voltage variations - are not uncommon in domestic homes. They occur due to the aging of electricity, circuits, and unevenness of the individual phases of the load distribution.
As a result, household appliances or loses energy, or burns from its overabundance. To avoid these problems, it is recommended to install a voltage supervision relay (RKN).
We offer to understand what are the advantages of the use of such devices, what are the differences from the RCN stabilizer how to select and implement appropriate relay connected.
The content of the article:
- Why do we need voltage regulating relay
Varieties of devices ILV
- Performances and dimensions Type
- On the basis of features and options,
- Which is better: a stabilizer relay vs
- Wiring diagrams ILV
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Why do we need voltage regulating relay
Proper name of the device in question - "voltage control relays." But the average word in conversations among themselves electricians often falls out of the term.
In principle, it is one and the same electrical appliance protection and automation. Plus, this equipment is often also called the "anti-breaking zero." Why - it will become clear below.
Do not confuse automatic RCD and RCN. First protect the line from overload and short circuit, and the second surge. It is different in the functional purpose devices.
The main task of ILV - is off electrical appliances from the mains at too high and too low voltages it to connected to the electrical equipment is not out of order
The inscription "220 VAC" familiar to all Russians. On such an alternating voltage are working in the home appliances connected to an outlet. However, upon the maximum voltage in the household power only fluctuates around this level with a range of +/- 10%.
In some cases, differences and reach high values. Voltmeter may well show fall to 70 and bursts of up to 380 watts.
For electrical unnecessarily frightening both low and high voltage. If the refrigerator compressor "wipe" power, it just will not start. As a result, equipment inevitably overheat and break.
When low voltage average person in most cases not even able to externally determine correctly whether or not the equipment works in this situation. Visually you can only see dimly glowing incandescent bulbs, the voltage which is supplied less than normal.
With high bursts are much simpler. If the TV power input, computer or microwave submit 300-350 watts, at best, the fuse in them. And often they "will burn" themselves. And well even if it does not happen real fire equipment and fire.
Apartment buildings are usually powered by a three-phase 380 V and to the flat-phase wiring is already underway on the 220 from the electrical panel on the floor
Major problems with voltage drops in high-rise buildings arise due to breakage of the working zero. This wire damage by negligence electricians during the repair or he simply burns out with age.
If the home is on the access line should set the necessary protection of the current level, the result of such a failure occurs triggering automatic RCD. All ends relatively normal.
However, in the old housing stock, where there are breakers, loss of zero results in a phase imbalance. And then in some apartments the voltage is low (50-100 V), while others sharply higher (300-350 V).
Who that will result in the outlet, depending on the connected at a given moment to load power. Advance accurately calculate and predict it is impossible.
As a result, some have all the equipment stops working, while others burned surge. This is where the need of voltage control relay. If you have problems, it will disable the network, notifying damage televisions, refrigerators, etc.
a problem with the voltage drop is somewhat different in the private sector. If the cottage is located at a great distance from the street transformer, then the increased consumption electricity in homes before it in this extreme point voltage may fall to critically low levels.
As a result, due to the continued lack of "V" in the electric household appliances will inevitably begin to burn and break down.
Varieties of devices ILV
All models of the relay performing voltage regulator functions are divided into single-phase and three-phase.
Single-phase relay. Usually set in cottages and apartments - in more brownies shields are required.
The electrical boards of private and apartment buildings are commonly used single-phase relay in a compact DIN-rail (+)
Three-phase relay. Such RNA is intended for industrial use. They are often used to protect circuits of three-phase machines. And if such trehfaznik required on such complex technology input, it is often chosen in the combined performance of the control, not only the voltage but also the phase synchronization.
The main drawback, and at the same time, plus a three-phase relay - total power output at a jump voltage, even in one of the phase lines at the entrance. In industry, it is only in favor. But in everyday life are often fluctuations in voltage in one phase are not critical and ILV takes on and off the protected network.
In some cases, this super reliable reinsurance needs. However, in most cases it is unnecessary.
Performances and dimensions Type
The entire range of voltage relay is divided into three types:
- adapter "plug-socket";
- extension cords with 1-6 sockets;
- compact "batchfile" DIN-rail mounting.
The first two options are used for protection of a specific appliance or any group. They are included in the regular room outlet.
The third option is for mounting in switchboard as part of the protective system of the power of an apartment or cottage.
Model with a wire-extension on several appliances (for connecting a computer to the associated equipment or home theater with acoustics)
Three-phase ILV assembly into circuits with powerful power consumption - mainly used in industrial facilities
Typical relays for DIN-rail mounting in the control cabinet or board - often used when you need to adjust to the mains voltage
Option female connector is designed for the protection of a single electrical device in the room
Controller with wire-extension
Three-phase relay for lines with a heavy load
The relay to be installed in the switchbox
Relay adapter for connecting a plug
Adapters and extenders considered regulators are large enough. Manufacturers are trying to make them as small as possible, so they do not spoil your view of the interior.
But the internal components of the voltage relay their tight dimensions, besides, they still need to put together in a single package with a socket and plug. In terms of design is not razverneshsya.
Relays for DIN-rail mounting in the control panel have a more compact size, there is nothing superfluous in them. Connecting it to the network is done by wire connections and terminal.
On the basis of features and options,
The internal logic and relay operation for voltage control are built based on a microprocessor or a simple comparator. The first option is more expensive, but requires more accurate and smooth adjustment of the threshold ILV. Most of the selling security devices are now built on the basis of microprocessor.
Upper (Umax) and a lower (Umin) thresholds are the two main adjustable parameters ILV - if the input voltage is outside the specified range, the relay disconnects the output line from the electric current (+)
At a minimum, the housing switch is present a couple of LEDs, which can determine the presence of voltage at the input and output. More advanced devices equipped with displays showing the exposed margins and are available in the line voltage.
Adjusting the threshold values is performed with a graded scale potentiometer or keys with the display parameters on the display.
Itself is responsible for switching the relay inside the RCN performed by the bistable circuit. In this coil two stable states. Energy is spent only for switching the latch. To hold the contacts in the closed or open position, electricity is required.
On the one hand, it minimizes power consumption, and on the other - will ensure that the coil will not be heated when the controller.
When selecting the voltage relay in the parameters it is necessary to look at:
- operating range in volts;
- possibility of setting the upper and lower thresholds;
- presence / absence of voltage level indicators;
- off time when triggered RKN;
- delay time power recovery;
- Maximum switching power in kW or pass a current in amperes.
According to the last parameter relays should be taken with a margin of 20-25%. If appropriate under the existing in-line high loads ILV not, the low-power model is taken, and a magnetic contactor connected at its output.
With the installation of the thresholds is the following situation. If they are set too tight, the relay will trip the frequency high. Where you have to compromise.
The adjustment of these parameters should be carried out so as to ensure a proper level of protection, but do not let too frequent switching ILV. Constant switching on and off are not going to benefit both connected to the network technology, as well as to the voltage regulator.
However, some relays do not have the ability to independently adjust the thresholds. They have installed "hard". For example, the lower limit is made by the setting 170 V, and in the upper - 265 V.
Such ILV cheaper, but they need to pick up more closely. Then reconfigure these devices will not work in case of errors in calculations will have to acquire new to replace nepodoshedshim.
Selecting and timing off refeeding output lines depends on the characteristics of the connected load and network specific (+)
If the power supply constantly having short-term (for a split second) slack voltage drop, while off the lower threshold is best set to the maximum. So alarms will lower and the threat of powered equipment will be minimal.
Delay switch should be selected depending on the type included in the electrical outlet. If the connected equipment has a compressor or electric motor, it is necessary to increase up to 1-2 minutes, while applying voltage.
This will avoid the spike voltage and current at the resumption of the power network that will protect refrigerators and air conditioners from damage.
And for computers and televisions, this parameter can be reduced up to 10-20 seconds.
Which is better: a stabilizer relay vs
Often, instead of connecting to the electrical control panel switch should be installed in the house Voltage regulator. In some cases, it is justified. But there are some nuances, which should be kept in mind when choosing a way to protect electrical equipment.
In terms of functionality the stabilizer not only aligns the tension, but on and off at too high rates last. A voltage relay - is extremely protective equipment. Like the first includes a second function.
But compared to the ILV stabilizer:
- expensive and noisy;
- more inert with sharp drops;
- It does not have the capacity to adjust parameters;
- It takes up much more space.
With a decrease in the input voltage to the output of the stabilizer to be the metrics, it begins to "draw" a more current from the network. And this is a direct way to burn out the wiring, if it was not originally designed for such.
The second main minus stabilizer in comparison to the control switch - is its inability to intercept the leap voltage at breakage of zero.
It is enough to just half a second with 350-380 W power outlet to all appliances in the house got burned. A majority of stabilizers capable of not adapt to such changes and passes high voltage, disconnecting only 1-2 seconds after the start of the burst.
In addition to stabilizers and relays for protection from line voltage surges may also be used releasers maximum and minimum voltage. But they have compared to the ILV increasing response time. Plus they do not include the power back into the automatic mode, to work more like the RCD.
After a power failure, these releases will have to switch to its initial state manually.
Wiring diagrams ILV
The panel voltage relay is always set after the counter in the gap phase conductor. He has to control and cut it "phase" as necessary. No other way it can not be connected.
Most often, for single-phase consumers default ones are applied with a direct load through the relay (+)
Main circuit connection of single-phase AC voltage regulator relay, there are two:
- straight load through RKN;
- with the connected load via a contactor - with connecting magnetic contactor.
When installing the electrical in the house is almost always used the first option. ILV variety of models with the necessary power for sale abound. Plus, if necessary, these relays can be installed in parallel and several connecting to each of them a separate electrical group.
everything is easy with the installation. The main body of the standard single-phase relay has three terminals - "zero" phase plus "entrance" and "exit". It is only necessary not to confuse a connected wire.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
To you it was easier to navigate in the wiring diagrams and the choice of a suitable voltage regulator relay, we made a selection of videos describing all the nuances of this instrument.
How to protect your equipment from surges in the mains using the ILV:
Setting the voltage relay:
Relay supply voltage control - this is an excellent protection against "zero failure" and sudden changes in voltage. Connect it easy. We only need to insert the appropriate wire into the terminal and tighten them. In virtually all cases, a standard scheme with a direct load through RCN.
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