In a number of world-famous products of plant origin, legumes are central to human nutrition. By the number of consumption of legumes, they are on a par with cereals and potatoes. The homeland of beans is the American continent, where it is now growing wild. There, beans, corn and pumpkin formed the basis of nutrition.
The story of the appearance of beans in Europe
They say that Columbus discovered America, but for the white continent it is also important that among the many overseas strange plants, beans were introduced here, which are open to Europe. This plant, despite the evidence of the pioneer of its nutritional value was allowed to use only for decorative purposes.
Therefore, in the beginning, the guest used to create gardens, then for cosmetic purposes, making masks and mashing of beans. Russia received curly ornamental vines in the 18th century, for food for its use much later.
Asian bean varieties were known in Egypt and China before our centuries and were a valuable dish for the nobility. It turned out that even the decorative bean varieties are usable. Therefore, the separation of varieties is conditional, they are all food. In nature, there are several thousand varieties of this plant. Specially obtained as a result of breeding varieties with improved indicators of about 500. They differ in many ways, some varieties are described in the article and their photos are presented.
The name of this type of legumes was obtained by locality, where the variety was classified, Lima. Another name - moon-shaped beans or oil, so named for a pleasant taste. Lima beans have two forms of plants - large and small. Beans come in a different color from white to almost black with a patterned or one-colored surface. Useful properties, the food value of this type of beans - in supplying the body with protein food, as a prophylactic against colon cancer.
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The product is useful for its high iron content, which contributes to blood formation. Folate improves cardiac activity, while magnesium stimulates and restores the circulatory system.
Folate and thiamine contained in beans of lima beans with regular use reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood to normal.
Purple stringed beans
This same type of bean is called Georgian or known as Draconic. A feature of the variety is the coloring of the pods. It can be variegated, with a yellow sheen on the violet body. Liana grows to 3.5 m, and in a green hedge is very effective. Purple string beans become bright green as soon as it is dipped in boiling water. The length of the pods is about 15 cm. The thermophilic culture of the average ripening period loves loamy and sandy fertile soil. Ripe seeds are light brown. The plant can be used in the scapula stage and as a grain crop. The leaves of the pod do not have a parchment layer.
The presented type of green beans differs from popular varieties in its appearance and size. A native of Africa, this bean has a dark green color and very thin long pods. The diameter of the pod is about half a centimeter, and a very delicate taste. It is enough to hold the pods of Kenyan beans in boiling water for 4-5 minutes, and they can be used as food. To preserve the bright green of the valves, after heat treatment, they are dipped into ice water. With this product a sweet aftertaste and nut aftertaste they prepare salads, served as an independent garnish for meat dishes. The beneficial properties of Kenyan beans are enhanced by a small cooking time. All vitamins and antioxidants are preserved. This is the most expensive product of all types of green beans.
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All curling beans can create a hedge and be used to create small architectural forms. However, breeders create new varieties that, due to more decorative flowers, branching, multi-colored pods, create beautiful green fences, and then give the crop for food.
The decorative beans in the photo include Mexican beans, Decorative beans "Dolikhos", fiery red beans, growing up to 4 m in height. Mexican red beans grow up to 4 meters, her pods are pink, they can be consumed raw, while they are very young. Later multicolored seeds ripen on these vines. However, more often in the designs of the estates you can see the curling fiery red beans.
Indian variety of beans with small grains, different from the classic beans in their oval shape. Currently, according to the classification, the type of mung bean has been transferred to the Vigna genus . This type of legume can be found under the name mung beans or golden beans.
In India, they use peeled mash, which is called dhal, and is used in traditional cuisine and in dishes that have a sacred meaning.
Mung beans in germinated form has become a famous dish in Europe recently. Bean sprouts are eaten without heat treatment as an additive in complex salads or separately. They germinate after thorough disinfection, so as not to get E. coli using a useful product.
Yellow string beans
Yellow and green string beans are not much different. A set of useful components and processing methods are similar. Only a slightly larger amount of provitamin A creates the color of the pod in yellow. Yellow string beans are used in dietary schemes, as it contains vitamins and organic matter in an easily digestible form. The heat treatment of the product is gentle, just a few minutes, so the useful composition is little destroyed. Those who, due to shaky health cannot eat grain beans, can include green beans in the diet. The product is low-calorie, only 24 kcal per 100 g allows the use of green beans for weight loss.
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At first, ordinary young beans were used as chaff and only later the French brought out a separate type of bean that does not have a wax plate in the pods. She was named asparagus or French beans.
Yellow string beans, unlike other species, are called oily beans, as they melt in the mouth are so tender. There is also yellow wax bean, which differs from the cobwebs in larger pods, which may even be purple, but the beans are yellow in them, and the pod also turns yellow after cooking.
Black Eye Beans
White beans with a bright black spot is one of the main types of beans for people in Africa, Iran and the southern regions of America. Medium-sized beans are tasty, and are considered a type of cowpea. They are prepared with pre-soaking, but cooked relatively short, about an hour. This is due to the thin shell of the bean.
The strong flavor of vegetables that comes from the dish and the non-glistening points make the grains recognizable even in the prepared dish. This is the most delicate variety of beans from all grains. Used in the traditional New Year's dish in America, which is called "Jumping John."
The article lists a small part of the varieties, but knowing the benefits of the use of beans, everyone can find a type that meets their individual needs.
How to plant beans - video