Alternative energy source based on solar batteries - great for the organization of an independent power supply. It will provide high energy efficiency, not only in the hot days of, but in cloudy weather. It would be nice to have such a device at home, is not it?
To do this, just choose wisely technical components and perform assembly. Anyone can do this, knowing the scheme and how to connect solar panels. We'll show you how constructed system performance processing "green energy" in the electricity required to power household appliances.
In addition, you will learn how to choose the location for the geliopaneley and how to combine them with the stationary mains. Useful tips and important recommendations will have effective assistance handyman. themed photographs, diagrams and video clips are shown to simplify the perception.
The content of the article:
- Solar Battery Charger
- Where better to set the bar?
- Embodiments geliobatarey compound
- The circuit assembly of solar electrical
- Connecting divergent elements
- Combining gelioenergii and fixed network
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Solar Battery Charger
When planning to connect solar panels own, you must have an idea of what elements make up the system.
Solar panels are made up of a set of panels on photovoltaic cells, The main purpose of which - to convert solar energy into electricity. Amperage system depends on the light intensity brighter than the radiation, the more current is generated.
In addition to the solar module in a power device includes photoelectric converters - controller and inverter, as well as the batteries connected to it
The basic structural elements of the system are:
- Solar battery - converts sunlight into electrical energy.
- Battery - chemical current source, which stores the generated electricity.
- charge controller - monitors the battery voltage.
- inverterConverting a constant electric voltage of the battery to AC 220V, which is necessary for the functioning of the lighting system and the operation of household appliances.
- Circuit breakersEstablished between all elements of the system and protect the system from short circuit.
- Standard MC4 connector kit.
In addition the main controller purpose - to monitor the battery voltage, the device disconnects by these or other elements as necessary. If the battery voltage indicator daytime reaches 14 volts, which indicates their overcharging, the controller terminates charging.
In the nighttime when the battery voltage indicator reaches an extremely low level of 11 volts, the controller stops the operation of the power plant.
Where better to set the bar?
The first thing to do before you install and connect the solar battery - to determine the seat of the machine.
To install the photovoltaic module is convenient to use fixed structures, made of metal profiles, or else a rotary analogs modernized
Solar panels can be placed in almost any well-illuminated point:
- on the roof of a country cottage;
- on the balcony of an apartment building;
- on the territory adjacent to the house.
The main thing - to provide the necessary conditions for maximum power generation. One of these is the orientation and angle of inclination relative to the horizon. Because light-absorbing surface of the unit should be directed to the south.
Ideally, the sun's rays should fall on it at 90 °. To achieve this effect, you need to choose the optimal inclination angle depending on the climatic conditions of the region. For each region, this figure the.
To ensure maximum performance of solar cells, the angle of inclination of the devices is recommended to change 2-4 times a year: April 18, 24 August, 7 October and 5 March
For example, the region in the Moscow angle placement of solar panels for the summer months the surface is 15-20 °, and in the winter months is changed to the level of 60-70 °.
When placing solar panels on the territory adjacent to the house, the best panel to lift above the soil surface for at least half a meter - in the event of loss of a large amount of snow. This decision was correct in the sense that provides sufficient space for air circulation.
It is worth remembering that even a small shadow adversely affects the production of electricity unit. The panels must be placed only in places that are not affected by even the slightest shadow.
Some "artisans" to protect the battery positioned on top of the additional glass, but even with the visible layer of transparent glass panels can reduce efficiency by 30%
There are several ways of fixing the panels:
- by operating the clamping latches;
- by bolting through the through-holes located in the bottom of the frame.
The support structure should be made of Inox materials. Regardless of the method of mounting structure panels impossible to make changes and additional drilled hole.
Task homeowner - maintain the panel in its pure form. Accumulations of dust on the screen, snow and poultry manure at least 10% reduces the amount of electricity produced by the system.
Embodiments geliobatarey compound
Solar panels consist of several individual panels. To increase the output parameters of the system in the form of power, voltage and current, the elements are attached to each other by applying the laws of physics.
Compound several panels together can be performed by applying one of three schemes solar installation:
The parallel circuit assumes connection of like terminals to each other, wherein the elements have two common conductors convergence node and branching.
With the parallel scheme "plus" connected to "plus" and "cons" with the "minus", whereby the output current increases and the output voltage remains within 12 Volt
The magnitude of the maximum possible output current when the parallel circuit is directly proportional the number of connected elements. The principles of calculating the amount given in our recommended paper.
Sequential scheme involves connection of opposing poles: "plus" of the first panel to the "minus" of the second. The remaining untapped "plus" of the second panel and the "negative" of the first battery is connected to a location further along the circuit controller.
This type of connection creates conditions for flow of electric current in which is the only way to transfer the energy carrier from the source to the consumer.
When the series circuit connecting the output voltage increases and reaches the level of 24 Volts, which is sufficient for powering portable devices, LED lamps and some electroreceivers
Serial-parallel circuit, or a mixed compound is used if necessary several groups of batteries often. By applying this scheme, the output can be increased and the voltage and current.
This embodiment is advantageous in the sense that in the event of failure of one of the structural elements of the system, other binders circuit continues to function. This greatly improves the reliability of the whole system.
When the serial-parallel circuit connecting the output voltage reaches a point whose characteristics are most suitable for bulk solutions household tasks
The principle of assembling the combined circuit is built on the fact that the devices within each group are connected in parallel. A connection of all groups in a chain is carried out sequentially.
Combining different types of connections, it will not be difficult to assemble the battery with the required parameters. Home - number of connected elements must be such that supplied to the operating voltage of the batteries because of its drop in voltage greater than the charging circuit itself batteryAnd the battery load current thus provide the desired value of the charging current.
The circuit assembly of solar electrical
Connection of solar panels is performed by operating the connecting wires embedded section of 4 mm2. It is best suited for this purpose single-core copper wire, insulating coating that is resistant to UV radiation.
In case of using wire, the insulation of which is not resistant to UV rays, it is recommended that the outer gasket gofrorukave.
The end of each wire is connected to the standard connector MC4 by soldering or crimping, thereby providing a sealed connection
Regardless of the scheme chosen to connecting solar panels it is imperative to check the correct wiring.
When connecting panels do not exceed the technical requirements of the current and allowable maximum voltage of other devices. It is important to adhere to the technical requirements specified by the manufacturer of the charge controller and inverter.
Standard assembly diagram of the simplest solar power is as follows.
Wiring diagram panel to the battery, inverter and controller has a simple design, but because of special difficulties in connection does not cause
To avoid breakage controllerWhen connecting the system elements it is important to follow the sequence.
Installation work is carried out in several stages:
- The battery is connected to the controller, cycling for this the appropriate connectors and do not forget to respect the polarity.
- To the controller via connectors in compliance with all of the same polarity are attached solar panel.
- To the controller connectors connected load 12 V.
- If it is necessary to convert the voltage from 12 to 220V, the circuit includes an inverter. It is connected only to the battery, and in any case not directly to the controller.
- To free the inverter output connected appliances designed for voltage of 220 V.
After completing the connection, you need to check the polarity and measure the open circuit voltage of the panels. If the index is different from the nominal value - compound not made correctly.
To connect the device to the system there is no need to open the raspaechnuyu mounting box - all connectors are located in the availability of
At the final stage of the solar panel must be properly grounded. To minimize the likelihood of a short circuit in the ground connection between the battery, inverter and controller set fuses.
Those who wish to build a solar panel will own the information contained the following article.
Connecting divergent elements
Applying solar installation scheme, so as not to degrade the performance of devices, all panels are common chain should be placed at the same angle and in the same plane.
If the panel will be located in different planes, it may lead to the fact that the proximal or more illuminated work will be more powerful located a little further.
This means that the near panel will generate electricity, some of which will depart for distant heating panels. And the reason lies in the fact that the current flows through the path of least resistance. To minimize losses, for each panel is better to use a separate controller.
Basic requirements for engagement of the controller - power plug panels than 1 kW and the distance between the batteries at a sufficiently large distance
To resolve the issue and you can by installing shut-off diodes. They are placed in between the plates. Due to this, giving a maximum power rating, the plates do not overheat.
Equally important is the voltage drop in the compounds themselves but also the low voltage conductors of the system.
Table transmit power mismatch section wire, red indicating parameters for which there is a strong risk of fire hazard heating
As an example may be the fact that meter length of cable section 4 mm2 when the current indicator of 80A (12V) values fall to 3.19%, which is 30.6 watts. When engagement twists the voltage drop can vary in the range from 0.1 to 0.3 V.
Combining gelioenergii and fixed network
When planning to use the energy from the sun along with the equipped centralized fixed network connection scheme makes somewhat different. And the main reason for this decision is that the private consumer is not possible to "reset" the remaining energy.
This can cause voltage drops of up to one second.
When combining solar power with a fixed central network guided by the same rule: the more springs connected, the more difficult it becomes scheme
According to the scheme given above, the voltage on the collector area in the first step is directed toward the battery, and from there, and is transmitted to the load.
When designing such an option mounting calculation is to take two types of stress:
- not redundant - the light in the house, appliances, etc .;
- redundant - Emergency lighting, fridge, electric kettle.
Keep in mind: the higher the capacity of the battery, the more worked in standalone mode redundant appliances.
By choosing this method of energy generation in the network, get ready for what will have to issue permission to the local grid.
Despite the fact that inverters for solar panels produce voltage quality is often higher than that in the centralized network, the local power grid do not give the nod to the fact that the electric meter was rotating in the opposite direction.
For this reason, according to the scheme of the solar inverter will stop working at the time of power failure in the network. A redundant load starting "powered" by batteries.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The authors of the video, which is provided below, share personal experiences and understand the nuances of geliopaneley installation.
Video # 1. EXAMPLE assembly and installation of the plant sample system:
Video # 2. How to install the panel:
Nothing complicated in the process of connecting several panels with other elements of a system. But the process can be difficult for a novice master. Therefore, in the absence of experience in the calculation and installation skills necessary to see a specialist in possession of the necessary knowledge.
You want to tell how they gathered their own solar power station for questioning or a country house? Perhaps you know the intricacies of the process is not described in the article? Please write comments in the block located below, ask questions, share opinions, and pictures of the article.