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Ita Among the fans of silent hunting the most persistent, perhaps, are the pickers: Go and try to reel a few kilometers away, looking under every bush and poking grassy thickets in search of edible mushrooms, and in fact their "booty" yet to bring home. However, one of patience and strength in this matter is not enough. It is much more important to be able to understand the forest gifts, because health, and sometimes the very life of a mushroom picker and his family members, directly depends on this. Even completely harmless at first glance, the mushrooms can be poisonous twins.
Read also: delicious soup of dried mushrooms.
We offer you a brief selection of the most famous types of edible mushrooms with names and photos. We hope that it will help to make the right choice.
Always collect only mushrooms that you are absolutely sure of. If you have any doubts about their edibility or appearance, it is better to bypass such an instance.
The mushroom king is the white mushroom
The white mushroom is one of the most delicious, valued for its dense and sweet flesh. It is noteworthy that it does not lose its white color when it is cut( its inedible twins have blue or pinkish flesh).The bottom of the cap is tubular, also white and does not darken after drying, the only thing is that it acquires a yellow tint in old mushrooms. The leg is very fleshy and plump, most often a bit short.
Dried porcini mushrooms, the photos of which are presented below, have a high caloric content - 281 kcal against 40 in freshly harvested specimens. It is more nutritious than dried boletus( 290 kcal versus 36).
The mushroom king grows mainly in families, in pine forests, for this reason it is also called boletus. Collection time - from the beginning of summer to mid-autumn. Depending on the tree species under which the family “settled”, there are up to 20 species of boletus mushroom. Most often you can find:
- spruce mushroom with a reddish-brown cap on a smooth elongated stem;
- pine mushroom with a dark brown, slightly shiny, hat on a short thick leg;
- oak mushroom with a brown-gray cap on a long grayish stem;
- birch mushroom with a light brown hat on a short volume leg.
A worthy replacement for beef - mushrooms
Ryzhiki mushrooms in their taste are close to boletus mushrooms. You can cook them in any way, but one of the best delicacies is pickled or salted mushrooms.
The most high-calorie - salted mushrooms, surpassing in this matter, even eggs and beef.
The most common types of fungi are
- Pine Fry. It grows on sandy soils in pine forests, harvesting - from the end of summer. The funnel-shaped hat with a recess in the center, dark orange with a red tinge, the edges are slightly wrapped down, the touch is slightly sticky. The plates under the cap become green when pressed, the juice gets the same color in the air. The leg is small, in the form of a cylinder, also orange.
- Elovik( spruce ginger).It lives in young spruce forests.
Differs in a thinner hat, in which blue or green tint may be present, and red milky juice. Leg slightly longer than the pine fellow.
Chanterelle mushrooms are permanent inhabitants of mixed forests, although they also like conifer plantations. Grow large families until the very end of autumn, especially a lot of them in the rainy summer. The diameter of the funnel cap is small, up to 10 cm, but it is very fleshy, painted in a beautiful yellow color, the edges are wavy, wrapped down. The flesh is slightly lighter, dry and elastic, it tastes sharp and smells like dried fruit, does not turn black during breaking. The cap at the bottom smoothly lends itself, and its thick plates pass into an elongated leg. It is smooth, the same color with a hat.
Inedible chanterelle twins have a more saturated color: they can be bright orange or reddish. In addition, they have no corrugation around the edge of the cap.
Russula mushrooms grow in moist pine forests and in swampy areas from mid-summer to early autumn. They have a very beautiful cap with a depressed center and slightly jagged edge. It is smooth, painted in dirty red or greenish-brown, the central recess is darker and brownish. It can cast a glossy gloss or a calm matte shade. The leg is smooth, white. The plates under the cap are white or yellowish, very fragile and easily broken. The sweet flesh itself has the same structure, when it breaks it darkens.
Poisonous doubles of russus caps have a rich color: from bright red to purple, and moreover round.
The mushroom has several varieties that can be of different colors. Such russula is considered to be the most delicious of them:
- greenish or scaly with a characteristic cap color;
- edible or edible with a pink-red or brick hat;
- short-legged with a white hat.
Wetting mushrooms, photos of which can be seen below, grow in deciduous forests dominated by birch groves. They have very beautiful caps, rounded convex at a young age, and with time - with an in-depth center. The edges of the caps are wrapped down, and along its entire surface there are long hairs of a darker shade, decorating the windshield with a fancy pattern. Leg rather thick, but in moderation, the same color with a cap. The pulp of the fungus smells pleasantly, friable, but it has one drawback, due to which some scientists do not recognize the volcano edible: it is saturated with milky juice, bitter and tart to the taste.
Despite the bitterness, the mushroom is absolutely not dangerous. Experienced mushroom pickers recommend eating only young specimens for consumption and soaking them in cold water: after this procedure and cooking, the bitterness disappears.
In the forests, there are two types of waves, both are edible mushrooms, and somewhat different from each other:
- A pink wave with a red and beige hat.
- A white willow with a dirty white hat( it is even more fragile).
The first spring mushrooms - morels
Among the early gifts of nature, morels appear among the first, which are seemingly not beautiful, but very tasty mushrooms with an original structure. On the long, light stem, empty inside, a hat of a darker color is worn tightly in a fabulous shape: it is covered with deep cells, as if eaten by unknown insects.
Three kinds of morel mushrooms are used as food, the photos of which can be seen in the description, namely:
- Ordinary( edible).The hat is egg-shaped, brown in color, empty inside. Leg yellowish, also hollow, grows together with a cap.
- Conical( high).It is characterized by a high elongated brown cap, vertically located cells are darker. The leg is also high, up to 10 cm in height, most of it is hidden under the cap.
- Semi-Free. A small, dark cellular cap with a sharp top and a clearly visible rim along the edge is “put on” on the high leg.
Mushroom an aspen mushroom, also known as a small mushroom, grows singly or in small families in moist deciduous forests, in shady thickets( where it's damp).As the name implies, from the trees he prefers secluded places under the aspen trees, but there are other types of fungus that are in close symbiosis with spruces, oaks or birches.
Mushroom pickers call this beautiful large mushroom a "redhead" because of its bright big cap, painted in different shades of red. While the mushrooms are small, their caps, like hemispheres, are tightly worn on the legs. Over time, they bend upward, the bright sponge under the cap thickens and becomes gray-yellow-brown. Dense pulp after the cut becomes bluish. The leg of an aspen mushroom is no less powerful and high, and at the top it is noticeably thickened. The entire surface is covered with black small scales.
The most common types of aspen birds are:
- is yellow-brown with an orange cap and high stem;
- is white with a corresponding color of the cap, which with age acquires a brown tint, and a long, thickened stem;
- red with large, brick-colored hats and thick legs.
In a false aspender, the sponge is bright( pink or red) in color, the foot is decorated with a fine yellow-red mesh, and when broken, the flesh turns pink.
Mushroom bracelets on the stumps of honey agaric
As can be seen in the photo, the fungus mushrooms grow large families on the remnants of tree species, girding them with a beautiful ring. They have a thin elegant leg, the height of which can reach 15 cm, yellowish or brown. Some mushrooms, as they are called mushrooms, have a skirt on their legs.
In young mushrooms, the cap is rounded, with small scales, but then it straightens and becomes an umbrella, and the surface becomes smooth. The color is mostly cream or yellow-red.
Fast growing boletus
In birch groves, among the roots of trees grow grandmothers or boletus mushrooms. It is hard to walk past large caps without noticing them: fleshy, bulging hemispheres have a blunt edge and light brown color. Bottom of the cap in the form of a thick sponge, gray-white, brownish spots appear in old mushrooms. Leg rather long, all covered with dark scales. Mushrooms grow literally on yeast, and they gather 4 cm per day, creating whole glades, although they can live in splendid isolation.
In a false boletus, the cap above and below is gray or pink.
There are many varieties of boletus, the most common of them are:
- boletus with a reddish hat and a massive leg, thickening downwards;
- grabovik with ashen or gray-brown hat and a thick leg( grows in hornbeam forests).
Corn mushrooms mushrooms
Gruzdi - one of those mushrooms that grow in large piles. Having found one family of these beauties, you can collect a whole basket of forest gifts. The appearance of the mushrooms may differ significantly, since there are a lot of fungus varieties, but all of them are characterized by a funnel-shaped depression in the center of the big cap, while at the young age it is not. Mushrooms are mainly used for salting, because their milky juice is bitter.
One of the most delicious mushrooms is considered to be mushrooms, whose photos you can see:
- Yellow gruzd. The hat is golden, with small scales, the bottom is concave, the edges are tucked inside. The leg is strong, although hollow, smooth, with yellow pits. The flesh at the cut turns yellow.
- Red-brown sink. Differs large beautiful brown hats and sturdy thick legs. When collected, it smells like fish.
- Real( white) sink. The cap is yellowish, with fibrous edges, always in adhering weedy grass. The leg is squat, thick, hollow.
Mucus mushroom greasers
If there are mushrooms that are difficult to confuse with others, then these are boars - residents of pine forests. Their cap is covered with a rather unpleasant to the touch and very slippery skin that does not prevent the mushrooms from remaining one of the most delicious forest delicacies. The shape of the cap in the form of a hemisphere, like a pillow. The mucous peel is easily removed and most often painted in brown tones, but may be yellowish, and even spotty. The bottom of the cap is spongy, light, darkens with age. The leg is elongated, corresponds to the color of the top of the fungus.
The pulp of young mushrooms is dense, but it quickly grows old and becomes loose in a week, thanks to which boletus serves as a favorite habitat and dish of worms.
Mushroom has more than 50 species of mushrooms; among the most delicious are:
- Late oil can. One of the best representatives with fleshy light pulp that does not darken, has a pleasant taste and a light fruity smell. The cap is brown, with a shiny, slippery skin, the leg is light, in the upper part it is shrouded in a veil that passes and covers the cap.
- Ordinary butterdish. The hat is thick, dark and slimy, on the leg is a skirt.
- Yellow brown butterdish. The caps of young mushrooms are greenish, then they become yellow-red and cracked, while they are almost dry to the touch. Leg extended. The ideal raw material for marinating( except for old mushrooms).
Unusual, but edible and tasty mushroom.
In the forest belts, in the fallen leaves of conifers and ash, and also on old abandoned farms, where the earth is saturated with rotted manure, after rains, numerous families of mushrooms of Cenoenoks grow.
. In the scientific literature, the fungus is called the articulation of the lilovonog.
A characteristic feature of the blue-eyed dog is a purple color. It is the deepest on the leg, but in young mushrooms the cap itself and the plates are also cast in a mysterious bluish light. With age, the fleshy semicircular cap turns yellow, tucking the inside edge. With a sufficient level of moisture, it is shiny, the arid autumn dries out, and the color becomes faded. The flesh is dense, with the cut also turns blue, it smells like anise. The leg is thick, slightly widening towards the bottom.
The edible parasite is a tinder
It is already clear from the name of the tinder fungus that something is wrong with it, but it hurts nature more than man. Wind-blown spores begin to germinate in the bark of trees and actively multiply, causing their rotting and further death. On the other hand, the tinder can be called a forest sanitary officer: he cleans it of old plantings, freeing up space for new crops, and the rotted tree becomes fertilizer for them.
The form of the tinder is not typical of the fungus: it looks more like a large single or layered growth on a tree.
There are many types of tinder, they are all relatively edible mushrooms( not poisonous).However, most have poor taste and solid structure, but they have healing properties. Basically mushrooms are used to prepare various tinctures and ointments. However, some varieties are still quite tasty if cut at a young age. Most often, sauces and soups are prepared from such tinder artists:
- Birch. It differs by the absence of a leg, consists only of a large and thick cap. The young white fungus becomes brown with age. On the reverse side, the tinder is like a dense sponge, due to which it is also called a “birch sponge”, and it also grows on birches. Another name is chaga.
- Scaly. On a short, thick and dark leg a wide fan-shaped cap with a tubular bottom is attached to the tree. It is light brown, covered with darker scales. The edges of the cap are wrapped down and the middle is pressed inward.
- Sulfur Yellow. It grows in the spring in the form of a shapeless mass of yellow-orange color, old specimens become gray. Fruit bodies fasten one to another sides, semicircular, with a wavy edge. The flesh is fleshy and juicy, with a lemon flavor and smell, but with age an unpleasant odor appears, the fungus dries and crumbles. The weight of one adult tinder exceeds 10 kg.
There is a “wild” and cultivated variety of champignon mushrooms, both edible, with a distinctively pronounced mushroom odor:
- Meadow or common champignon. It grows in rich in organic soil in the fields, plantings, gardens. Harvest time is during the whole summer, and in the southern regions with late and warm winters - until mid-autumn, and the mushrooms appear already in late spring. A fleshy cap with a diameter of up to 15 cm is white in color, with curved edges, the plates are brown. In young mushrooms, they are white at first, and the cap itself grows together with a thick leg of the veil. When the mushroom grows up, it breaks, leaving behind a ring on the leg.
- Champignon double or cultivated. It prefers places where dung was introduced, meadows, gardens, used for mass cultivation in special rooms. The dimensions are slightly more modest, the diameter of the cap does not exceed 10 cm, and the leg itself is lower and thinner. Small white mushrooms, over time, the hat becomes brown. If you break the white flesh, it quickly darkens.
Grassland champignons are popularly known as “Pecheritsy”.
Frost-resistant oyster mushrooms or saprophytes
In the deciduous forests with the arrival of autumn on the dry and fallen trees you can often find oyster mushrooms. They grow directly on a tree or stump, getting food from it, and therefore belong to saprophytes - mushrooms that destroy trees.
Oyster mushrooms are also grown at home on a special substrate consisting of plant residues.
The size of the mushrooms is quite impressive: the diameter of the cap is about 20 cm on average, although there are also specimens from 30 cm. Then the hat straightens and becomes flat and smooth, and its surface is painted in a darker shade and becomes glossy.
The tubular cap of the cap passes into a very short leg, and since the mushrooms grow in bunches, it is almost imperceptible. In old oyster mushrooms and legs, and caps are stiffer and fibrous, therefore it is better to use young mushrooms while they are juicy. It is noteworthy that you can pick mushrooms before the start of hard frost - the first light frost on oyster mushrooms is not terrible.
It is possible to list edible mushrooms for a very long time and it is hard to remember them all. In each region grow their own mushrooms, depending on the natural terrain. Someone was lucky to live in the forest and collect white mushrooms, and someone is looking for meadow mushrooms in the steppes. Enough to learn the local mushrooms and you can go in search of delicacy. But, just in case, take an experienced mushroom picker with you and avoid suspicious specimens.
Into the forest for edible mushrooms - video