Lovers of “quiet hunting” have long been visited by the thought: if only this beauty could be at its dacha, then didn’t have to go to the woods, bend your back or stomp your feet. And now the age-old dream has come true - now you can grow oyster mushrooms, champignons, and species with intricate foreign names: Meytaki, Reishi, Shiitake right at home! In this review we will talk about the structure of the cap mushroom.
- structure blewits
- If you turn
- hat Upon closer examination
- Features reproduction
- grow mushrooms on a garden plot is not difficult
But before we come to grips with the production of delicacies, it is necessary to find out what this forest dwellers is required, and that -contraindicated. And therefore the question immediately arises: what is a mushroom and what is its structure?
Earlier assignment to lower plants is no longer relevant - these organisms are characterized not only by the way of life of the plants, but also by some traits of animals. So, peel cap is similar to the mucous membrane of the stomach: having isolated the digestive enzymes on its surface, , when it reaches the necessary state of the food they digest, it actively absorbs the resulting "nutrient broth".
A big mistake is to think that mushrooms are what broke through the forest soil and basks in the sun, rapidly getting fat from the summer rains. No, these are just fruit bodies that will rot within a week if they are not eaten by animals or picked up by humans.
This mushroom is practically invulnerable and eternal, because it is protected from adverse conditions with a thick layer of suitable soil for it. “Real” is a mycelium, or mushroom colony, consisting of thin sensitive threads - hyphae, spreading in the soil in all directions.
This circumstance is used in mushroom production: it is necessary to carefully divide the mycelium into fragments - and it can be transported to at least another state, if only the conditions on the road match the required ones. And then grow from it the desired types of mushrooms at home.
If you turn the cap of the
in places where the hyphae are the most favorable for growth, “fruiting” begins. Here they form particularly dense structures - fruit bodies, or the mushrooms themselves. Fungal bodies are nothing more than a compact mass of parallel, stacked hyphal fibers, , each of which resembles a stranded cable cut.
The fruiting body consists of legs and caps with different structures. Therefore, , as it grows, begins the separation of the cells forming its tissue into:
- fibers with the function of forming and maintaining shape;
- narrowly specialized structures.
The first are the base fabrics, the “armature” of the legs and caps of the mushroom structure. In addition to the classic form, there are fruit bodies: are coral, spherical, ear-like or saucer-like, and many other, even more fancy configurations.
Sporiferous structures, reproductive organs, are formed from the cells with narrow specialization.
If the top of the cap is formed by the same fibrous "meat" as the leg, then its lower part( referred to as hymenophore) looks like either a spongy layer or a circle of radially diverging plates. Less often, the hymenophore has a surface:
- is smooth;
- is labyrinth-like.
On the side surfaces of the tubes or plates of the hymenophore there are club-shaped formations - basidia, at the ends of which spores are formed.
In species of a different structure, spores ripen in closed cavities that do not have access to the outside - bags that are either on the outer surface or in the depths of the fruit bodies.
According to this characteristic, mushrooms are divided into:
- basidiomycetes ( tubular, lamellar and with a different structure of hymenophore) and
- ascomycetes , or marsupials( Greek Ascos means “bag”).
A closer look at
Mushrooms can have a unicellular or multicellular structure.
An example of the first option is yeast, consisting of one cell( even if there are many daughter chambers formed during budding, this is one cell).Due to the existence in the abundant food environment, many of them do not realize their ability to sexual reproduction, preferring to budding.
A traditional mushroom cap mushroom that has a large fruiting body is a multicellular organism. He has a hat and a leg. The foot can be connected to the cap:
- in the center;
- eccentric( not centered);
- sideways( merging legs with the edge of the cap).
This structure is fully justified by the task of each of the parts of the structure.
Leg - support pole lifts the cap as high as possible above the ground level. The longer the foot, the longer the contact of the cap with the ground will be, which means that it will not rot any longer. Moreover, as it is better visible to animals that eat mushrooms: snails and larger, up to elks.
The bright color of the cap and the smell coming from it also stimulates the desire to eat the mushroom. But why do this? For the satiety of the body of the person who has eaten and. .. for the distribution of the species to new corners of the forestOr even for “export” to the neighboring forest.
The hat - the crowning head - is not only a decoration of the fungus, but also, if not a reproduction body, then at least part of the plan to seize new territories,
For it contains disputes.
Spores are clearly visible under aging specimens in the form of a circle( with a diameter exactly the size of a cap) from a powder that has a characteristic color. Having matured and having spilled out of the cap, they repeat exactly the drawing of his hymenophore - tubular, lamellar or otherwise( in the tinder - labyrinth-like).
spores. A spore is an analogue of a higher plant seed, a single cell matrix containing the entire program of life and development of an organism. Being eaten, it is not digested in the guts of the one who has eaten, but falling on the soil and germinating deep into it, gives rise to a new mycelium.
So for the cunning, there is an increased chance of settling wider, for disputes, having traveled in the animal's body free of charge, will fall into new places, often many kilometers from the old ones.
Spores from human intestines are unlikely to fall into the soil( rather, into sewers).But a person throws on the dung heap either in the compost box mushroom trimmings, or even whole specimens: wormy, old and overripe. And after a while, with surprise and joy, he finds there sturdy champignons or other species unassuming to the growing conditions.
Growing mushrooms in a garden plot is not at all easy
Forest beauties, because even light is not particularly needed for life - only heat, moisture and a nutrient substrate. Therefore, create for them the conditions for growth of almost nothing costs - you only need to buy mycelium on a plant or woody substrate, or “settle” mushroom caps in a suitable place on the site.
A tree species from the class of tinder grafts is planted in trimming of suitable dead wood by placing mycelium on special sticks( sent in sterile packaging) into the holes drilled in it and then sealed with an inert material.
Oyster mushrooms are successfully cultivated on plant-straw substrate, and for the sake of such valuable mushrooms as Reishi, it would not be a sin to try to transplant mycelium into a living tree.