The device will allow independent electrical energy private buildings that are not connected to centralized networks. The result will help to reduce energy costs cottages and houses. But in order to explore these advantages, it is necessary to know exactly how to make autonomous power supply of private homes. After all, is not it?
We will tell you about the device independent power supply systems. Here you will find the basic principles of the device and the important nuances of supply of electricity in private residential organization. The presented information has been carefully checked, systemized, information relevant building regulations.
In our proposed article thoroughly understand the options the device private energy systems are listed and evaluated all possible sources of energy. Detailed principles of construction and an independent electrical action, the data backed up photos and videos.
The content of the article:
- General requirements for the domestic stand-alone systems
Balanced assessment of an independent system
- Advantages of battery electrics
- Disadvantages of an independent power supply
- Determination of the best energy source
- Features of the generator
- Stand-alone solar power
- Wind energy for autonomous power supply
- Local hydro system
- Batteries for autonomous systems
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
General requirements for the domestic stand-alone systems
To independent complex worked properly and the amount of energy produced, completely covering the needs of all home devices and household appliances, carry out a preliminary calculation of the total power to the equipment installation available electrical load.
They include units such as:
- heating system of a residential house;
- Device for cleaning / cooling air;
- large and small HVD appliances;
- complex pump, supplies water to the house from a well or borehole;
- electric tool for routine maintenance carried out by their own hands, and care of buildings and plots of land.
Base capacity will learn from the accompanying documents issued by the manufacturer and attached to each unit. This figure all different, but all the same and devices require a stable power supply with a certain frequency elektropotoka and without surges.
In some cases, consider also this option as pure sine wave AC voltage.
Stand-alone power system allows year-round to provide a level of comfort in homes, located far from the central communication systems responsible for energy supply to the residential room
Data on the instrument power are summed and this way find out how many actual kilowatt hours must develop smoothly on the day of an autonomous electrical system. It is recommended to exceed that number by 15-30%, in the future, have a considerable reserve of the increase in energy consumption.
The presence of a private house complex autonomous power supply provides the owner complete freedom of action. At his disposal will always be a necessary resource, no matter what the price of electricity will establish state
In the next step define the basic technical characteristics of the future energy system. These parameters are directly dependent on its purpose.
If you are going to make a backup source, connect only to a certain point, when no getting electricity through the centralized communication, establish the estimated time of stand-alone equipment, and on the basis of these data, calculate the necessary for the normal functioning of the system power.
If on the "shoulders" of stand-alone equipment plan to lay all the electricity supply in the living room, outbuildings on the plot in advance precisely calculate the approximate day consumption.
This figure throw another 20-25%, and in this way get the actual core power needed to complete the work of communications networks, equipment and household appliances.
Choosing an alternative source of energy supply solar cells, it should be remembered that in the winter Modules period produce 2-3 times less resources than during high solar activity (from March to September)
Having the technical details, begin to develop the project and cost estimates to derive complete an objective rating for the forthcoming financial costs for the purchase of units and payment services for installation.
Experts, of course, handle the assembly quickly and accurately, but asked for it a large sum. Handyman can also overpower the main part of the problem, but for the individual stages is still prudent to invite professionals or even take advantage of their advice.
Balanced assessment of an independent system
Modern systems for autonomous power supply using a variety of resources for energy production. This allows you to receive high-quality electricity without fluctuations even in the most remote and sparsely populated areas, which have not yet managed to get all the benefits of civilization.
Advantages of battery electrics
The main advantage of the autonomous power supply systems - the lack of norms of consumption and payment for consumed energy. This ensures in a house any comfort level, regardless of whether there are a number of central communications or not.
If the preliminary calculations of the power produced is true and not too low, the system will work like a clock and the owners do not face problems such as unexpected power outages and fluctuations voltage.
Weighty advantage is independent power supply in the absence of jumps, drops and overvoltage in the network, due to which a much faster fails household appliances and computer
It will be reduced to zero the risk that household appliances, available in a residential area, fail or burn out due to unexpected power discontinuity. The quantity and quality of the resulting electricity will always be the same and it is the same as it was originally planned in the project.
Equipment, providing independent power supplies, has a high level of reliability and rarely fails. This advantage is still valid, subject to the basic rules of operation and regular maintenance of individual elements and the whole system entirely.
In addition, today operate pilot programs that allow owners to sell surplus electricity to the state. However, the use of this interesting possibilities worth considering in advance, even in the electrical supply system design stage.
Also required to issue a package of permitting documents, confirming the ability of available instruments to produce the right amount of good quality energy.
Disadvantages of an independent power supply
By cons of independent power supply systems include relatively high cost of equipment and the considerable operating costs.
The disadvantages include the need for independent power to allocate space for placing equipment, to carry out an independent system maintenance and replacement of worn-out elements of its score
Electricians strongly recommend that owners very carefully to make all the calculations and clearly clarify technical parameters planned for installation of the system. Otherwise, the situation may arise when the unit that produces electricity fails, and not having to pay off.
Repair autonomous complex owners also carried out at their own expense, and these services are considerable money. If the house is located in a remote and inaccessible area, for the masters have to go in person or pay extra travel team in place.
And it does need quickly enough, as domestic communications and amenities, running on electricity are not available at this time.
If the stand-alone energy generation system selected modules from solar cells, their It needs to be periodically cleaned of debris in windy weather, and be sure to release in winter of snow. Only with such care, they will be fully operational during the maintenance period
Significantly reduce the chance of breakage of autonomous devices regular routine inspections and routine maintenance of existing units, but this may need to visit specialists worth the money.
Of course, some of these works the master make your own, but more serious issues requiring specific expertise and specific knowledge, still entail professional intervention.
Determination of the best energy source
Selection of an alternative energy source for offline electrical supply of a residential house - a very important and crucial moment that requires a serious approach.
The most popular and most common options are:
- generators running on diesel or gasoline;
- solar panels and collectors;
- Batteries large volume and capacity;
- wind energy converters.
Each source has its own unique characteristics and features. Owners are kindly requested to review them and uses this information to determine the optimal variant of the system, capable of meeting all the electrical needs of the private house.
Features of the generator
Generator - is the fastest and easiest way to provide private home electricity. To operate the machine uses gasoline or diesel fuel and as a result of its combustion produces the required amount of energy.
The main advantage is the complete independence of device on seasonal changes and weather fluctuations. Disadvantages include the mandatory presence at the site specially equipped for the storage of fuel calculated on a volume of 200 liters.
Diesel generator set is convenient and easy to use, but for the normal functioning it is necessary to receive not less than 250 ml of fuel per hour. Powerful station capable of providing energy small private house with the actual resource consumption of a few kilowatts per day will be "is" about a liter of diesel oil for 60 minutes
In most cases, gasoline and diesel generator sets are used as a temporary or redundant sources of electrical power. This is due to the fact that in order to complete the work devices require significant amounts of fuel, the cost of which is constantly increasing.
Powerful petrol or diesel generator is capable in the presence of the desired amount of fuel to ensure an uninterrupted supply of electricity. However, the device in the process produces a lot of noise. In order not to suffer due to unwanted sounds, it is worth to place the unit in one of the adjoining utility room, located at some distance from their own homes and neighborhood homes
The equipment itself also has a high price and requires preventive maintenance. For more favorable options include generator sets, gas units. They do not need an uninterrupted supply of fuel and does not require fuel storage facilities for materials.
However, full-scale operation of these devices enables such an item as mandatory to connect to a central gas network that is not always possible and affordable.
Installation in house the gas generator is carried out only on the basis of allowing the package documents and mandatory participation in the installation wizards team from the local timing enterprise. Connected to the gas appliance yourself is not recommended in order to avoid potentially possible future leaks and various problems
It is because of these complexities generators rarely selected as the primary source to supply electricity in a private home.
Stand-alone solar power
To supply a private house used collectors or solar panels. These devices absorb light energy and convert it to a current, which then feeds the systems, devices and appliances running on electricity.
Solar panel (panels) are a set of connected together and enclosed in a frame of the semiconductor elements, the processing resources of light into electrical energy. The equipment does not consume fuel and does not require complex professional service.
To maintain the object in order simply from time to time to wipe the dust from absorbing mirror and clean it with debris. Installation of the unit on a raised platform at an angle of about 70 degrees to create conditions under which winter time snow can not accumulate on the surface of the battery and prevent it from properly work.
Adjusting Solar automatically. Owner is not required to turn on or off the equipment. The generated energy is accumulated in special storage complexes, and allows the use of electricity around the clock, individually, personally convenient for the host mode.
Solar cell directly converts light energy into electric current and, as opposed to generating sets, making it completely silent, without disturbing so any tenants or neighbors
Solar high quality batteries are highly reliable and designed for full operation for at least 25 years. By the end of this period, their performance is slightly reduced, and the following panel of 20 years old are resource in the amount of about 80% of the initial base power claimed by the manufacturer.
Thus, the total battery life is 45 years, which is significantly higher than in other autonomous systems.
Unlike wind generators directly dependent on certain weather phenomena, solar panels are guaranteed to give electricity every day. The Weathertop cloudy days their performance becomes a little less, but does not stop completely
Since sunlight is available almost everywhere, geliopaneli almost no installation restrictions. You can place them in any unshaded space portion, paying receiving surface at a predetermined angle on the south side.
When choosing a location for the solar panels on the gardening area, you need to make sure that there were a number of tall trees and buildings blocking the sun and casts a shadow. Otherwise, the battery will not operate at full capacity
If the dimensions of gardening area do not allow to allocate a separate space for the equipment, It is appropriate to use for the installation of the system the surface of the roof of a residential home or commercial roof buildings.
Despite some fragility, solar panels have considerable weight and require clear and secure mounting. Experts strongly recommend that before installing equip roof structures strong beams or props to the future roof is collapsed, unable to bear the additional burden not provided the original project
Wind and hydroelectric systems have a fixed power level. In solar systems this value is floating and depends only on the number of installed batteries. Solar panels can be used as an additional energy source. In this case, you will need Hybrid inverter, Which will introduce the recommended article us.
If a lot of energy at the moment there is no need, you can put miniature unit dimensions, and, if necessary, at a convenient time to build up an additional panel and increase the volume of the resulting resource.
Wind energy for autonomous power supply
In that case, when the weather or any other objective reasons do not allow to install solar panels or collectors, it makes sense to pay attention to assembly and installation of the wind turbine. It is a turbine disposed at the high (3 meters) towers.
It captures the kinetic energy of the vortex flow, converts it into mechanical energy of the rotor rotation and then turns into Elektroresurs through special inverters.
The owner of a private home, schedule the installation of wind generators with capacity of more than 10 kW must carefully examine the information on the changes in wind direction and strength in their area in the last 20 years
Statistics can provide meteorological service and a variety of online services that allow to observe the weather in the online mode. If the wind in the region are considered to be rare and do not have the necessary strength to mount the "windmill" is inappropriate.
The unit is robust, wind turbine creates harmful emissions into the atmosphere and leaves no waste products, but to complete the work in dire need of a constant wind, blowing at a rate not less than 14 kilometers per hour. This is a very important condition, and if it does not comply, the device is simply not cope with the task.
Local hydro system
The use of hydraulic turbine for residential homes with electricity - a very real and profitable option, but only if the structures are located near a river or lake. A small system that runs on water power, absolutely safe both environmentally and socially, very easy to operate and has a good efficiency.
Small hydro turbines are fully automated and do not require the participation of a person in his work. The quality of energy generated by them meets all the requirements of guests both in frequency and voltage level
Full service life miniature hydroelectric power station more than 40 years. For correct functioning of the system does not need large reservoirs and does not require the flooding of large areas. Before installing, you must make the installation project and obtain the relevant permits.
Batteries for autonomous systems
The principle of battery life is clear and simple. While in the central network has electricity, the batteries are charged from the power outlet and accumulate in their resource blocks. Batteries for solar panels It operates similarly.
When the power supply stops, the modules through a special inverter unit give electrician home appliances and various household systems.
Choosing a battery for a backup electrical system in a building, it is necessary to determine which devices and appliances are required to connect the modules in the absence of light. Put together their power base, you can get a number indicating the capacity of the battery, capable of providing the energy the most necessary devices
To ensure a permanent dwelling electricity they do not fit, but the role of the reserve complex will cope perfectly well.
With the best developments for the organization of alternative energy country house acquaint next articleEntirely dedicated to this interesting question.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
№1 clip will demonstrate how to build with their own hands autonomous private home power system from solar panels. The videos are useful tips from the master with a detailed display of each action and a description of the equipment used:
№2 clip introduces the fact that we should choose to create in-house back-up electrical system: a generator or a battery. Overview of units, the pros and cons, the comparative characteristics and working principle of self-help in the implementation of the masters of the ideas:
№3 movie is how a wind turbine, whether he is able to cover all the needs of an average apartment building in electricity:
Roller №4 presented independent set of power supply for a country house with the use of various resources and systems. Marked advantages and disadvantages of a system of solar panels, inverter MAP and progressive wind turbine:
The need for an autonomous organization of electricity for private homes can occur for various reasons, for example because of problematic to connect to an existing network, or due to the lack of communication in the central area of location housing.
Unstable voltage is applied, a power failure or regular trips can also force property owners to think about getting energy from alternative sources. Properly designed and properly assembled system will forget about all the problems with the electrician.
Tell how autonomous power supply system constructed in the suburban area. It is possible that in your arsenal there are ways not mentioned in the article and information that are useful for visitors. Please write comments in the underlying unit, share experiences, post photos, ask questions.