Zealous owner dreams of cheap energy resources, effective waste management and production of fertilizers. Home biogas plant with his own hands - an inexpensive way to making dreams come true.
Assembly of such equipment will cost a reasonable price, and the produced gas will be good help on the farm: it can be used for cooking, heating and other home needs.
Let's try to understand the specifics of the operation of this equipment, its advantages and disadvantages. And is it possible to build their own biogas plant and whether it will be effective.
The content of the article:
- Specifics of biogas
- Strengths and weaknesses of the system
- The calculation of the profitability of the installation
Instructions for self-construction
- Step 1 - Preparation of the pit under the bioreactor
- Step 2 - Gas drainage arrangement
- Step 3 - mounting the dome and pipe
- Methods for heating the bioreactor
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Specifics of biogas
Biogas is produced by fermentation of a biological substratum. His decomposed hydrolysis, acid and methane-bacteria. The mixture is produced by bacteria of the combustible gases obtained, because It contains a large percentage of methane.
According to its properties, it is virtually indistinguishable from natural gas, which is used for industrial and domestic use.
If desired, every home owner can buy a biogas plant for industrial manufacturing, but it is expensive, and payback on their investment within 7-10 years. So it makes sense to make an effort and make their own hands bioreactor
Biogas - clean fuel, and the technology of its receipt does not have much impact on the environment. Moreover, as a raw material for the biogas production wastes are used, which require disposal.
They are placed in the bioreactor, where the processing of:
- for some time the biomass is exposed to bacteria. fermentation period depends on the amount of raw materials;
- as a result of anaerobic bacteria released combustible mixture of gases which includes methane (60%), carbon dioxide (35%) and some other gases (5%). It is also a potentially dangerous hydrogen sulfide is released during fermentation in small quantities. It is toxic, so it is not desirable that people are exposed to it;
- gas mixture is purified from the bioreactor and into the gas tank, where it is stored until use;
- gas from the gas tank can be used in the same way as natural. He comes to household appliances - gas furnaces, boilers, etc .;
- decomposed biomass should be regularly removed from the fermenter. This extra effort, but effort paid off. After fermentation feedstock is converted into high-quality fertilizer, which are used in fields and gardens.
The biogas plant is beneficial to the owner of a private house only if he has a permanent access to the waste of livestock farms. The average of 1 cbm. the substrate can be obtained 70-80 cubic meters. biogas generation but gas is uneven and depends on many factors, including Biomass temperature. This complicates the calculations.
Biogas plants are ideal for farms. Animal wastes are able to provide enough gas for the full heating of living quarters and outbuildings
To the process of obtaining the gas was stable and continuous, it is best to build several biogas plants, and the substrate in the fermenter to pledge to the time difference. Such units operate in parallel, and the raw materials are charged in series.
This ensures a constant gas production, making it possible to achieve a continuous supply to household appliances.
Ideally, the bioreactor must be heated. Every 10 degrees Celsius increase gas production doubled. Although the heating arrangement requires investment, it pays greater design efficiency
improvised Biogas equipmentAssembled from readily available materials, it is much cheaper industrial production plants. Its effectiveness is lower, but is consistent with the investment. If you have access to manure and the desire to make their own efforts to build and design service, it is very profitable.
Strengths and weaknesses of the system
Biogas plants have many advantages, but also disadvantages missing, therefore it is necessary to weigh everything before you start design and construction of:
- Recycling. Thanks to the biogas plant can make the most of the garbage, which would still have to get rid of. This recycling is less dangerous for the environment than landfill.
- raw material renewability. Biomass - it's not coal and natural gas, production of which depletes resources. raw materials are constantly appear in the conduct of agriculture.
- The relatively small amount of CO2. In the preparation of the gas environment is not contaminated, but when used in the atmosphere, a small quantity of carbon dioxide. It is not dangerous and can not change the environment is critical, because it is absorbed by plants during growth.
- Moderate selection sulfur. During the combustion of the biogas in the atmosphere falls small amount of sulfur. This negative phenomenon, but its extent is known in comparison: natural gas combustion pollution sulfur oxides much more.
- Stable work. Biogas production is more stable than the work solar or wind turbines. If wind and solar energy can not be controlled, the biogas plants are dependent on human activities.
- You can use multiple installations. Gas - it is always a risk. To reduce the potential for damage in the event of an accident, it is possible to disperse over the site a few biogas plants. If properly designed and built a system of several fermenters, it will run more stable than one large bioreactor.
- The benefits to agriculture. For biomass planted some plant species. You can select those that improve the condition of the soil. For example, sorghum reduces soil erosion and improves its quality.
In biogas has its drawbacks. Although this is a relatively clean fuel, it still pollutes the atmosphere. Also, there can be problems with the supply of plant biomass.
Irresponsible owners are often harvested plant it so that deplete the earth and disturb the ecological balance.
The calculation of the profitability of the installation
As raw material for the production of biogas is typically used cow dung. One adult cow can give him enough to provide 1.5 cubic meters. fuel; pig - 0.2 m³.; chicken or crawl (depending on weight) - 0.01-0.02 m³. To understand a lot or a little, it can be compared with the more usual types of resources.
Sometimes the system is installed in a utility room. This is convenient in terms of inspections and maintenance, but it is not safe, because biomethane can explode. Therefore, you should pay special attention to security issues
Transportation of raw materials - a separate issue that should consider in the design of the biogas plant. For transportation of the site is better to use special equipment or trailers. If you need a delivery over long distances, it is necessary to calculate the fuel costs and determine whether they will be repaid
When buying a container of a biogas plant and especially in the manufacture of their own hands will have to pay attention to their quality. Also during the operation of the system need regular inspection, repairs
The biogas plant can be a real saving for the farm. It allows you to save on fuel for heating and / or lighting barns. It is also a great option harmless waste. However, in the early years can hardly count on the full return
Bioreactor apparatus of insulated plastic container
Convenient transportation for the transportation of the substrate
The compact unit of industrial production
The biogas plant on a dairy farm
1 cubic meter. biogas provides the same amount of thermal energy, such as:
- wood - 3.5 kg;
- carbon - 1-2 kg;
- Electricity - 9-10 kW / h.
If you know the approximate weight of agricultural waste, which will be available in the next few years, and the amount of energy needed, you can calculate the profitability of the biogas plant.
One of the main disadvantages of biogas production - smell. The ability to use small compost piles - is a big plus, but will have to endure the inconvenience and carefully control the process so as not to provoke the spread of pathogens
To bookmark the bioreactor prepare the substrate, which consists of several components in such proportions:
- manure (Best cow or pig) - 1.5 m;
- organic waste (This may be humus leaves or other components of plant origin) - 3.5 tons;
- warmed to 35 degrees water (The amount of warm water is calculated so that its weight was 65-75% of total organics).
the substrate calculation is made for one tab to six months, based on the moderate consumption of gas. After about 10-15 days of fermentation process will first results gas appears in small quantities and begin to fill the vault. After 30 days, one can expect full fuel generation.
Equipment for the production of biogas is still not very common in our country. This is largely due to the lack of awareness of people about the benefits and features of operation of biogas systems. In China and India, many small farms are equipped with makeshift settings for additional clean fuel
If the system works properly, the amount of biogas will gradually increase until the substrate is not peregniet. Performance design depends on the speed of fermentation of biomass, which in turn is related to the temperature and humidity of the substrate.
Instructions for self-construction
If you have no experience in the assembly of complex systems, it makes sense to choose a network or to develop the most simple drawing of a biogas plant for a private home.
The simpler the design, so it is more reliable and durable. Later, when will the skills of construction and handling of the system, it will be possible to alter the equipment or mount additional installation.
The expensive industrial designs provided a biomass mixing system, automatic heating, gas purification, etc. Appliances are not that difficult. It is better to collect a simple installation, and then add the elements in which there is a need
When calculating the volume of the fermenter should be guided by 5 cubic meters. Such an installation allows to obtain the amount of gas required for heating private houses area of 50 square meters, if used as a heat source gas boiler or furnace.
This average figure, as biogas calorie usually not higher than 6000 kcal / cubic meter.
To the fermentation process was more or less stable, you need to get the right temperature. To do this, the bioreactor is installed in an earthen pit or pre-think over reliable thermal insulation. Continuous heating of the substrate can be achieved if a base fermenter sum water heating pipe
Construction of a biogas plant can be divided into several stages.
Step 1 - Preparation of the pit under the bioreactor
Virtually the entire biogas plant is underground, so a lot depends on how had been dug and decorated with a pit. There are several options to strengthen the walls and sealing holes - plastic, concrete, polymer rings.
The optimal solution - purchase of finished plastic rings with a closed bottom. They are more expensive scrap materials, but it does not require additional sealing. Polymers are sensitive to mechanical loads, but not afraid of moisture and aggressive chemicals. They can not be repaired, but they are easy to replace if necessary.
From the preparation of the walls and the bottom of the bioreactor intensity substrate fermentation depends on the gas outlet, so the pit carefully strengthened, insulated and sealed. This is the most difficult and time-consuming phase of the work
Step 2 - Gas drainage arrangement
Purchase and installation of special agitators for biogas plants - is expensive. The system can reduce the cost, equipped with gas drainage. It is a vertically installed polymer sewer pipesIn which a plurality of apertures done.
When calculating the length of the drainage pipe to be guided to the intended depth of filling of the bioreactor. The upper part of the piping should be above this level.
For gas drainage can be chosen metallic or polymeric tube. The first is stronger, and the second chemical resistance. It is better to give preference to the polymers as metal and rot quickly prorzhaveet
The bioreactor can be ready immediately download substrate. It is covered with a film that stands out in fermentation gas was under slight pressure. When the dome is ready, it will provide for normal feeding biomethane outlet pipe.
Step 3 - mounting the dome and pipe
The final stage of building a basic biogas plant - is the installation of the dome top. At the highest point of the dome mounted vent tube and stretch it to the gasholderWithout which it can not do.
The capacity of the bioreactor is closed tight lid. To prevent mixing of biomethane with air equip the water seal. It also serves as the gas purification. It is necessary to provide the trigger valve that works, if the pressure in the fermenter is too high.
Otomi in more detail how to make biogas from manure read This material.
The free space of the bioreactor in some way serves as a gas storage facility, but that is not enough for the safe operation of the plant. The gas must be consumed constantly, otherwise the risk of explosion from excess pressure under the dome
Methods for heating the bioreactor
Microorganisms processing substrate is in the biomass constantly, but their intensive breeding the desired temperature of 38 degrees and above.
For heating in the cold season, you can use a coil connected to a home heating system or electrical heaters. The first method is more cost-effective, so it is more likely to use it.
Optionally zaglublyat biogas plant in the ground, there are other embodiments of arrangement. An example of the system collected from the barrels is shown in the video below.
The easiest way to arrange the bottom-heating, paving the tube from the heating system, but the efficiency of such a heat exchanger is relatively low. Better equip the external heating, ideally - with steam to biomass is not overheated
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Although the assembly and arrangement of the biogas equipment is no big deal, you need to be very attentive to detail. Errors are not allowed, because can cause explosions and destruction. We offer video instructions, which will help to understand the device settings, right to collect them and to add useful tools for easier use of biogas.
The video provides information about how to construct and work a standard biogas plant:
EXAMPLE homemade biogas plant. Video tutorial for the Development of the system with their own hands:
Videos for the assembly of a biogas plant from the barrel:
Description stirrers manufacturing process for the substrate:
Detailed description of homemade gas storage:
No matter how simple or biogas plant was chosen for private homes, it is not necessary to save it. If possible, it is better to buy a collapsible bioreactor for industrial production.
If not - made of high-quality and sustainable materials: polymers, concrete or stainless steel. This will create a truly safe and reliable gas supply system of the house.
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