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The plant is a stone fruit. Plum for the Moscow region - the best variety of fruit tree for simplicity. Unlike apricots and peaches, plum initially grows in temperate latitudes, suffers a winter cooling. Gardeners are offered a variety of varieties based on many years of breeding of various types of plums from China, Spain, America, and their multiple pollinations.
Characteristics of the Plum
All plums represent the tree obtained from the stone. Basically, plums grow to 3-6 meters, have a rounded crown. Skeletal branches are located at an acute angle to the trunk, the shape of the tree depends on the variety. There are colonic plants - the result of a natural mutation, fixed by selection. Compact and productive, they claim the best varieties of plums for the Moscow region.
Plum fruits, depending on the variety, have a color ranging from green to dark purple. The size of the cream varies from 20 to 150 grams. There are samoplodnye varieties, but any of them will give greater yields during cross-pollination. The crop ripens in the Moscow region from July to mid-September, which depends on the variety.
All plum varieties are divided by their use:
- plums are edible, have a pleasant taste, almost all of them are obtained as a result of selection;
- conditionally edible consider the fruits of wild plums, which have no commercial value;
- decorative plums are used in landscape design, their flowering, the shape of a tree and a leaf create a unique landscape.
Consider the best varieties of plums for the Moscow region, which are in demand among amateurs and professionals.
Early varieties of
plums In July and early August, early varieties will be given a harvest of tasty fruits.
The variety belongs to the domestic group obtained by the Kursakov breeders. Tree medium height, compact, spherical odds. The leaves are large, buds depart from the shoot. The tree enters fruiting for 4 years after planting. Annual bloom with high winter hardiness. The variety is resistant to characteristic plum diseases. Plum Zarechnaya early belongs to the self-fruitless varieties, the pollinator can be Etude, Tambov beauty.
Variety belongs to table varieties, has good transportability. Fruits weighing 35-60 grams have a taste of 4.5 points on a five-point scale, ripen simultaneously in mid-July.
One of the earliest and most productive varieties, which bears fruit well even in the northern part of the Moscow region. Fruits are medium-sized, only 30 g, but the branches are covered with colorful balls. Cream does not lose its taste after freezing, suitable for culinary processing. The variety begins to bear fruit the next year after planting. An adult tree will give 30 kg of delicious fruits. The tree withstands -40 ° C, but it does not tolerate thaw. Plum variety Skoroplodna samobesploden, and pollinated only cherry plum hybrids. Suitable for pollination plum variety Red ball. This is due to early flowering. The height of the spherical tree is 2.5 meters; the hybrid is obtained from the American-Chinese variety Climex, by pollination of Ussuri red.
Early variety bred on the basis of Chinese generation. The tree is not high, 2.5 m tall, crown spreading, pyramidal. The leaf is light green, serrated sharply pointed. The flowers are large, 3 pieces each, white. Fruits weighing 45 g, juicy, fibrous. Tastes are estimated at 4.4 points. Fruits of the Orlovskaya Dream plum do not crack, do not fall, ripen in August.
Fruiting begins at 3 years, the variety is resistant to perforated spotting, the winter hardiness of the roots and the ground part is high. With a large crop, fruits become smaller in weight.
The variety belongs to the Russian Plum group, obtained by pollinating cherry plums from the Burbank Tavricheskaya Chinese plum. The tree is tall, 3 m tall, covered with early small fruits - 20-30 grams.
Dignity of the Plum Travelers are:
- high winter hardiness;
- earlier maturation;
- resistance to fungal diseases;
- annual fruiting.
Disadvantages - self-infertility, with early flowering frozen by returnable frosts.
Late and middle varieties of plums, best for Moscow region.
The Hungarian group of plums has a high sugar content and dark color, and they make prunes, the favorite dried product of all. Trees are tall, plums are harvested after litter. Plum Hungarian Korneevskaya is a self-fertile variety, with a plum weight of 130-140 grams. Dessert fruits, the pulp is well separated from the bones. Fruiting of the tree begins at 3-4 year after planting. A feature of this variety is the breaking of the branches under the weight of the crop. Wanted props.
Hungarian requires careful compliance with the terms of preventive treatment of diseases and pests.
Known in Central Russia, the Smolink plum resembles breeding only in the southern part of the Moscow region. Oval-egg-shaped fruits weigh 35 grams. The taste of plums is dessert, the crop is harvested in mid-August, up to 15-20 kg from one plum. The tree is hasty, fruiting comes in 2-3 years, frost-resistant with rapid regeneration, grows up to 5.5 meters. The cross-pollinated variety, Pollinator, is Suhrannaya and Opal. The branches under the autumn are covered with fruits, without props can be broken.
Small fruits weighing 22 grams of unique taste made plum Memory of Timiryazev as a favorite of Moscow and Central and Middle Volga regions. The fruits ripen in late August and early September. The crown of the tree is bushy, with branches under the weight of the crop.
Self-fertile variety with high reducing ability when freezing. The advantage of the plum Memory of Timiryazev is resistance to klyasterosporiozu and fruit rot. The tree does not like drought, moisture-loving, but is affected by ticks.
Yellow medium-sized fruits weighing 25-35 grams by the fall cover a tree 5.5 meters tall completely. Plum Yakhontovaya suffers drought, frost-resistant, not afraid of return frost. The variety is partially self-propelled, even without a girlfriend each year will give the owners delicate juicy fruits with a small bone.
Fruiting plum comes to 3 years, and on the fifth you can get 50 kg of sun-filled fruit. But this is subject to the availability of plum Hungarian Moscow or Skorospelka red in the neighborhood.
Doubt whether to plant such a tall tree in the country is. But there is a way out - buy a sapling of a plum Yakhontovoy on a dwarf Alex stock plum or Felt cherry.
An old homemade variety with Italian roots and excellent winter hardiness. The tree is up to 3 meters high, rounded - sprawling. Plum Renklod collective farm has a cream of yellow-green color, small in size. Plum belongs to the table varieties, well preserved. Sort created Michurin, crossing Ternosliv and Renklod green. Fruiting begins at 4-5 year and increases gradually. An eight-year-old tree will produce up to 18 kg of cream, and at the age of 11 it will already be a half centner. Only need to collect the fruit quickly, otherwise they crumble.
Dignity of the plum Renklod collective farm:
- exceptional cold resistance and recovery after an abnormally cold winter;
- tree trunk is not subject to freezing.
Plum requires a pollinator, which cannot be derived from Chinese varieties.
The full name of the variety is Egg Blue Plum. A tall tree, up to 6 meters, capable of bearing fruit for 30 years. Its main advantages are self-fertility and winter hardiness. It is not worth expecting a particularly large harvest from this variety, up to 12 kg of tasty fruits annually, no matter what, it will give. The weight of fragrant sweet berries is 35 grams. Enters fructification for 5-6 year.35 degrees of frost stands without damage to the kidneys. The tree can become an ornament of the local area. The harvest is stretched and hangs on the branches for a long time.
Before you kolonovidnaya plum blossoms. Imagine her sprinkled with fruits weighing 60 grams. Interestingly, columnar varieties are a gift of nature, a genetic failure. Breeders noticed an unusual tree shape and secured it. As a result, varieties of columnar fruit trees, including plums, appeared.
A feature of such a tree is the absence of ordinary skeletal branches, and fruit sprigs and spear are formed close to the trunk. At the same time, the yield of trees of such a form exceeds the usual stumps, and quite a bit of space is needed for the development of such a tree.
Plum colonic Imperial skoroplodna, the first crop forms in 2 years, in 17 the fruiting ends, and decorativeness lasts a few more years. The fruits of Imperial are large, 60 grams, and very tasty.
The tree reaches a height of 1.5-2 meters, does not need pruning, but requires support, otherwise it will bend under the weight of the crop. Columns need protection in the winter at any age, especially seedlings.
Responsible thing is to choose a plum variety to give. It is necessary to take into account, the tree shows the best properties when agrotechnics is observed.