With the advent of fluorescent light sources, consumers have reduced energy costs by up to 75%. Savings finances of individual organizations was about 3-4 thousand rubles a year.
Use products could not all: a design flaw in the form of bulk size limits the area of operation. Soon the problem was resolved - manufacturers have released compact fluorescent lamps that are compatible with any lighting.
We offer a look into the device and the principle of the miniature bulbs. This information will help to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the fluorescent lamps, to decide whether to buy them.
To not make the wrong choice, it is necessary to pay attention to a number of characteristics of the lamp, to compare these parameters with the upcoming operating conditions. Proper and safe operation of the fluorescent lamp depends on the manufacturer - an overview of trusted brands presented in the article.
The content of the article:
How are miniature devices
- Features of the structure of the bulb
- Types of electronic control mechanisms
- Variety of plinths CFL
- What are the principles functioning equipment
- Strengths and weaknesses of the product
- Key specifications
Rating popular manufacturers
- PRODUCT FUNCTIONALITY General Electric
- Safe and reliable light bulbs PHILIPS
- High-tech light sources OSRAM
- Balance of price and quality of the Navigator
- Budgetary instruments SPACE
- Useful guidelines for choosing CFL
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How are miniature devices
Energy-saving bulbs are much smaller than the standard, able to create thanks to cardinal processing design. Very luminous tube learned to curl spiral, bend a few additions like an accordion, performed in the classical round or pear-shaped.
Features of the structure of the bulb
It is an opportunity to give the desired shape has become a major achievement towards the development of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). All other minor obstacles to overcome with the help of electronics.
Apparatus similar equipment includes three major components: a glass flask ballast and socket.
Kolb products on the inside is coated with phosphor. It converts ultraviolet rays generated by the device in the luminous flux, which will be visible to the human eye.
Performance, light color and other parameters of the lighting of the lamp depends on the quality of the composition of the substance.
The flask bulb electrodes are mounted tungsten, which is applied to the surface of the active complex mixture of chemicals - calcium, barium and strontium. The space is filled with an inert gas added with about 3-8 mg of mercury
Phosphors used in the manufacture of CFLs are based on rare earth elements. They are different from those used in the manufacture of linear fluorescent devices.
Their cost is several tens of times higher, but is completely justified by the fact that this group of substances capable of functioning in conditions of high density of surface irradiation.
This feature will significantly reduce the discharge tube diameter.
The range of compact fluorescent lamps meet various forms: U-shaped with a certain number of tubes, the F-type, spiral, circular, candles
Types of electronic control mechanisms
Since fluorescent lights can not work from a network directly in their designs provided an accessory for connection - internal or external Ballasts.
Electronic ballasts are powered by high voltage, which increases the luminous flux and efficiency and reduces the lamp to flicker. The better and more reliable mechanism, the longer is the light
During startup electronic component heats up the electrodes, and then maintains normal current output parameters regardless of voltage surges.
Lamps with external electromagnetic equipment called not integrated. They are equipped with unusual cap, series connected choke and starter.
Variety of plinths CFL
Mini representatives fluorescent lamps equipped with one of the two types of caps: Pin or screw.
screw caps «E» indicate the mark. It is the most common type of connection that is identical to a simple incandescent bulb.
For small lamps provided minions E14. Into a standard household socket fit chucks E27, more powerful and dimensional - E40. Thread diameter in millimeters of products determined by the digit surrounding the labeling
plinths G connects the bulb with a cartridge according to a special pattern of pins through the system - they are usually two or four. The most popular among them are G23 and G27. Basically, they screwed into table lamps.
In industrial premises and outlets common lamp socket G24. For installation in drywall and stretch ceiling system is ideal basement G53.
What are the principles functioning equipment
CFLs work by analogy with linear fluorescent lamps, but on a smaller area. Luminous tube-bulb filled with an inert gas and mercury vapor. On both sides there are arranged filament.
Running lamp comes with an electronic control gear enclosed in a plastic case.
At the time of inclusion in the interior of the flask is carried out electric discharge. Thereafter, ultraviolet light is emitted. Phosphor present on the tube walls, transforming it into visible rays.
Strengths and weaknesses of the product
Like any other light source, fluorescent bulbs with a number of small dimensions peculiar advantages and disadvantages.
Small luminescent devices emit light in a variety of color spectrum. Their scope is very wide: from offices and residential buildings to industrial and commercial buildings
Numerous feedback from users of such light equipment given many positive nuances:
- High performance. For equal values of wattage CFL light stream more than incandescent bulbs parameters 5-6 times.
- Sensible energy saving. According to the average estimate, the luminescent light source gives up to 80% of the resources for lighting, and up to 20% - in the heat. In this regard, the light output device 20 W 100 W would be similar conventional bulbs.
- Durability. Duration stable operation CFL - 6-12 thousand hours. More specific figures are dependent on the manufacturer, compliance with operating standards, frequency on / off the device.
- The low temperature of the flask. Bulbs emit a minimum amount of heat, and therefore they can be safely screwed in devices in which the temperature limitation provided instructions.
Compact fluorescent lamps provide the correct and powerful light emission. Light rays are reflected in the total area of the flask surface, illuminating the room brightly and evenly.
Devices can not withstand a short on-off cycles. According to the established standards producers, a break between them should be not less than 2-3 minutes
Deficiencies in equipment also missing.
The negative points should include:
- Quite a long start-up. Lamp ignited after 0.5-1 second after switching on. Some models require installation time of full light output in the range of 10-15 minutes.
- High ripple, noise, flicker in products equipped with an external gear. This causes rapid fatigue, bad for the overall health of people in the room.
- Flash off. This phenomenon occurs due to sudden discharge of the capacitor and can reduce service life.
- Sensitivity to moisture and low temperatures. CFLs do not work after temperature readings fall below zero.
It should also be noted that the lamps are not compatible with standard light control dimmers. In the market, there are separate versions with dimming function values, dimmers, connecting by the special scheme.
When the random destruction of light sources there is a high probability of chemical contamination. Strong poisoning can cause mercury vapor contained in the flask.
Burned lamp shall not be treated independently and disposed of in general waste bins. To this end, better to turn to specialized reception centers mercury-containing waste
To avoid unpleasant symptoms, you need to quickly collect smashed the flask into a container filled with water, and then thoroughly rinse the floor with potassium permanganate and ventilate the room.
Detailed information about the recycling of fluorescent lamps is presented in this article.
In addition to the small structural difference, CFL and different technical characteristics. For a visual informing the buyer they are put down by the manufacturer on the product packaging.
- Colour temperature;
- color rendering index;
- light output and luminous efficiency;
- life time.
Power energy-saving light bulbs mini starts at 5 watts. At equal power values with the classic representatives of their luminous efficacy is approximately five times higher. By choosing this option, you should be guided by the equivalent ratio.
For example, the housekeeper 9W 45W will correspond to conventional light bulbs, 13 W - 65 W, 22 W - 110 W, 26 W - 130 watts.
On the packaging you can see all relevant information about the product under consideration as: type of cap and bulb Index Color rendering (Ra), color temperature (K) equivalent power (W), the strength of light stream (lm), class Energy (+)
As already mentioned in the list of benefits, CFLs covers a wide range of color temperature. Among the different types of models everyone can easily choose the right shade for themselves.
The color temperature of the luminescent devices is calculated in kelvins (K). The tone of coverage is adjusted by changing the composition of the phosphor.
There are the following color ranges:
- For 2700-3300 - soft and warm light with a yellow tint that is optimal for kitchen and sleeping quarters;
- For 4200-5400 - daylight white, widely used in the hallways and living rooms;
- For 6000-6500 - cold white rays of light with a bluish glow, recommended for study, office.
In various fields are also used green, red, purple compact bulb with another temperature range (up to 25,000 K). They participate in the lighting of advertising signs, shop windows, buildings at night.
Compliance with the level of natural color lamp color rendering index shows. The maximum value most close to the sunlight - 100 Ra. Min is a dark color and is equal to R 0a.
The higher the color rendering index, the lower the degree of color shift objects and interior items, on which the light falls. V CFL this parameter is 60-98 Ra
The nominal life of the product, which is written on the package - the smallest duration of work in compliance with all the rules of operation. On the parameter is influenced by many factors.
Significantly reduce the expected timing may voltage spikes on the network, reduced or excessive operating temperature, pollution, debris and dust, frequent switching on and off.
Rating popular manufacturers
at choosing energy-saving bulbs Experts advise not to skimp and purchase only quality models trusted brands, provides a guarantee on their products. This will guarantee a long and stable operation. According to recent statistics, leaders in the ranking of the best CFL manufacturers were five firms.
PRODUCT FUNCTIONALITY General Electric
Compact bulbs American manufacturers produce a line Biax. Title multiaxial structure assumes the structure of the instrument - the tube folded in 2, 4 or 6 times compared with the conventional element.
Buyers separately note the model of "butterfly", the shape of which resembles a Letter D, located on the symmetry. It provides uniform light stream in flat lighting equipment
brand devices have a capacity of 5 to 55 watts. They have a high color rendering index - more than 82 Ra. Standard modifications are equipped with two terminals and four.
The latter have the ability to control the flow of light rays. The range has a miniature version of the light bulbs made in globo- and Candle shape.
Special attention is given a series of OutdoorCovering the extended temperature range - from -35 ° C to + 65 ° C. The average service life of products - 10-12 thousand hours.
Safe and reliable light bulbs PHILIPS
Known Dutch brand home appliance produces small energy saving light bulb with a minimum content of mercury.
According to the manufacturer, through the use of new technology New Generation the amount of chemicals in the devices is completely safe for humans. CFLs have a brand logo "environmentally friendly."
Under ideal conditions PHILIPS lamps operate 10-12 thousand hours. They consistently kept up to 10,000 switching cycles. The color rendering index of products - from 80 Ra.
Models of various forms of c screw or pin base presented in a series of Tornado, Master PL.
The product range includes special models designed for professional lighting shop windows. They emit a sparkling white light and give the product a unique radiance.
High-tech light sources OSRAM
Compact energy-saving equipment of the German company offered to customers in a series of DULUX. Products quickly reach the nominal light stream, its power is distributed perfectly, emit a pleasant, not blinding light.
Construction of strong plastic with grooves provides increased impact resistance devices.
In numerous laboratory tests it has been proved that the effect of flicker in the devices of the brand is almost absent. The average length of service modifications made - about 12-15 thousand hours.
OSRAM light bulbs are endowed with various technological innovations. The German firm is actively used in products built-in dimming, electrodeless innovative technologies to reduce the time the instrument is switched
The range of options provided for CFLs for outdoor lights, decoration, creating a creative lighting design. model SENSOR equipped with a light sensor: they alone are included in the darkness and off during daylight.
Balance of price and quality of the Navigator
Small fluorescent bulbs Russian brand with standard sizes of caps sold under a series NCL.
Modifications are intended for public, office and residential space. Dimensions are among the most compact in its class competitors.
The diameter of the fluorescent tubes in the equipment of the company Navigator is 7-9 mm. Lamps can easily be screwed into any fixtures, including a narrow short shades
Products brand available in different forms of interest: U-shaped with 2, 4, 6, arcs, pear-shaped, helical, semi-spiral, cylindrical, Candle.
The equipment has a good color rendering index (> 82Ra). Devices designed for a lifetime of about 8-10 thousand hours.
To ensure the correct temperature for the electronic circuit operating mode, you need to leave at least 15 mm clearance between the canopy lighting equipment and plastic housing cap.
Also, the manufacturer warns that the energy-saving device should not be placed in the design with light sensor, time, brightness controllers.
Budgetary instruments SPACE
Russian company's products are characterized by silent operation. In electronic ballast devices is used, operating at high frequencies are not perceived by the human ear.
The housing is made of a special light bulbs resistant plastic, which eventually yellowing from ultraviolet radiation.
Lamps adapted to any working position in the luminaire. The assortment of the company Cosmos stands out a huge variety of bulb variations: chetyrehdugovye (4U), mirror, spiral (SP), Globe-shaped (GL), bulbs in the shape of a lotus (LT)
The inner part of the flask is coated articles three phosphor-phosphor exhibiting the best color reproduction. Light bulbs not distort actual colors of objects in the room.
Provided activity until 2.7 hours with normal frequency of on / off devices are of 8 to 10 thousand hours.
Useful guidelines for choosing CFL
When choosing a compact fluorescent light bulb for the home, you must take into account all the criteria that are of fundamental importance. To get started is to analyze in detail the main technical parameters.
In addition, experts recommend pay attention to the following points:
- Buy CFLs desirable only in specialized departments of lighting.
- Each room should be selected lamp characteristics individually. The optimum combination of light stream, color temperature and brightness is determined depending on the purpose of the room.
- Before buying it is important to verify whether the dimensions correspond to the selected size of the bulb lamp housing. The edges of the light source, beyond the ceiling, may dazzle.
No need to change all the lights in the house on the luminescent devices simultaneously. The first step is better to take 2-3 lamps with different color temperature and see if they cause discomfort to the eyes.
lamp assembly quality level greatly affects the duration of its life. Almost always cheaper devices go down quickly, and their actual tehparametry often do not correspond to the declared
It is important to bear in mind that CFLs are suitable for lamps that operate at least a few hours a day. In rooms where lighting is required only 5-10 minutes a day, using them is inappropriate.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Test comparison of CFL with conventional incandescent bulbs and LEDs:
Fluorescent lamps operate for some guidelines:
Review of the technical characteristics of one of the OSRAM company models:
Compact fluorescent devices can perform additional functions, and the main source of indoor or outdoor lighting. Due to its compactness, economy and low temperature heating, they will serve as an excellent alternative to halogen and incandescent devices.
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