Properly connected domestic sewage in the new housing is the key to the normal performance of sanitary equipment and the absence of unpleasant odors, and professional installation of pipes allows you to preserve the integrity of the new repair in premises.
To make the right decisions in the process of laying sewage requires knowledge of the schemes of its arrangement and the necessary materials. In this article we will tell what the internal sewage system consists of and about the basic principles of its arrangement.
The content of the article:
Types of sewer pipes
- What material is used for manufacturing?
- Sewer pipe diameters
- Pipe assembly technology
- Tilt angle calculation
- Why do we need a water seal?
Domestic sewage private house
- Highlights of the arrangement
- Stages of circuit design
- Calculations when planning
- Sequence of plumbing installation work
Domestic sewage in the apartment
- Principles of internal arrangement
- Features of the layout in the apartment
- The procedure for the installation of sewer cabling
- Basic planning rules
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Types of sewer pipes
For domestic needs, sewage pipes are made of various materials and different diameters.
Theoretically, the wider the diameter and thicker the wall, the better the permeability and less risk of sagging the pipe. But the aesthetics of appearance and price change the real choice of people when purchasing these products.
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In the assembly of domestic sewers now mostly non-metallic pipes and fittings are used. The most commonly used products made of polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low or high pressure polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE)
In the connection of parts and assemblies of plastic sewage systems, bell-shaped, glue and welded methods are used. Basically they are connected by a bell-shaped method with the obligatory use of a rubber ring-shaped seal.
Companies engaged in the production of water pipes for sewage, produce an extensive range of angle elbows, tees, adapters. Products are unified, products of any brand can be selected for standard diameters of 32... 110 mm
PVC pipes with a special socket, designed to create adhesive bonding, glued. Before these surfaces to be joined, roughened
Sewage of plastic pipes
Pipe with a bell to connect the elements of the system
Shaped parts for sewer system assembly
Glue flare joints of the pipeline
What material is used for manufacturing?
The durability and tranquility of the residents depend on the material of the sewer pipes.
The choice of material for sewer pipes is best done with a specialist. Cheap products can quickly flow or deform under their own weight.
Pig-iron sewer pipes have not been used in household sewage for a long time; plastic analogs have taken their place, which can be made of the following materials:
- Polyethylene. Sewage pipes from this material are flexible, sag, so their joints are difficult to seal. Polyethylene pipes are used in industrial sewage systems, where they are reinforced with transverse rings and used in areas with difficult landscapes. In the internal sewage they are not used.
- Polypropylene. Pretty expensive, but has good mechanical strength. Sewer pipes made of this material are heat-resistant, resistant to the effects of abrasive particles and perfectly tolerate cleaning with a cable.
- Polyvinyl chloride PVC pipes are almost no different from polypropylene in their properties, but they are a bit noisier and can sag when water flows over them over 70 degrees.
For apartment and house sewer enough PVC pipes or polypropylene, which, if properly installed, will last for several decades.
Sewer pipe diameters
There are standard diameters of sewer pipes, which allow to combine products from different manufacturers.
The thicker the wall, the less bend the pipes, so with their large length it is recommended to purchase thickened products with increased rigidity
Most common when installing internal sewage pipes with a diameter of 40 mm and 50 mm.
For risers, a pipe with a diameter of 110 mm is used, but in multi-storey cottages its size can be increased. For joining pipes of different clearance, adapters and nozzles of corresponding sizes are used.
Specified minimum values. If there is a large amount of grease and waste in the drains, it is recommended to increase the pipe diameters to the next standard size.
Pipe assembly technology
The procedure for assembling plastic sewer pipes is extremely simple and similar to the children's designer. Each of the pipes has a length of up to 3-5 meters, and their minimum size is regulated by a hacksaw or special pipe cutter.
The smooth ends of the pipes must be well cleaned and firmly stuck into the socket, otherwise the hair and fibrous remnants of products may accumulate at the internal junction
A purchased pipe or adapter has two different ends: smooth and with an extension (socket). The simple end of the other pipe is inserted into the socket. To seal the connection in the extension there is a groove for installing the rubber ring. For better sliding during installation, the sealant can be smeared with a thin layer of silicone.
The rubber ring should be lubricated with a sealant only during the final installation of the system, and not during the fitting process.
Tilt angle calculation
The peculiarity of the internal sewage system lies in the fact that both insufficient and excessive slope of pipes leads to their clogging. With a small slope, solids settle to the bottom, without being washed off by a weak stream of water.
With a large percentage of the slope, the clear liquid quickly goes away, while food particles remain on the walls and solidify, which eventually narrows the tube lumen. The maximum allowable slope should not be more than 150 mm per meter of pipe.
Compliance with the standards of horizontal pipe installation leads to the effect of "self-cleaning", in which solids are washed away by water flow into the riser, and they do not settle on the inner wall of the sewer.
The sizes of the slopes indicated in the diagram can be increased by 25% without the risk of negative consequences, and it is not recommended to make the slope less than these values
The specified slope values are calculated per meter of pipe, so if a three-meter pipe from the sink goes in the house with a diameter of 50 mm, the difference in its levels at the sewer riser and at the junction with the siphon should be at least 9 cm
For more information on calculating the slope angle of sewer tubes, see this material.
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The sewer system is assembled after the installation of the risers. Lines are collected from plumbing to tees or crosses with the obligatory observance of the slope
In order to form the necessary slope with an open pipeline laying, the route is first laid out on the wall, then the pipe is freely laid without fastening, placing bricks or chocks
For concealed laying of pipelines in the walls, choose a shter. During the sampling period, lay the required slope
The slope of sewer pipes is regulated by regulations, its size depends on the diameter of the pipe. For pipes up to 50 mm inclusive, the normal slope is 0.035, the smallest is 0.025
Sewer pipes with a diameter of 110 mm are laid with a slope of 0.02. If it is not possible to achieve the specified value, the slope is reduced to 0.012.
Trunk lines diverting wastewater outside the house, collected from pipes with a diameter of 150 mm. The standard slope for them is 0.01, that is 1 cm per linear meter, the smallest is 0.007
When two devices are connected to one branch line, the diameter of the pipe extending from the device is selected in accordance with the type of device. The slope must match the diameter
By the risers, the branch sewer branches are connected using angled bends with a fixed angle 45 ° and 60 ° or using straight tees and crosses at 90 ° with smoothly angled branch pipes
Communications device in the bathroom
Open laying sewer pipe
Option of the hidden laying of the pipeline
Sewage taps from the sink and bathtub
Slope for sewer pipes with a diameter of 110 mm
Sewer pipe with a diameter of 150 mm
Connect two devices to the same line
Device smooth corners and turns
Why do we need a water seal?
The smell of sewage remains in pipes and risers due to such hydrophysical phenomenon as water lock. This water plug, which is formed in the siphon due to the drained water. It does not allow a rotten smell to enter the bathroom.
To prevent water from drying out in the siphon during a long absence in the apartment, it is recommended to pour a little vegetable oil into the sink drain or toilet bowl to reduce the evaporation area.
If the sewer pipe lacks permeability, then with a massive descent of water may be a failure of the trap. In this case, due to the siphon effect, all the water leaves the bend, and the putrid air flows from the sewage system into the room.
Domestic sewage private house
In the arrangement and design of the domestic sewage of a country house, errors and omissions can occur, which are accompanied by the need to redo the installation work already done.
To minimize such situations, you can use the following instructions and rules for planning and assembling the sewerage system of an individual house.
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Water supply and sewage are two interconnected systems that are constructed and operate in tandem. Sewerage and installation of plumbing requires a mandatory water supply
Laying of sewage and water supply is possible in private houses of any height, regardless of the materials used in the construction of objects
The layout of water supply systems is similar to the schemes used in the arrangement of urban housing. The only difference is that the sewage treatment plant and the source of water intake can be autonomous
Water pipes are laid on top of the structures, after which they are masked or not masked by false walls made of plasterboard
Sewer pipes are laid with a bias towards the risers. They are laid in a wooden ceiling between the logs or poured tie
The installation of the toilet bowl is performed in the same way as in a regular apartment: with connection to the sewer outlet of the bowl and cistern to the water supply system
After connecting to the sewer outlet, the connection unit is checked for leaks by pouring a bucket of water into the toilet. If everything is normal, install a tank on the bowl and connect it to the water supply
The shower stall is placed near the water sockets, to which the shower mixer and the check valves are connected. Shower drain is connected to the sewer pipe
Sewerage and plumbing in a private house
Autonomous communications layout
Eyeliner pipes and installation of water sockets
Sewing the wall with water sockets drywall
Preparing to fill the screed overlap
Installation and fixing the toilet bowl
Using flutes in the connection to release
Installation of shower tray
Highlights of the arrangement
Internal sewage of the house has the appearance of a complex of plastic risers, pipes and fittings, which used to discharge wastewater from plumbing equipment and other devices using water
The main element of the internal sewage in the house is a vertical riser, which collects water from the rest of the horizontal wiring. In large houses there may be two for ease of installation and more free planning of the location of rooms.
The upper part of the riser is displayed above the roof of the house and is equipped with a special lid or valve, which allow air to enter the pipe at times of draining to prevent siphoning and stalling water seal.
According to the norms, the sanitary pipe should be placed on the roof to a height of not less than 50 cm from the roof surface.
It is also possible scheme of ventilation ringing, in which the far edge of the outlet horizontal pipe is connected to the riser above the discharge point.
The riser is led out of the house through the basement or underground space into the street into the well. From the vertical pipe is plastic wiring to the toilet, sinks and other equipment. There are siphons between sewer pipes and plumbing fixtures that prevent unpleasant odors from entering the room.
The ringing of ventilation makes sense only in the absence of a fan outlet or its large height above the level of the entrance of the horizontal wiring to the riser
Stages of circuit design
If the house scheme is not made by a specialized project organization, but by the owner on his own, then you should plan the kitchen, bathroom and sewer layout yourself.
A preliminary analysis of the needs will then allow you to do the interior decoration of the rooms as you would like, and not as circumstances compel.
The procedure for designing the interior drainage scheme is as follows:
- Take a plan of the house on the land and determine the location of the sewage well. If the plumbing will be located on several floors, then the plan should be floor-by-floor.
- Mark the location of vertical risers.
- Draw the location of all the equipment that needs a sewer connection.
- To draw horizontal pipes from equipment to risers.
- Determine the diameter of the riser and the length of the fun pipe.
- Analyze the need to purchase plastic elbows, tees and adapters.
- Consider the possibility of a hidden sewage system and the need for decorative boxes.
In accordance with the scheme, then the entire internal sewage system will be installed. The more carefully the plastic wiring plan is planned, the less problems will be with its installation.
Calculations when planning
To make a graphic image of a domestic sewage scheme for a country house is a guarantee of avoiding major engineering mistakes. For the study of small parts requires an accurate calculation of the parameters of the sewer system.
Therefore, it is necessary to take the already drawn scheme and analyze the following parameters:
- calculate the length of horizontal plastic pipes and the ability to comply with their norms of slope;
- calculate the required number and diameter of seals, connecting elements, adapters;
- decide whether pumping equipment is required for the normal functioning of the sewer system;
- calculate the maximum simultaneous flow through the supply pipes. A pipe with a diameter of 40 mm is usually sufficient for one device;
- consider the need for an additional air circuit in case the toilet bowl is located above the level of other equipment in the horizontal routing system.
Correctly performed the above actions will make the sewage system efficient and operational, even with maximum loads and minor pipe blockages.
Sequence of plumbing installation work
When planning the construction of a house, you need to focus on the following sequence of installation of its internal sewage system:
- Risers are installed, their ends are displayed on the roof and in the basement.
- Toilet bowls join the risers.
- Horizontal wiring is formed and one end of it is connected to the riser.
- Siphons are connected to the plumbing.
- Plumbing appliances are connected to the sewage system.
The organization of an external sewage system can be done before or after the actions described.
After installation of both systems, they are combined into one, connecting the internal risers to the external drain pipe.
When laying the drain pipe through the foundation, it is inserted into a metal sleeve that will prevent damage to the sewage system in case of precipitation at home
Domestic sewage in the apartment
The organization of domestic sewage in a high-rise building is not much different from that in a country house, but it still has its own nuances. There is no need to choose plastic wiring schemes, because the location of the risers and rooms is included in the general house floor plan.
Principles of internal arrangement
The internal sewage system is based on the following principles:
- the system works on the gravity principle without the use of compressor units;
- the entire sewage housing scheme is closed on the common-house risers;
- the basis of the system's operability is the observance of standards for the slope of sewer pipes;
- Ventilation fan pipes are used to equalize the sewage pressure.
The observance by all tenants of an apartment building of these principles when installing an internal sewage system allows neighbors not to worry about flooding and unpleasant odors in the bathrooms.
Features of the layout in the apartment
It is rather difficult to change the sewage system in the apartment, because the toilets should always be located next to the vertical stand. Moving them a few meters will be accompanied by the need to lay 110mm pipes throughout the apartment, which will not add aesthetics to the appearance of the rooms.
In most four-room (five-room, etc.) apartments there are two sewer risers due to the remoteness of the kitchen and bathroom from each other
The location of the rooms and the number of sewers in high-rise buildings in buildings is limited only by the designer’s imagination, but they also try to follow the basic rules for installing such systems.
Options with two bathrooms in domestic apartments are rare, but the kitchen and bath are divided by a corridor into two independent sewer systems. Then in each room has its own vertical riser.
Interfloor space near the riser is not recommended to completely pour concrete. It is better to fill it with non-hygroscopic material, such as large pieces of foam, and then cover it on top with a small layer of cement
From the toilet is always a separate 110 mm pipe. It can take in additional carts from other plumbing equipment or be intended solely to flush the toilet.
In the classical scheme, a sink is connected to the horizontal wiring at the far end of the pipe, then a bath or shower is joined, then a washing machine with a sink. After that, the pipe is docked with the tee of the toilet bowl or directly with the riser.
On the roof of all apartment buildings without fail a fan pipe is installed, which equalizes the air pressure in the riser and the interior of the house.
The procedure for the installation of sewer cabling
Before buying a new plumbing in an apartment, it is necessary to understand the future structure of the sewer network, so that there are no problems with installing the acquired plumbing equipment.
For this you need:
- Determine the types of sanitary appliances and their installation.
- Draw piping schemes taking into account their angles.
- Check the size and height of the holes in the walls for the installation of the planned wiring.
- Determine the number of products and materials for installation, purchase them.
- Perform a trial installation of pipes and check the possibility of their installation.
- Dismantle the old sewer if necessary.
- Finally install sewer.
- Install the sanitary equipment and connect it to the sewer.
- Check the resulting system for leaks.
If everything is done correctly, then after checking for tightness you can use the plumbing equipment for your own pleasure.
Basic planning rules
When planning the internal sewage system, it is important to follow a number of rules that will save time and ensure the durability of the assembled system.
Tips for arranging the sprue and toilet:
- The toilet should have its own connection to the vertical stand. When the device is connected to the general horizontal wiring, the trap may be broken in the adjacent plumbing.
- The lumen of the riser pipe must be equal to or greater than the diameter of the toilet hole, but not less than 110 mm.
- In the vertical riser it is necessary to provide special hatches for audits. The optimal height of their location - 1000 mm from the floor.
- It is unacceptable to bring the edge of the fan pipe into the chimney.
- If the floor in the bathroom will be filled with cement, the plastic riser is placed in a special plastic sleeve.
Rules for the design of horizontal wiring:
- The size of the drain pipe of a sanitary appliance should be less than the diameter of the water discharge sewer pipe.
- The length of the drain pipe from the toilet to the riser should not exceed 1 meter, from other devices - 3 m. For pipes of greater length it is necessary either to increase their diameter to 70 cm or more, or to loop the pipes with ventilation of the vertical riser above the place plum.
- Do not connect horizontal pipes with rectangular bends due to the possibility of blockage. It is better to connect them through two knees with an angle of 135 degrees.
- The spout of sewer pipes should be located in the opposite direction to the water flow.
- At installation of the sewerage in the closed boxes it is possible to impose minvaty pipes for a noise isolation.
- A groove for pipes in load-bearing walls can be dangerous, so its arrangement is possible only with the permission of the engineer.
- It is advisable to equip the sink from the dishwasher and sink grease traps.
- When connecting plumbing equipment to turn the bottom edge of the tee is necessary to half the height of the socket.
- Long plastic pipes must be secured with hose clips to prevent sagging.
After the installation of the internal sewage system is completed, it is necessary to fill the sink and sink to the brim with water, open the drain hole, and also complete a toilet bowl drain.
If there are no leaks and an unpleasant smell, then most of the rules are followed.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
For visual acquaintance with the correct planning of the location of sewer pipes, it is recommended to view the following video.
Designing a fan pipe in a private house:
Rules of arrangement of the internal sewerage:
The nuances of domestic sewage in an apartment building:
Presented options for placement of sewage pipes in housing are typical. The importance lies not in copying the proposed options, but in complying with the rules and principles of planning and installing the sewer system. Only compliance with them can eliminate the need for additional repair due to leaks and non-compliance of the equipment with sewage parameters.
There were questions, found flaws in the article, or is there personal experience in arranging domestic sewers? Please leave your comments, ask questions, share your experience in the block below.