The quality of domestic sewer system must not be inferior to the reliability of the water supply or for mains. If the sewage in the apartment with his hands mounted high quality, it will serve more than a dozen years, subject to installation standards and the use of high-quality supplies.
Doubt in their abilities and are afraid to make a mistake? We will help you properly design and install the sewer system. The main thing - to take into account all the basic requirements, choose the right pipe and stick mounting technique described in the article.
The content of the article:
How to equip a sewer in the apartment?
- The slope of pipes - an important condition for the functioning of the system
- Friendship with its neighbors - half the battle
- Handling Precautions
- Fixing the main sewage riser
- How to choose a pipe?
- How to choose the diameter of the pipe?
Work procedure when installing sewers
- Drafting sewerage scheme
- Dismantling of the old system
- Replacing the sewer riser
- Calculation of materials and fitting
- Rough pipeline installation
- Finishing installation and sealing
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How to equip a sewer in the apartment?
Before you pick up the pipes and everything you need before starting the work necessary to understand the functioning principles sewer system, including compliance with angles of inclination that the pressure in the riser was slightly higher atmospheric.
Otherwise, the air squeeze nasty sewer gases directly into the apartment. If internal pressure is too high, the waste gases may emit siphons of sinks.
Let us consider more closely the nuances of sewer devices in the apartment.
The slope of pipes - an important condition for the functioning of the system
When laying the pipeline is necessary to observe the angle of the horizontal, which should be within certain limits. Insufficient bias sewer pipes will not allow drains normally drain into the riser. With too much slope to drain water quickly, leaving dirt on the pipe walls.
Watch for bias, to achieve optimal fluid flow in the sewers and the correct pressure in the pipes. Standards tapering pipes must meet SNP (+)
The paradox is that at high "yield" will clog drainage.
The dependence of the slope of laying the pipeline on the section line:
- 30 mm / m with a 50 mm;
- 20 mm / m at 110 mm;
- 8 mm / m at 160 mm;
- 7 mm / m at 200 mm.
Thus, the maximum deviation must be within 150 mm / m. Exceptions are bends up to 1.5 m for some plumbing fixtures, such as toilet bowl.
Connecting pipes is at right angles is possible only in a vertical orientation on the principle of a waterfall.
Sewer pipes are laid with a gradient, required for spontaneous free flow of content and display it outside apartment
Sloping sewer pipes should be directed away sewage riser receiving and transporting effluents
Before assembling the sewer piping route is drawn on the wall, along which the pipes will be laid. In the case of hidden gasket is marked supremum Stroebe
Before finishing fastening the assembled pipeline section is placed on the stand board from scraps or broken brick. Finish fastener made after verification of compliance with the slope
The direction of the slope of sewer pipes
Marking trails sewage upstream of the device
Finish fixing sewer pipes
Friendship with its neighbors - half the battle
To substitute domestic sewage in the apartment was a success and with minimal efforts, needs good relations with its neighbors on top. They should refrain from the use of sewage at the time of installation. To further be safe, it is better to disconnect the riser hot and cold water in the basement.
Based on this, all work must be carried out quickly, it is better on a weekday during the daytime, when most of the occupants of the house is on the job.
Sometimes a warning about the inadmissibility of the use of sewage neighbors may be ignored by some residents.
Take care of security measures during the work, because the removal and replacement of sewer equipment - high-risk event
Be prepared for an emergency situation and use the following protective measures:
- seal the walls and sex film, sealing all joints with tape;
- prepare bathroom - clean room and dismantle the toilet;
- use protective equipment - a raincoat, a helmet with glass, rubber boots.
The helmet is absolutely necessary, because you have to work with your head hanging over the heavy cast-iron pipe.
Fixing the main sewage riser
The lion's share of success in the safe installation of sewer covers securely installed the top of the riser. Do not rely on the remaining fixtures, as over time, they become useless.
The cast iron pipe may burst during the vibrations of the tool. All this can cause serious accidents, for which will have to pay.
Qualitative fixing unit also performs the function of a damper absorbing vibration. Securely fixed riser will minimize the likelihood of an accident
Procedure for fixing the riser:
- mounted on both sides of the riser under the ceiling by two crutches diameter of not less than 12 mm;
- perform fixation with a solution or studs with metal collet;
- pin must extend beyond the middle of the tube is not less than 40 mm;
- to fix risers using poluhomutov.
Under poluhomuty need to put a thick rubber pads (available from inner tubes). In the eyes of poluhomutov drilled holes for mounting studs. Each bracket is attached to the stud with the nut. They need to be tightened alternately to avoid the appearance of lateral force on the tube.
Fixing the riser must be reliable in all places - use strong bones with pins, clamps and brackets, suitable for diameter
It is impossible to fix the riser to the wall using a bracket or just one clip. If the tube fits snugly against the wall, then under it is necessary to hollow out a small groove to push the clamp. Remember that iron is very fragile, so be very careful.
How to choose a pipe?
There is no point talking about the benefits of plastic pipes of cast iron, but first there are different and the cost, and composition.
- Propylene. Supports up to + 130 ° C, allows the sanitary cleaning cable, and use of the active chemicals for the except alkalis and acids, it has a rough inner surface, which increases the flow resistance.
- PVC. An inexpensive option, which has the smoothest surface. Admits effluent temperature to 80 degrees, strength and chemical resistance is inferior propylene, but has a minimal flow resistance. Permissible cleaning plunger or ultrasound.
- Polyethylene. Cheap and unreliable. It is deformed, poorly sealed and has a low heat resistance.
Opt for PVC and propylene, given their technical and operational quality.
The characteristics of different types of sewage pipes are described in detail in the articles:
- Silent drainage: Principles everything + installation examples
- Pipes for sewerage in the house: which tube is best used for internal sewage network devices
How to choose the diameter of the pipe?
The minimum diameter of 32 mm is used for laying sewer when the system is isolated risers, and where the total flow extreme point lies at a distance of 7 m from the riser. Under any other conditions should be chosen with a pipe diameter of 40-50 mm.
On the market there are several types of sewer pipes from various manufacturers - pay attention to the section thickness, strength and heat resistance
Regarding the riser, its diameter must be at least 110 mm. In some cases a pipe is used for 160 and 200 mm. Under appropriate diameter is selected for the wall fastening.
Example: if there is only one kitchen sink (sink), to the bath can lead the tube to 35 mm. Already with a bathtub drain must have a minimum diameter of 40 mm.
To assemble the abductor sewer lines that connect the kitchen sink, plumbing sinks, urinals, bath, apply a pipe Ø 50 mm
For the organization of the release into the sewer of dirty water from washing machines and dishwashers assembly of piping produce pipes Ø 40, 50 mm
The waste outlet from the bowl to construct the riser pipe using at least Ø110 mm
If one sewage line connected to two devices, one of which is WC, the first line may be collected from the tubes Ø 50 mm, but only after the connection of the toilet pipes Ø 110 mm
Vents from the line for the sink and bath
Sewerage branch in the kitchen
Sewage release toilet
diameter pipe to the toilet and thereafter
Work procedure when installing sewers
To maximize productivity and efficiency, it is recommended to adhere to the following order:
- We determine the location of all plumbing fixtures, if you are planning to add new hardware or change the old scheme.
- All the sewage is drawn wiring diagram with chalk or pencil. In the scheme should be specified routes of pipes, length, diameters and inclinations for each section.
- Dismantle the old wiring system.
- Perform calculation amount pipes, consumables and fittings sealant.
- Acquire all of the elements, including iron nipples with a plastic riser.
- Mount system in free space, trying tube.
- We carry out the dismantling of old equipment.
- We make installation of the pipeline, we customize it under the joints.
- Of the pipe and sealing the joints.
- Mount and connected plumbing.
- We connect the system to a standpipe.
- When the sealant hardens, check the system for leaks.
Now at key stages of the work will focus more carefully, finding out some of the subtleties.
Drafting sewerage scheme
If the installation of a new sewage system is simply the replacement of pipes in the toilet and the bathroom, then come up with some new scheme is not necessary. Everything is done exactly as it was. But if the old sewerage system had problems, and it is planned to add new plumbing, it is necessary to accurately withstand all diameters and slopes.
Think before starting a detailed outline of how it will look finished sewerage and what materials it needs to buy (+)
To verify the correctness of the sewerage schemes in the apartment, it is better to give it to the test of skill. This is significantly cheaper than ordering drawing from scratch.
In the diagram, the following items shall be marked:
- all the rooms, which will host the sewer;
- layout for each room and the distance from the wall, the length of each is indicated, and the total length of the pipeline;
- a complete set of fittings, including audit and treatment challenges;
- the place where the central riser located.
The scheme should be as detailed, so that nothing is forgotten and not to disturb the technology.
For maintenance, inspection and cleaning of possible blockages in the sewer system throughout the apartment set audit and cleaning
In sewer risers, regardless of the pipe diameter, which may vary from 110 to 200 mm, put audit
Audits mounted on oestriasis Ø 50 mm length of more than 12m, taps Ø 110 mm, length 15 m
In sections of the pipeline diverting Ø 50 mm, length 8 m, at the tap of the pipe 10 mm Ø 110-150 m are mounted tassel
The construction of the sewerage system in the apartment
An audit on the sewer riser
Revision at outlet sewer pipe
Cleaning at the outlet pipe
Dismantling of the old system
It is necessary to analyze the old wiring, to select the appropriate method of removal. If changing the plastic, it is usually just pulled out of the joints while scrolling.
Sometimes the metal pipes can be removed in the same manner, but must clear the chisel caulking.
In all other cases, the majority of whom, it is necessary to perform the inscription cast iron pipe diamond wheel from different angles. The resulting hole inserts the wedge by which you need to repeatedly strike pound hammer until the pipe is not divided into two parts.
Start standing with the disconnection of the riser pipe and the immediate dismantling is done, starting with the most distant sewer area. It is necessary to warn the neighbors, cut off the water through the riser and to begin dismantling.
Use the power to make two cutting in cast-iron pipe for dismantling - another way to disconnect the pipes become attached very difficult
Disconnect cotter pipe which is adjacent to the riser. This is done in two cutting distance of 150 mm from each other. First fragment break out a pipe from a flat wedge, and then - from the scrap riser.
Next, you need a hammer obbit old terminations near the outlet of the riser, to remove the remaining fragments of the pipe. Holes should be tightly plugged with rags. Now you can allow neighbors to use running water, as long as you dismantle the rest of the pipe in the apartment.
Then again introduce a ban on the use of sewage. At least cut off the old risers to go to his replacement.
Replacing the sewer riser
This is an extremely important task, which is better to entrust the hardened professionals, otherwise the cost of failure may be too large.
If you are confident in their abilities, then you will need the following set of tools and supplies:
- two adapters-cuff - plastic / cast iron and cast iron / plastic;
- Two tubes of appropriate length and diameter;
- two plastic 45-degree rotation;
- compensator for plastic pipes;
- metal collars with studs for fastening;
- plastic spider with a tap 50 mm in a desired direction;
- plastic insert with the Audit hatch.
First it is necessary to strengthen the old riser at the top. Make a mid-iron pipe propyl two middle at a distance of 150 mm from each other. The lower cut insert two wedges on both sides of the pipe at an angle of 45 ° to the horizontal.
Dismantling of the riser should be prepared to make a master, with little experience of such work, so think carefully before you start to do this yourself
Tapping is necessary to achieve breaking off the tube. This operation requires considerable experience, since the wrong approach entire tubing string may collapse.
Insert wedges the upper cut precisely and also to release one pipe section. Thus assistants must necessarily hold the upper portion of the tube. Next, a chisel to remove all the old sealing the top.
Slight disturbance is necessary to release the tube from the joint. Now repeat the same for the bottom of the joint, eliminating the closing and removing rockings pipe.
Putting a new riser on the scheme, starting from the top and bottom of the finish:
- adjusting tap;
- Audit compartment;
The lower and upper part of the need to connect with a cast iron riser using a cuff.
Make sure that all the elements have been installed in the correct order, and the cuff is securely tightened on the pipe surface
Customized during roughing assembly the lower pipe sizes. Then carry out a finishing installation with sealant, and connect the lower wiring install a toilet. Fix riser with crutches with pins at four points, including adjusting each tap, and 1/3 the length of the lower and upper edges.
Calculation of materials and fitting
Calculate the amount of material needed so that during operation have as few pipe can be cut, since These are additional costs. Pay attention to the length of the sections. In an ideal situation, pruning is necessary to make only one pipe.
After all necessary will be on your hands, you need to figure out a few things with the help of the fitting.
Firstly, You need to understand how the clutch will be placed, whether behind the walls hang tail pipe, whether a place for the clutch grabs. Still needs crutches to note the location and determine their number.
SecondlyIt is necessary to identify the difficult places, where the installation may be complicated and consider its consistency.
Rough pipeline installation
Pre-connection of pipes made without sealing. The ends of the conduit are interconnected only complete ones nozzles. Next, cut the pipe from the free end.
Cut from the pipe can not, because it would disturb future construction and sealing compounds.
To check compliance with the scheme assemble the entire system of sewage pipes, but do not use until the sealant, adjust all the connections
Pruning is done hacksaw strictly at right angles. All burrs must be removed with a knife, including chamfer. If this is not done, then the remaining fibers will be clogging place. All rotary splitters should immediately turn to the working position.
Finishing installation and sealing
Starting with the removal of the riser, perform the connection of all the sections of the system. Special attention should be paid to the reliability of sealing - for this purpose, Sealant for pipes.
The composition should be neutral - it is better to use a polyurethane or silicone. At each plastic spacer must be applied sealant. On the rubber seals do not need to put anything.
Promazyvat desired external portion of the pipe which will contact with the connection and the inside of the pipe. Putting each section separately. After solidification of the sealant is necessary to check the entire system for leaks, dropping water into the drain with all plumbing, including the bathroom. At the same time the floor should not be a drop of water.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Installation of sewage in the apartment - a laborious process, but knowledge of the intricacies will help to make a competent installation. Take advantage of video tips to expand your knowledge and watch the work of professionals.
Now you know how to plan and carry out the sewers in the apartment. The process of dismantling and installation is accompanied by a lot of professional nuances, so if you need better to turn to professionals.
You have experience in dealing with similar problems? Or have questions about the arrangement of sewerage in the apartment? Please share your opinion and leave comments. Communication unit located below.