Country houses and cottages built, as a rule, are located remotely from a centralized sewer system. Therefore, the question of the organization of local treatment systems for many homeowners is very topical. The optimal solution to the problem - the installation of a septic tank on site.
However, the ignorant consumer difficult to navigate in a variety of proposals. But, you see, is from the proper choice depends largely uninterrupted operation of the equipment and the sanitation in general.
To make things simple, we have prepared a detailed review of the stand-alone installations. Let us examine what device septic tank and a common operating principle of the cleaning system. And also denote features of functioning, installation and operation of various septic tanks.
Based on the above information, photo and video collections you can determine the optimal modification of the unit to suit your needs.
The content of the article:
- Basic elements of the septic tank
- The overall principle of the treatment plant
Features of different types of septic tank
- Cumulative sewage system
- Sediment from soil aftertreatment systems
- Septic tank with biological treatment
The basic scheme of popular models
- Tank - a complex purification Infiltrator
- Tapas - a multi-stage biofiltration
- Triton - volatile cleaning system
- Ecopan - six-speed filtering waste
- Rodlex - septic tank storage type
- Fast - aerobic recycling technology
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Basic elements of the septic tank
Septic tank - the local wastewater treatment plant intended for the arrangement independent of the central sewerage system networks.
The main element of the problem - a temporary accumulation of waste and their subsequent filtration. Modern steel septic tanks advanced alternative to traditional latrine pits.
Septic tank - part of the autonomous sewerage, the collection and treatment of wastewater. In its acquisition need private and commercial facilities, are not able to connect to the centralized sewerage networks
The volatile septic lagoons processing, clarification, disinfection and treatment of water is due to the flow of natural chemical, physical and biological processes
Depending on the number of users of an independent sewer system septic tank volume is selected, depending on the desired degree of purification - the number of chambers
The more cameras in the septic tank sump, the more in-depth processing carried effluent, the smaller the path tested effluents prior to discharge into the ground or terrain
For the construction of an autonomous sewer with its own point of cleaning can be purchased polymer capacity to volume
Everything for a holiday put its own sewage suit handy tools: plastic and metal drums, evrokuby, car tires
The treatment plant of any size can be made by pouring concrete into the frame. The device takes a long time, but long-term performance and reliability justify the price
Much faster than casting a monolithic object, runs the construction of a septic tank of concrete rings. Chamber it is mounted separately, this modular approach is used in the apparatus of septic tanks of several plastic components
Septic tank on a suburban site
Nonvolatile septic tank septic tank
One- and two-chamber cleaning system
Three-chamber septic tank for a private house
Plastic containers for the independent water drain
Using the barrel as a septic tank
Precast reinforced concrete structures
Septic tank of a private house of concrete rings
Understanding the design and operation of the mechanism will facilitate the choice of septic tank sewage treatment plant and its installation.
Construction of various modifications have some common components. Sewage treatment system is a sealed tank, comprising one or more compartments.
To prevent contamination of ground volume of waste coming into the hole, it should be in the range of 1 cubic meter / day. However, in a house where there is a bathtub, toilet, sink and washing machine, this requirement is not feasible
septic chambers separated by partitions. fluid movement between them is carried out by an overflow pipe.
The first compartment of the domestic sewage is brought home the drain pipe, and from the last camera output purified water into the ground or semi-purified - on soil advanced treatment.
Many models have a mechanical filter - separation of the precipitate occurs without a chemical reaction, and addition of reagents. Effluent filtered through a sand, gravel or expanded clay (+)
The main components of water treatment units are as follows:
- Capacity to defend drains. Storage tanks are made of plastic, metal, concrete or brick. Most preferred model of fiberglass and polypropylene - materials resistant to abrasion, and ensures the tightness of the tank for the entire lifetime.
- The incoming and outgoing line. Overflow pipes are installed under the bias, providing unimpeded flow of fluid between the tanks.
- service elements. Inspection chambers and manholes. It sets at least one well on the outside of the track sewer. With increasing extent of more than 25 m threads arranged additional revision.
- Ventilation system. Regardless of what bacteria (aerobic or anaerobic) are involved in the processing of waste masses for normal activity of microorganisms, removing methane and maintain the desired temperature requires breathability.
The simplest scheme for venting comprises one local sewer in the beginning of the riser system, and the second - on the end section of a septic tank. The regeneration of filtration fields vent stack is installed on each of the drainage pipe.
The ventilation system ensures the removal of the gases formed as a result of the decay of organic matter. Natural ventilation based on the difference of air pressure - supply opening is located lower than the exhaust 2-4 m (+)
The overall principle of the treatment plant
Operation of any septic tank is based on the principle of gravitational sedimentation and biological filtration by natural or forced. Perhaps the use of drugs and biofermentnyh biofilters. Conventionally, the sequence of purification of sewage can be divided into a number of standard steps.
Step 1.primary treatment. According to the sewer from the house waste water flows into the first tank or compartment. Here there is a rough cleaning of suspended particles larger. Heavy slurry (sand and similar insoluble inclusion sinks) are deposited on the bottom of the chamber. Light fraction (fats and oils) rise to the surface and flow into the next compartment.
Step 2.Decomposition heavy particles. Sank to the bottom of the first chamber waste start to ferment and decompose - process time of about 3 days. As a result, impurities fall into dough, carbon dioxide and water.
At the bottom of the first compartment accumulates yl which periodically must be removed. Effectiveness of cleaning fluid in the first chamber is about 60%. For the removal of the soil that is not enough, therefore, requires post-treatment of (+)
Step 3.re-treatment. In the second chamber is re decomposition impurities. In some septic tanks at this stage by the action of specific bacteria and decompose chemical agents (personal hygiene waste) and organic compound.
Step 4.liquid withdrawaland. The further way of water depends on the type of cleaning system. The purified liquid can flow into a tank for subsequent watering the garden.
If insufficient degree of purification, the water passing through the post-treatment process infiltrate drainage well, fields for filtering dirt etc.
Septic tanks sumps purified waste water by 65 - 80%. In order to dispose of waste water into the soil or terrain, it is necessary to conduct additional cleaning dirt, the easiest option is a filter well
The main condition for the aftertreatment system of the device is the distance between its bottom and conditional ground water level is not less than 1 m. Therefore, in the case of high occurrence HS constructing the filter box
A modernized version of the filtration field is Infiltrator - a plastic cassette, collected from several modules depending on the planned processing volume
To simplify the system of ground post-treatment are filtration trench - a shortened field type filter, which is suitable for small areas
Septic settler with a well filter
Field filtration on a suburban section
An improved version of the filter field
Drainage pipe in the filter trench
Schematic description of the operating principle of a conventional septic tank process transmits common features. Each modification treatment plant has structural and operational performance nuances.
Features of different types of septic tank
All water treatment plants are divided into three categories: storage tanks, septic tanks-models with additional cleaning and dirt septic tanks deep biological treatment of wastewater. Consider how each of the septic tanks in more detail.
Cumulative sewage system
In fact, storage septic tank, an analogue cesspool - sealed a solid one-chamber tank, which receives sewage. In designs accumulative type waste is collected and stored temporarily. As the filling of the tank is pumped sewage using vacuum trucks.
The volume of the container varies within 1-4 cubic meters tank dimensions are matched to the particular needs of the family - namely, the average daily volume of sewage
Scheme sewage system is very simple and consists of the drive and the outer pipe.
Septic may further be provided with:
- check valve - prevents motion of sewage in the opposite direction;
- signaling with the sensor level effluents - notify the owners of the filling of the tank and the need for pumping sewage.
Popular models of storage septic tanks: Bars-H, beetle, Rodlex,cleansing.
Setting drive justified in case of impossibility arrangement subsequent filtration system or septic seasonal use, for example, cottage
Sediment from soil aftertreatment systems
Units with additional cleaning groundwater belongs to the category of the overflow structures. The system consists of two or three sections and devices for additional filtering wastewater. Once in the holding tank, waste masses are asserted and decompose under the action of the anaerobic bacteria.
Flowing from the vessel into the vessel, the mass of waste pass several stages natural separation. However, the degree of purely mechanical processing reaches the maximum 65 - 70%. Therefore, wastewater treatment for high-grade, emerging from the lagoons, must undergo additional advanced treatment before disposal and discharge of the relief on or in the ground.
The initial filtration is carried out in a sealed tank. Semi-purified waste water derived in the dirt after-treatment - drainage basins without a bottom with a "filter bag" in the ground
Ways of organizing dirt tertiary sewage treatment:
- seepage pit;
- Field underground purification;
- filter trench.
filter well. It fits in sandy soils of varying size and density of addition. Can be used in sandy loam with a minimum number of plasticity.
produce filter well It can be of precast concrete, stone or brick. Kosntruktsiya has no bottom - the base of the well is filled with gravel. The height of the drainage layer - 1 m.
to the arrangement of requirements: the distance from the "filter bag" to groundwater - a minimum of 100 cm. filtration area for sand - 1.5 m, sandy loam - 3 m per one family member
Field underground filtration. The complex of perforated tubes arranged on the filter area - sand and gravel backfill. The clarified supernatant in the septic tank, and water is supplied to the irrigation pipe with holes.
Liquid seeps into the groundwater and into the filter. Pipes can be connected to the vent manifold jumper tap settle or separate risers ventilation.
Technical requirements: the height of gravel and sand cushion - 20 cm, depth of irrigation pipes - 0.5-1.8 m from the surface, at least one of m should be between conventional systems and the bottom level groundwater
filter trench system. The construction used in clay soils and divisions, with discharge of treated wastewater into an unused reservoir. In the prepared trench depth of 1.5-1.7 m are arranged in two tiers pipe: the upper called irrigation lower drains.
Supernatant in the septic tank the water enters the upper conduit, and seeps through the perforation passes through the final purification gravel and sand. Then passed through a natural precoat filter effluents collected underlying drainage pipe - drains through which discharged to the disposal site.
Having filtration, water enters the lower tube and dumped on the terrain - part absorbed into the ground, and some - in the nearest pond or ravine
The main "element" post-treatment and disposal of sewage water taking acts not design, and directly laminate the precoat filter. It is necessary to collect only the interface for efficient fluid distribution within the Earth.
Septic tank with biological treatment
Bioseptik - deep cleaning station based on micro-organisms. The system is a sealed single block, reinforced ribs and subdivided into several chambers. The number of sections determines the efficiency of purification.
Fluids entering of the soil pipe inside the septic tank, subjected to various purification methods. Water output is cleared by 90 - 96% or more, so you can use it for watering plants or poured into the reservoir. Additional filtering in groundwater systems is not required.
Sewage treatment plant with biofiltration can be installed on any geological conditions of sites, regardless of the level of groundwater. Septic fully operational - a body with "stuffing" should only be installed and connected to the sewerage (+)
- The first chamber serves as a sump. Here, impurity particles are divided into heavy and light fractions and film forming floating precipitate anaerobes and processed without needing supply of oxygen.
- In the second compartment organic and inorganic wastes are decomposed by aerobic microorganisms requiring oxygen for regular processing of the private and life.
- In the third chamber the filtered effluent or disinfected with chemical components are subjected to repeated impacts aerobic bacteria.
To activate the aerobic microorganisms in the septic tank chamber must act oxygen - the device is provided with an aerator. Therefore, the majority of stations Bioremediation are volatile.
The basic scheme of popular models
In an effort to improve the effectiveness of the septic system, manufacturers are constantly improving the product units. Some are trying to facilitate the design and make the scheme work more understandable, while others - increase the number of cycles and the cleaning quality, introducing innovative technologies.
Tank - a complex purification Infiltrator
septic tank Tank - waste water treatment system with after-treatment devices dirt. The one-piece device chassis is reinforced by thick ribs 17 mm thick. Due to its design septic tank may be installed in different soils.
Due to the block-modular structure, if necessary, to get a "ramp up" of the system.
septic tank consists of two or three chambers. Filters, partitions and biogranules allow sewage purifying three ways: mechanical, biological and chemical
water purification loop in a septic tank is divided into the following stages:
- At the receiver, the heavy precipitate inorganic substances. The clarified water overflows into the second compartment.
- The liquid is subjected to anaerobic treatment and the fermentation process is split into simpler compounds. In the second chamber the membrane disposed delaying fat fraction.
- The sumps into two compartments purification cycle ends at Infiltrator. In the three-chamber tanks, the water passes the biological purification. The last compartment is filled with a colony of bacteria capable of utilizing impurity.
At the output of purified water at 75-80% (depending on the number of cameras). For a complete clarification of the system is complemented by Infiltrator - a bottomless reservoir set in a trench in the "cushion" of sand and rubble.
Passing through the filter layer, impurities deposited unmetabolized - enters in the ground water, purified to 95-98%. Alternative to infiltrate - drain well or filtration pad
Tapas - a multi-stage biofiltration
septic tank Tapas - sewerage system biochistki deep. The device unit is fundamentally different from the structure of "horizontal" septic tanks. Vertically oriented body is divided into 4 sections, circulating between which impurities are purified by 98%.
The main part of the wastewater treatment is performed by aerobic microorganisms. For a life of bacteria in each chamber is provided aerator. The filters trap particles of various sparingly soluble fraction (+)
In Scheme device aerobic septic it is seen that all sections cleaning apparatus are interconnected by hoses. Airlift - variety tube pump which transports the treated water, sludge and other impurities from one compartment to another.
Septic running from the power supply. All wastewater treatment process within the structure takes place on a given cycle, thanks to well-thought-out internal structure
Compartment 1. The primary impurity into a chamber and exposed to aerobic bacteria are split into lighter components, water and sludge.
bay 2. The camera fall effluent purified to 45-50%. In the aeration tank the air flow raises the fine particles to the water surface. The compartment has a pyramidal shape, that facilitates rapid precipitation of sludge. After airlift liquid flows into the next chamber.
Compartment 3. In the secondary clarifier effluent re-converted to water and silt.
Compartment 4. The cell accumulates purified water. As the filling tank rises liquid level sensor transmits a signal to the drain pump of the container is full.
Triton - volatile cleaning system
septic Tank Triton performs mechanical and biological filtration with additional cleaning dirt. Important advantages of Triton models: compact and simple design. For suburban area, small country estate or put a bath often selected septic Triton-Mini.
Two tanks are interconnected in the top and bottom nozzles. This solution increased the space for accumulation of sludge on the common bottom and the semi-purified water allowed to flow freely into the next compartment.
The second chamber is equipped biofilter - floating type device with a biologically active backfill. Despite the presence of the filter, the degree of processing waste mass is insufficient to eject it into the soil (+)
For purification of effluents in water treatment plants Triton-Mini provided infiltration Triton-400.
Ecopan - six-speed filtering waste
septic tank Ecopan - a local station with a full cycle of the biological cleaning of sewage. The design developed for the difficult operating conditions puchnisty, clay soil, high water table, large depth of laying the supply pipe.
Tank cylindrical shape with a reinforced head. The stiffness of the container is increased by transverse bulkheads. Inside the septic tank is divided into six chambers.
Purpose of compartments: 1 - the primary settler 2 - anaerobic bioreactor 3 - aeration tank, 4 - second sump 5 - bioreactor posttreatment, 6 - third decanter
- In septic chamber asserted sewage mass deposited and solid fractions.
- The anaerobic effluent recycle compartment microorganisms, purifying and clarifying them.
- In the aeration tank in effect aerobic bacteria. Aerator saturates impurity oxygen, activating the action of microorganisms and accelerate decomposition of organic, inorganic substances.
- Secondary clarifier sludge accumulates residues which via airlift pumped into the first chamber for re-cleaning.
- Bioreactor aftertreatment comprises dolomite. Mineral promotes better filtration effluent.
- In a third settler also is airlift outputting precipitate into the first chamber.
After treating the purified water is discharged into the natural ground or dumped in the collecting tank for use in technical applications.
Rodlex - septic tank storage type
storage tank Rodlex made of polymer rotational molding process. -Molded container equipped with elongated necks and lids (diameter hatch - 80 cm). Septic tank is used as a cesspool.
The landing pads are provided designs that are arranged on the sides of the neck and the septic tank. Entry pipe can be adjusted in height (+)
If necessary, the working volume expansion, several tanks in series are interconnected into a coherent accumulation system.
Fast - aerobic recycling technology
septic tank Fast - an innovative solution treatment of domestic sewage. The unit is designed so that the work of processing the waste mass is carried out as quickly as possible.
The treatment plant consists of a receiving unit, a secondary settling tank, aeration tank built, the pump and the module, where processing is performed aerobic effluent. Habitat microorganisms - specific cell (+)
Sewage entering the receiving chamber, immediately processed for aerobic microorganisms. With the compressor and fan air is supplied into the septic tank - cleaved and activated biomass waste. The cellular structure of impurity module, air and microorganisms active mixed - effluents are converted into water and precipitate.
Simultaneously, the job included airlift providing displacement liquid in the second compartment. Here the water is clarified and settles naturally - yl falls to the bottom. Work on the expansion of sewage continue to anaerobic bacteria.
The clarified liquid is discharged through the outlet. In parallel with the discharge is sending a new batch of sewage.
Septic Fast - a self-regulating system that adapts to the wastewater with larger particles or impurity with the chemical components. Due to the cellular structure of the module bacteria are able to heal itself.
From the action of aggressive chemicals kills microorganisms deposited on the walls of the septic tank and drains the surface. Bacteria inside the cells survive and continue to actively proliferate.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Complete picture of the device and the principle of operation of treatment facilities will help to make vivid videos.
The main components of the local sewage system on the basis of a septic tank and the principle of its action:
The principle of liquid movement in the autonomous sewer Tapas:
The procedure for deep wastewater treatment by the example of septic YUNILOS Astra:
Realizing the device and the principle of the organization of the cleaning process, you get to choose the most optimal model of septic tank. Despite the apparent similarities, each modification has its own technical and operational features which must be taken into account during assembly and maintenance of the system.
Septic tank to look for a country house or villa? Or have experience in the use of such facilities? Leave, please, comment on the article and share experiences on the use of stand-alone treatment facilities.