. PredominantThousands of years ago in the Middle East. Today, numerous breeds of pigs do not much resemble their wild ancestor, the boar, and thanks to breeding work, modern domestic animals are larger, more fat, they grow faster and gain weight.
Pigs are bred all over the world for tasty, juicy meat and high-calorie fat. Application in the industry is for skin and bristles, even the bones are recycled. The breeds of such valuable farm animals are divided into several types according to their designation.
As meat and lard are the main value for livestock breeders, pig breeds are also divided according to what kind of products from animals can be obtained in a larger volume. The orientation of the breed necessarily affects the appearance of piglets and adults. Representatives of the meat breed can be found:
- on the elongated body;
- for insignificant, when compared with the length of the body, the width of the chest;
- lightweight ham and sternum.
Animals intended for fat production, shorter than their meat counterparts. They have a wide heavy front, the same large, poured ham. The intermediate position between the fat and meaty breeds is occupied by the universal or meatosal varieties.
Photos and descriptions of pig breeds will help to understand the existing diversity of these valuable farm animals and make the right choice when purchasing them for their own farmstead.
Large white breed of pigs
A significant part of the livestock in Russia today accounts for large white breed pigs. This is one of the oldest varieties of farm animals, bred in England in the middle of the last century. Yorkshire County was the birthplace of the first large animals of universal destination.
Bred pigs were distinguished by strong bones, harmonious addition and the ability to feed, aimed at getting fat, meat or juicy bacon. But the results of the work of English breeders who gave the world the Yorkshire pig breed were nearly lost in the second half of the XIX century. Only with the introduction of strict standards and rules of breeding did the breed characteristics be consolidated, and the pigs received the name of large, white ones.
Animals were brought into Russia at the end of the last century. In local conditions, strikingly different from the UK, enthusiasts managed to get well acclimatized tribal lines. Thanks to domestic breeders, the breed of large white pigs has been so popular for many decades both in the country and around the world.
According to the photo and description of the breed of pigs, the characteristic features of these animals of universal purpose include:
- a wide convex chest;
- long wide back;
- powerful tight ass;
- strong short legs;
- fine, densely covering torso bristles;
- large head on a long, thick neck;
- noticeable, but not hanging ears;
- tight, but not rough skin.
The torso of an adult boar reaches a length of 190 cm, and the females are slightly smaller - up to 170 cm. Pigs of a white large breed are distinguished by excellent fecundity. On average, the female gives birth to 12 piglets, which by the month reach a weight of 20-25 kg, and by half a year they pull on a whole centner.
With good care and maintenance, animals quickly adapt to the characteristics of food and climate, they are quite hardy and prolific. However, they require power control, otherwise they become excessively fat.
Breed of pigs Landrace
Among the modern meat breeds, the Danish variety, obtained at the beginning of the last century, is considered one of the pioneers of the direction. The basis of the Landrace pig breed itself is the blood of English white and local Danish animals, and to obtain good indicators for meat during breeding, not only crossed lines were taken into account, but also the feeding methods used with the inclusion of large amounts of protein.
The breed of landas pigs is characterized by:
- minimum amount of fat;
- long body, inherent in animals of meat orientation;
- light rather rare bristles;
- thin skin;
- long, drooping ears to the level of the eyes.
The body length of an adult male can exceed 180 cm, and weight can reach up to 310 kg. Females, as expected, smaller. With a body length of just over 165 cm, their mass is 260 kg. In pigs of the Landrace breed, the average number of litters is about 11 piglets. Juveniles are very mobile, growing rapidly, gaining 100 kg of weight after 189 days.
However, with all the positive qualities of this meat breed, it has drawbacks. Excellent performance and highest quality meat can only be achieved with constant care and well-chosen diet.
Breed of pigs Duroc
American, red breed of pigs appeared at the end of the XIX century. Initially it was assumed that pigs would be raised for fat, but the growing demand for meat products changed the direction of selection. Today, the main characteristics of Duroc breed pigs are:
- excellent meat quality;
- endurance and ability to keep in grazing conditions;
- the ability to transfer their best traits to descendants, therefore, Duroc breed pigs are actively used for hybridization.
The animals have strong bones and a strong physique, which must be supported by well-chosen protein feeds. Both boars and adult females do not exceed 185 cm in length.
In contrast to fertile white pigs and animals belonging to the Landrace breed, broods of Duroc females do not have more than 11 piglets, while sows are calm, caring and take good care of the rapidly younger generation, alreadyafter 170–180 days weighing more than 100 kg.
Pigs breed Barbecue
In the history of pig breeding there were several breeds of woolly animals. Animals from the county of Lincolnshire were considered one of the best along with the Yorkshire pig breed, in the second half of the XIX century. The thick hair of these pigs resembled sheep's wool and was even used to make coarse, homemade yarn. But in 1972 it was officially recognized that the Lincolnshire pigs were lost.
Fortunately, a species of Hungarian or Carpathian, woolly pigs close to the extinct breed has survived - Mangalitsa or Mangalitsky wool. Animals can be of different colors, they are not picky, thanks to thick wool they are hardy and give meat of excellent quality.
Pigs of the Mangal breed are extremely picky, have strong immunity, which makes it possible to refuse to vaccinate young stock and to use the most different types of feed.
The only drawback is the relative rarity of pigs of meat breed and a small number of piglets in offspring. On average, the female gives only 4–5 offspring; in the future, the number of babies in the brood slightly increases.
Asian Visoblobrye pigs
The acquaintance with Asian Vislobryushi pigs in European breeders began only at the end of the last century. Chunky, with a powerful body and large head animals, known as Vietnamese, Chinese or Korean pigs, caused a real flurry of admiration and surprise.
Small, compared to traditional breeds of pigs, animals are ripened, give excellent meat, neat and fairly unpretentious.
With an average weight of an adult boar 150 kg and females - about 120 kg, the yield of juicy low-fat meat can exceed 75%, which is a kind of record among meat breeds. In this case, the females are ready to give the first offspring as early as 4 months, and the number of pigs when farrowing sometimes reaches 20 heads. The picky animals eat grain, hay and green fodder, do not need vaccinations and special conditions of detention.
If piglets receive proper care, by 7 months they reach a slaughter weight, keeping up with the growth rates of Duroc or large white pigs.
Vietnamese or Asian pigs, which appeared recently in European farms, immediately aroused the interest of breeders.
At the moment, dwarf pigs have been obtained on the basis of these animals and small European boars. Miniature animals are becoming increasingly popular in different parts of the world. Photos and description of the pig breed touches and surprises even people far from animal husbandry, and mini-pigs are bred all over the world as decorative pets.
Breed of pigs Karmal
The hybrid received from difficult crossing of vislobury pig and woolly mangalitsy, received the name Karmal. The animals received a record early maturity of Asian ancestors, but much heavier and larger. An adult pig of the Karmal breed can gain a weight of about 200 kg, while giving preference to cheap vegetable food and not showing any vagaries while keeping.
From the Carpathian pig, hybrid animals inherited rather thick wool and children's striped piglets. Pigs do not need warm rooms even for the winter, and strong stomachs allow digesting even roughage, inaccessible to the ancestors of the Vietnamese breed. With such a mass of positive qualities, this variety can not yet be called fully formed. Selection work on the breed of pigs Karmal is actively underway to consolidate and increase the best signs.