Many gardeners can boast good yields of zucchini. And indeed the agrotechnology of the vegetable is simple. Meanwhile, there are many diseases that affect the plant. Why we should not ignore the external signs and what to do for the timely treatment of a disease, we now analyze in detail.
- most common disease zucchini
- Anthracnose( copperhead)
- Bacteriosis or angular leaf spot
- vertex bacteriosis
- Dry apical rot
- seedlings Treatment of fusarium wilt
- Powdery mildew
- When the leaves turn yellow or peronosporioz
- White rot
- Brown olive spotting
- Viral diseases
- Protection against diseases and pests
The most common diseases of zucchini
Each crop in the garden has its enemies, The ability to destroy the entire crop. If you find characteristic symptoms, you should immediately treat, and in some cases remove the diseased plant from the garden to localize the problem.
Squashes are considered a moisture-loving culture, and when watering the beds in hot weather, a favorable background is created for the development of pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms.
Experienced gardeners regularly inspect plants to quickly identify diseases or pests in order to quickly respond to the problem. Locate the affected areas of plants in this case is much easier.
Create favorable conditions for the development of harmful microorganisms and weeds. On clean beds, spores are harder to spread than on thickened areas, where a moist environment is constantly maintained. During the growing season zucchini spend 3-4 weeding, which are combined with loosening the soil. Such procedures are good prevention from disease.
The danger of the disease lies in the affected area, which extends to all organs of the plant, with the exception of the roots. A characteristic sign - yellow-brown spots on the leaves, in other places, the spots are depressed, covered with pink bloom. If spotting is seen on the root patch, the squash will not survive.
Fighting the disease consists in careful selection of seedlings, removal of affected specimens from the bed, timely weed harvesting. So that the spores of the disease do not pose a threat to the future harvest, in the fall all plant residues should be well removed from the plot and the land should be dug closer to frost.
When detecting the first signs of vermin, it is recommended to spray one of the solutions:
- colloidal sulfur( 50-60 grams per bucket of water);
- Bordeaux mixture( copper sulphate and lime 100 g. Per 10 liters of water).
When growing crops in greenhouses, surfaces should be disinfected in the fall and spring. Disinfection involves the use of bleach( 200 grams) per 10 liters of water.
Fungal disease affects all aboveground parts of the shoot, characterized by the formation of black spots on the leaves and stalk( fungi pycnidias).Ascochitis develops quickly, with a late diagnosis, the plant cannot be saved. The reason for the defeat of the culture can be disputes that have survived from the last season in the soil, or overmoistened soil.
When detecting the first signs, it is recommended to powder the affected area with a mixture of copper sulfate and chalk( 1: 1).Powdered activated carbon can also be added to the powder. This is done to dry the fabric and localize the problem.
Bacteriosis or angular leaf spot
The disease is dangerous because it affects not only parts of the plant, but also fruits. Small brown sores are formed on cotyledons, the spots on the leaves have an angular shape. Fruits on such bushes are formed with curvatures and deformations of different nature. At the initial stage of the disease, in the morning, the spots become dark green, gradually turning brown. An abrupt change in temperature conditions provokes the rapid development of the disease, therefore, it is not worth delaying the treatment.
Fighting bacteriosis includes:
- disinfecting seeds before sowing;
- annual change of landing site;
- removal of the affected plant from the garden, followed by disposal;
- in order to prevent the bushes sprayed Bordeaux mixture.
Another type of fungal infection that affects the pistils and ovary of the flowers, resulting in rotting, accompanied by an unpleasant putrid odor. It is easy to identify the problem - on the stems or fruits first form yellow, then brown wet spots turning into a brown color.
When detecting the first signs, the damaged areas are removed from the plants or the shrub is pulled off the entire bed to prevent the infection from spreading. It is possible to successfully combat the disease with preventive measures, which include moderate watering, cleaning the garden from weeds, disinfecting seeds and soil, and maintaining crop rotation.
Dry apical rot
The disease is caused by a lack of calcium in the soil. It is characterized by the same signs as apical bacteriosis, however, it does not transfer to neighboring bushes due to the absence of an infectious environment. Necrosis formed on zucchini tissues is a consequence of calcium deficiency, during the development of which the plant loses its ability to retain moisture.
As a preventive measure, chopped egg shells, wood ash and other means are introduced into the soil in the fall.
Treatment of seedlings from fusarium wilt
A cunning disease that first affects the root and vascular system of the zucchini. In the active phase, the foci are transferred to the stem and leaves; it is not possible to save the escape in the advanced stage. The danger lies in the ability to quickly spread to neighboring bushes.
When detecting the first signs of the disease, healthy plants should be powdered with wood ash. If the affected area has moved to the stem and leaves, it is impossible to do without biological treatment. One effective is trichodermin.
A large amount of organic fertilizers introduced into the soil to increase its fertility can trigger the development of fusarium. Therefore, it is recommended to combine organic matter with calcium-rich minerals. Fungal spores do not actively develop in a neutral environment.
A fungal disease that pulls nutritive trace elements from a healthy plant, causing the plant to die. Characteristic features: white spots of a round shape on the leaves, sometimes on the stem. The resulting small islands eventually merge, covering the entire surface of the sheet.
At first, the green turns brown, then dries and turns into a straw. The disease develops from spores, wintered in plant residues in the garden, or as a result of a deficiency in nitrogen fertilizers.
In order to prevent it, it is recommended to follow the schedule for the introduction of fertilizers and fertilizing, use decontaminated seeds, and fight weeds. In case of extensive lesions, use special preparations: Fitosporin, Fitolavin, Gamair, and other means.
When leaves turn yellow or peronosporioz
It affects the leaves of zucchini at all stages of plant development, at the same time it begins to turn yellow and curl, forming angular or round shapes. On the reverse side can be seen a raid of gray or purple hue, which indicates sporulation of the fungus. In the running stage, the greenery dries out; only the stalks remain from the bush. In a warm and humid environment, peronosporiosis develops quite quickly, if signs are detected, the affected leaves should be removed from the zucchini. Do not interfere with the treatment of phyto preparations or infusion of onion peel.
Fungal disease affects all the organs of the zucchini, forming white patches. Fabrics become soft, become tight. The cause of the disease is the overmoistening of the soil and the thickening of the bed. The spores of the fungus are particularly active during the fruiting period of the crop, so the harvest may be at risk.
In order to prevent it, it is recommended to follow simple rules:
- annually change the area for planting;
- use decontaminated seeds;
- during landing, maintain the interval between the bushes;
- powder the soil with wood ash;
- regulate the amount of irrigation water.
Brown olive spot
Fungal disease affecting the fruit, forming watery spots on them. After some time, zucchini deformed and rot. The hearth can go on the leaves, on which there are brown spots with a bright middle. The ideal environment for the development of the fungus is cool rainy weather. If a problem is detected, it is recommended to treat the beds with biofungicides. After harvesting, it is necessary to carefully remove all plant residues and disinfect the soil with special solutions.
Green speckled and white mosaics are extremely dangerous due to incurability. So that the virus does not hit the harvest of the new season, they make the replacement of the soil in the garden, and the plant residues are utilized by burning.
Characteristic features of the mosaic: the appearance of yellow-green spots on the young leaves of the zucchini, followed by wrinkling. Fruits show warts and various deformities. At a late stage, the entire surface of the vegetable is covered with splashes. The white mosaic is recognized by whitish spots on the leaves in the shape of stars.
sheet Protection against diseases and pests
Agricultural preparation of zucchini includes preventive measures that significantly reduce the risk of infecting plants with various diseases. Among the main ones:
- use of decontaminated seed;
- thorough cleaning of the garden at the end of the season;
- processing area for planting vegetables( solution of potassium permanganate, boiling water, and other means);
- adherence to landing patterns to prevent thickening of rows;
- timely weeding;
- regular watering;
- periodic inspection of the bushes;
- compliance with the rules of crop rotation.
Disease prevention is considered to be the correct preparation of the soil for sowing. It must be enriched with nutrients( humus, peat, wood ash, compost, etc.). If the soil structure is dense, you need to enter a little wood chips, peat or rotted manure. This will make it easier, which will allow the root system to develop normally.
With the proper agrotechnology and the implementation of disease prevention, harvest of zucchini can be harvested until very cold.