Hazelnuts - the best varieties, benefits, processing, biological features

Hazelnuts are cultivated varieties of wild hazel or common hazel. This is a large shrub with a powerful branched root system. It grows as a multi-trunk shrub, forming a set of coppice shoots, which multiplies. The filbert is a wind-pollinated monoecious plant. It blooms very early, sometimes at the end of January, and mass flowering begins in February and early March - before the blooming of leaf buds. The hazelnut fruit is a nut covered with plyus. It is useful because of the high content of vitamins, fats, proteins, carbohydrates. Not only nuts are useful, but bark, leaves, plusus.

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Hazelnut benefits

Hazelnut nuts are tasty, healthy and nutritious. They contain 65-73% fat( oil), 18-22% protein, 2-5% carbohydrate( starch and sugar).There are vitamins A, B, C, D, E, mineral salts. This causes its high caloric content as a food product. According to the caloric content of the hazelnut kernel, they exceed the pork by 1.5 times, soybeans - 1.8 times, wheat bread - 3.5 times, beef - 3.8 times, chicken eggs - 4.5 times, potatoes - 8.5 times, apples- 15 times. For reference: 350-400 g of nuts satisfy the daily nutritional needs of an adult.

The hazelnut kernel contains all twenty amino acids, from which high-grade proteins are formed. It retains its taste during storage even under normal room conditions. Nuts are easily absorbed by our body, no matter how they are prepared. It is an unsurpassed high-quality product.

A lot of vitamin C is found in the roots and fruits of hazelnuts. The leaves and roots contain tannins.

In folk medicine, hazelnuts( hazel) are used for urolithiasis, a decoction of dried plyus - for diarrhea, bark - for fever, leaves - as an antiseptic.

Walnut, ground with water, is used for hemoptysis, flatulence, bronchitis, feverish conditions.

Chopped walnut mixed with honey is recommended for anemia, rheumatism.

A decoction of hazelnut bark, harvested in the spring, is used in malaria.

Walnut oil - antihelminthic( from ascaris).

Chopped fruits mixed with egg white were used for burns.

Not only nuts are useful. The bark has astringent, antidisenterial, antipyretic properties. Infusions of the cortex are used for varicose veins, varicose ulcers, for tumors.

Hazelnut( hazel) leaves are used to treat intestinal diseases, anemia, beriberi, rickets. Broth - with prostatic hypertrophy. Ointment - for cancer. Powder from dried plyus or decoction of the shell and plyus - with colitis.

Beekeepers in the early spring often harvest hazelnut pollen or hazelnut to feed bee young. This pollen is very useful for people: these male plant sexual products contain a lot of zinc, which is part of a variety of enzymes that help solve the problem of infertility, making sluggish sperm cells moving.

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The healing properties of hazelnuts

And here are some popular recipes.

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Jaundice

Fresh hazelnut leaves or hazelnut dried. One teaspoon of leaves, crushed to a powdery state, pour a glass of white wine and leave for the whole night. Divide into three parts, take daily before meals for three doses. After two weeks jaundice passes.

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Varicosis

  • Hazelnut leaves to collect in May. Two tablespoons of leaves pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, leave for 2 hours. Drink half a cup 4 times a day before meals.
  • One tablespoon of chopped hazelnut bark pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, cook for 10 minutes, strain. Drink half a cup 4 times a day before meals.
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Adenoma

Hazelnut leaves collected in June to dry in the shade. One tablespoon of crushed leaves pour a glass of boiling water. Heat in a water bath for 15 minutes. Drink 1/3 cup per day.

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Biological features

Hazelnuts in February

This is a relatively winter-hardy plant. We, in the Krasnodar Territory, did not notice the freezing of hazelnut wood, although in the plains regions frost damage occurred to male inflorescences. When propagating by seeds, the plant does not preserve the properties of the parent plant, and fruiting with this method of reproduction occurs late.

Hazelnut fruits well on quite fertile, moisture-rich soils. This may be flat areas or slopes. The southern slopes are not very suitable for its cultivation, since here the buds wake up too early - they can be damaged by return frost. Over-wetted, swampy areas are unfavorable for him. Hazelnut grows well on light soils.

The hazelnut fruit is a walnut covered with a ply wrap. Mass harvesting occurs at the end of August-beginning of September. An indicator of the physiological maturity of the fruit is the browning( yellowing) of the wrapper - the pluses and the loss of individual nuts.

The need for hazelnut fruits is very high. The harvest of nuts from a single bush with a high agrofone is 5-12 kg, in rainfed( arid) conditions on arable land - 3-5 kg, on unproductive - 2-3 kg.

At my dacha I collected a bucket of nuts from one bush in a good year.

Fruits hazelnut begins with 3-5 years with vegetative propagation, from 6-10 - with seed. The greatest yields are obtained when it reaches the age of 12-35 years.

Hazelnut bush forms a large number( up to 100-150) of zero basal shoots annually. To obtain a high yield, the number of basal branches( trunks) must be maintained at a level of 8-10, but not more than 12 pieces in a bush.

The durability of the bush due to the intensive formation of rhizomes is practically unlimited. In general, the hazelnut is immortal. Almost the life of a bush is 150-180 years, without rejuvenation of the trunks - 60-80 years.

Thus, hazelnut shrubs can live in one place for a very long time. But the soil is gradually depleted, the soil is compacted: diseases, pests accumulate;reduced regenerative capacity of plants( the ability to form new zero shoots).Yield reduction, drying of skeletal branches begins at the age of 20-25 years, and with irrigation 5-10 years later. In the first case, the rejuvenation of the bush will begin at 20, and in the second - at 30 years. When rejuvenating, replace the basal branches( trunks) alternately, as they dry out, growing instead of shoots.

Scientists have experimented a lot to increase the yield of hazelnuts. The decision did not come immediately. They began to plant seedlings in 1-2 m in a row. Then only those plants were left which naturally bent downwards into a branch. The rest of the plants were cut. The lateral branches of the abandoned seedlings were not removed, so their crown began at a height of 50 cm from the ground. Productivity has increased dramatically to 40 kg / ha.

Probably, many experienced gardeners who have been engaged in gardening for a long time know that if a branch going upwards is tilted to the ground with a rope or a brick is hung from its end, the crop will increase dramatically.

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Hazelnut varieties

It is known that it is the variety that determines the level of productivity of plantations, the quality of the products. It should be well adapted to local soil and climatic conditions. The following are considered the best varieties of hazelnuts in southern Russia.

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Grade “Adygeisky-1”

Fruits - average weight - 2.1 g, wide, round, collected in 3-4, less often in 5-8 pieces. It is recommended for cultivation on farmer, personal plots. The variety is winter hardy, drought resistant, fruitful. Hazelnuts high taste. Medium resistant to pests, not sufficiently resistant to bacteriosis. On the Black Sea coast gives from 5 to 10 kg of nuts from one bush. Begins to bear fruit on the 6-7th year after planting. The fruits ripen in late August - early September.

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Ata-Baba variety

Medium-resistant variety. Harvest gives annually. Fruits well. Nuts have an excellent presentation. Begins to bear fruit for 4 years. The average yield of 9.5 q / ha. Universal purpose. A vigorous hazelnut bush with a spherical, slightly flattened crown. Fruits weighing 2.5-3.0 g, rounded, slightly elongated. The shell is of medium thickness, light brown with dark stripes. The wrap is much longer than the nut. Resistant to major pests, diseases( except bacteriosis).The bush is very tall, with a rounded, slightly spreading crown.

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Variety "Caucasus"

The selection variety of the All-Russian Research Institute for Floriculture and Subtropical Crops. The fruits are large, weighing 2.5 g. Peculiarity: good separability of the nut from the plyus. It is a good variety pollinator. Deserves testing in all zones of hazelnut cultivation. The shelf life of the fruit under normal room conditions up to two years.

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Kuban variety

Winter-resistant grade, with high yield. Fruits are round, slightly flattened, slightly ribbed. The shell is medium, dense, smooth, slightly bumpy, brilliant, with a barely noticeable bloom. The hazelnut fruits are very large, the average weight is 3.5 g. It is promising for cultivation in the Krasnodar Territory. Productivity - 8-9 kg from one bush( the Black Sea coast).Suitable for mechanized harvesting.

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Variety "Louise"

Promising for cultivation in the Kuban. Differs in the increased resistance to low temperatures, regularly, well fructifies( 7-10 kg from a bush).Gives nuts high commodity, taste merit.

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Variety “Panahessky”

Average ripening. Fruits are large or medium size( 2.2 g), rounded oblong shape. Wrap longer than walnut, whole, sometimes dissected from one side. Highly frost-resistant hazelnuts, relatively resistant to pests and diseases. The grade is recommended for cultivation on personal or farmer sites.

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President variety

Distinguishing features: large-fruited, simultaneous fruit ripening, plusus easily separated from the pericarp, which allows to mechanize the process of collecting nuts. Grows best on the Black Sea coast.

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Variety "Rome"

The fruits are large, weighing 3.2 -3.5 g, one-dimensional, flat-rounded, with a beautiful appearance. It has a high potential for annual, abundant fruiting, slightly affected by powdery mildew, bud mite, moderately resistant to bacteriosis. The disadvantages of the variety include poor winter hardiness, low resistance to fruit rot. At international exhibitions he was twice awarded gold medals.

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Variety “Circassian”

It is characterized by relative resistance to pests and diseases. Relatively winter-hardy, drought-resistant. Universal purpose. Hazelnut fruit weighing 1.6 g, broadly oval, slightly flattened, pointed. The shell is thin, brown, with faint longitudinal stripes. The main industrial variety on the Black Sea coast. Well established among amateur gardeners.

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Processing hazelnuts

Nuts are harvested when they begin to crumble. They are cleaned from plyus, stored in tight bags.

Plyusu is also dried. From the green young plyus you can make jam, it is with pleasant sourness, syrups that help in the treatment of scurvy, loosening of the gums, poor circulation, with increased pressure.

Hazelnut Nuts are consumed raw, dried or toasted. From them it is possible to make nut milk .To do this, fresh kernels are cleaned, crushed, soaked overnight in water, ground in a mortar. The resulting mass is diluted with nine times the amount of water, insist 4 hours, stirring from time to time. Then boil, filter or drain the liquid part, adding to taste salt, sugar. Nut milk, by the way, sour, gives the most delicious yogurt.

To obtain nut oil, hazelnut kernels are crushed, slightly diluted with water, heated. The heated mass is wrapped in a piece of clean cloth, placed under a screw press, under which a vessel is placed to collect oil. It is not inferior in quality almond, used in perfumery, pastry making, in the manufacture of high-quality artistic colors. Walnut oil has a light yellow color, a pleasant smell, is well absorbed by the human body. The dough with the addition of peanut butter rises well, and the finished products do not harden for a long time.

The hazelnut kernels are often used to make vegetable cream, milk, and other products. To prepare nut cream , the kernels are peeled, ground, crushed, and ground, gradually adding water in small portions. Doughy mass is diluted with warm water, whipped until a homogeneous mass, resembling the taste of cream. Store hazelnut cream in the refrigerator. Nut cream is used in its natural form, they are prepared from them very tasty, nourishing cream for cakes, muffins, cakes.

Young hazelnut leaves are eaten for the preparation of cabbage rolls, soups and as a surrogate for tea.

Calorie nut is much higher than beans, soybeans, raisins, figs, milk, potatoes. Hazelnuts are widely used by the confectionery industry. Nutmeal and kernels are prepared toppings for sweets and other confectionery. The oilcake left after oil separation is processed for halva, chocolate, waffles.

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Recipes

And, finally, several recipes.

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Nut cream for cake

Beat eggs and sugar until thick in a saucepan placed in a water bath, then cool, add butter, nut cream, carefully rub

Ingredients:

  • eggs 3 pcs.cream - 150 g;
  • sugar - 150 g;
  • nut cream - 100 g.
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Nut drink

Soaked, chopped nuts, pour water or milk for 4 hours, then strain. Infusion bring to a boil, add salt to taste, sugar.

Ingredients:

  • Hazelnut - 200 g;
  • milk or water - 1 liter;
  • sugar, salt - to taste.
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Walnut coffee

Roast hazelnuts, grind with a coffee grinder or stupa, add ground black coffee. One teaspoon of the mixture brew 200 ml of boiling water, bring to a boil, let stand and brew. Add sugar to taste.

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Nut tea

Brew one teaspoon of dried hazelnut leaves or hazelnut with 200 ml of boiling water. Insist 15-20 minutes Sugar - to taste.

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