bodies capable of destroying viruses and bacteria. Therefore, it depends on the quality of care and feeding of calves up to 3 months how fast and healthy they will grow. They are only contained in clean, dry and ventilated cells, but without constant drafts. Calf feed must be high in protein, vitamins and minerals.
Food for newborn calves should be of high caloric value and easy to digest.
After the calf was born, you need to feed it with colostrum for half an hour or an hour. Due to this, the probability of occurrence of diseases will be reduced by 70%, since the first milk after birth contains a high concentration of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins, as well as immune globulins and antibodies. Unlike ordinary milk, colostrum contains 2 times more dry matter, therefore it has a high energy value.
When feeding calves with colostrum, due to the large amount of magnesium salts in it and increased acidity, the intestines are cleaned of meconium( original feces).
If you do not feed the calf within an hour after birth, it will begin to suck the surrounding objects. Because of what can get dangerous diseases, which in turn will lead to the death of the animal.
The first portion is calculated in such a way that it is from 4 to 6% of the total weight of the calf. But not more than 20% per day, and 24% in the following days. Do not give colostrum too much, as this will cause intestinal upset. If the calf is weak, then it is better to feed it in small portions( 0.5-0.7 l), but more often - up to 6 times a day. The average daily intake of feeding is 8 liters.
Colostrum temperature should be around + 37 ° C.Cold milk will cause intestinal upset.
Up to three weeks of age, calves are recommended to be fed from nipple drinkers.
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You can also use the suction method. It has the following advantages:
- milk comes in small portions, which is extremely important when growing calves with a not fully developed stomach;
- food is always clean and warm, as a result is better absorbed;
- increases the level of immunoglobulins;
- significantly reduces the risk of disease;
- weight gain increases by 30%.
You can feed with the suckling method for up to 5 days.
Before watering the calf in this way, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the udder of the cow.
What to do if there is no colostrum
If there is no colostrum or there is an increased risk of diseases when feeding them, then the calf is fed with similar milk from another cow or they make it with their own hands. To do this, in 1 liter of fresh milk taken from a fresh cow, add 15 ml of vitaminized fish oil, 5 g of salt and 3 fresh eggs. Everything is thoroughly mixed until smooth. Just born calf give 1 liter of the mixture, and for the following feed her diluted with boiled water by 50%.
Newborn calves are fed every 3-5 hours, 4-5 times a day. At the same time, the period of time after milking the cow and feeding should be minimal, since every hour there are more bacteria in the milk that inhibit digestion.
When to teach water and other food
After 3 days from the moment of birth, the calf starts to give out water. For feeding calves up to 3 months and older, use only clean and fresh water from + 20 ° C to + 25 ° C, and for newborns and up to two weeks boiled, with a temperature of + 35 ° C to + 37 ° C.It greatly improves the digestibility of the feed and the speed of digestion. Instead of water, you can use different infusions, such as coniferous, hay, or from other medicinal herbs. They improve the appetite, and this in turn accelerates the growth of the animal.
In the first 2 weeks of life, 1 l of the calves is fed with a teat drinker, one and a half or 2 hours after eating. Older animals are given from 1 to 2 liters in a bucket. Mother's milk is given to calves up to two weeks of age. Further, over the next two weeks, it is better to feed the milk from all the cows, while occasionally another feed is provided, such as return or milk replacer for calves.
The transition to another type of feeding should be smooth, otherwise the animal will have intestinal upset.
Newborn calves can be fed with yogurt. To do this, 1 liter of leaven take about 38-40 liters of skim milk. Before feeding, it is kept for at least half a day. For fattening calves for meat at home, milk feeds are abundantly distributed, as they contribute to a better formation and growth of muscle mass.
As they get older, calves begin to learn to eat hay, as it contributes to the development of the digestive system, as well as strengthening the masticatory muscles. Hay is given only clean, fresh, but slightly dried, with small stems and leaves. It will be their first to tear off and eat the calf.
Read also: What attracts an incubator? The suspended method of feeding is preferable, since in this case the calf will be distracted from the sucking of surrounding objects. Gradually increase the portion, for feeding calves up to 3 months, you need up to 1.5 kg of hay.
Concentrates, succulent feeds and vitamin supplements.
Concentrated feeds are given to calves who have reached two weeks of age. Most often use the usual sifted oatmeal, as it is easily digested. Or they acquire starter feed, since it, compared to oatmeal, contains all the vitamins, minerals and other useful elements necessary for healthy growth of an animal. You can make a combination with your own hands. The basis will be oats, wheat, corn and barley. Also adds sunflower meal, fish meal, fodder yeast, herbal flour, salt, chalk, phosphates and vitamins.
Salt and chalk are given to calves that have reached three weeks of age. In the first month of life, one can feed whole grains of oats or barley. Due to this, the stomach and chewing muscles develop faster. Do not forget about the juicy feed. They can be given to calves with an age of three weeks. Boiled potatoes( mashed potatoes), grated carrots are added to milk, and you can begin to give out fodder beet by 4 weeks.
During the care and feeding of calves, always follow the rules of hygiene and cleanliness. After each feeding, the containers are thoroughly washed and scalded with boiling water. This will minimize the likelihood of intestinal diseases.
The greatest number of diseases arises due to a lack of vitamins, therefore it is always necessary to give vitamin preparations to calves. The main thing, before adding them to the feed, carefully study the instructions and observe the indicated dosages. Starting from 1 month, you can feed the animals with Felutsen for calves. This energy supplement comes in the form of granules, contains amino acids, minerals, a complex of vitamins, as well as fats and carbohydrates.
Using one vitamin supplement, in no case can not give others.
milk replacer and milk powder
Dry nutritional mixtures are fed to calves that have reached ten days of age.1 kg of whole milk replacer can replace 9.5 kg of normal. The milk replacer for calves is bred according to the manufacturer's instructions, but most often this will require 8.5 liters of water per 1 kg of powder. It consists of a mixture of salmon, grain, whey and buttermilk, and also contains an antibiotic for intestinal upset. When feeding milk replacer, the probability of transmission of diseases to the calf from the mother is excluded. In addition, substitutes contain more vitamins than whole milk.
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Milk powder for calves also belongs to the milk replacer. It is made from whole milk by the method of drying. Happens two types: fat-free and integral. The main differences between them are different amounts of nutrients and their purpose. Both species have a long shelf life. Before breeding powdered milk for calves, it is necessary to calculate the portion. It should be 4.5% of the total weight of the animal. Another positive quality of powdered milk is that its composition never changes, rather than that of regular milk( depending on the season of the year).It also does not tolerate infectious diseases. In addition, feeding calves milk replacer is much more profitable than whole milk.
New calves feeding technology - video