Electrical pads located on the stairwells of apartment buildings, are under the control of the management company electricians. But, you see, to know the purpose of electrical devices enclosed in a metal box, obliged every handyman.
We offer to find out how to set the circuit breaker, if an urgent need arises. We will tell you how the gun and give recommendations on the choice of electromechanical devices.
This knowledge will help to replace the instrument by yourself and take action in an emergency when the machine load.
The content of the article:
- Why you need knowledge about electrical
- The design and purpose of the machine
Selection of electromechanical devices
- Voltage, frequency and the rated current
- Whether BTX important
- Polarity, PKS and the stall prevention class
- Replacing the circuit breaker panel
Instructions for connecting the bipolar machine
- The working elements of the device
- Step by step photo instructions on connecting
- Occurred off: what to do
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Why you need knowledge about electrical
Information about electric devices known from physics school lessons, insufficient for practical use.
The average consumer often faced with circuit breakers, as they are triggered due to network congestion. It is not enough simply to return the lever to its usual position, it is necessary to understand the cause of the trip, otherwise the situation could be repeated in the near future.
To orient in the filling of a switch (which, incidentally, is a mandatory element grid private houses), it is necessary to know the structure and functions of all devices - pulse relays, circuit breakers, RCD etc.
Do I need to be able to change the automatic self? Recommended for beginning to study the theory, and at the first stop - and practice.
The fact that there always exists the possibility of rapid professional help: a weekend electricians rest on par with the rest. And if the house is located in the country or in the country, to become better acquainted with the mains and related devices thoroughly.
The design and purpose of the machine
Despite the name - "automatic", this type of switch is activated in one direction only - opens an electric circuit (in excess of the nominal or overload associated with the simultaneous switching of several powerful electrical appliances). On, that is, to complete the circuit, you can only only one way - by hand.
In contrast to the simple one-button switch, automatic device has a more complex device. Schematically classic version (without electronic unit) is as follows.
The terminals are located at the top and bottom, wherein the top connected to the fixed contact, and the bottom is closely connected with the metal plate, which acts as a thermal release. When the material temperature rises, the plate is deformed (+)
There are several ways to start the process of decoupling:
- manual control - on / off by a small lever;
- the impact of current short circuit;
- excess load - exceeding the nominal current parameters.
To powerful thermal effect is not burned switch provided arc chute (set isolated copper plates), which cools and splits the arc.
Selection of electromechanical devices
Given the parameters of the cable and the load characteristics can pick up the device for a switchboard installation. All the necessary information about the electromechanical devices located on its front panel.
The ability to decipher switch marked It will help make the right choice.
The first line usually contains the product brand name. It is better not to save, and choose automatic device known manufacturer: Legrand, IEK, ABB, Schneider, Electric, Hager (+)
Voltage, frequency and the rated current
In the next line you can find information about two important characteristics - voltage and frequency. The most common "size" - 220 / 400V 50Hz. This means that you can connect and one and three-phase at a frequency of 50Hz.
If you take all kinds of design, the conformity of poles and voltage is as follows:
- 1-pole - 220 V, (1 wire - phase);
- 2-pole - 220 V (2 wires - phase / zero);
- 3-pole - 380 V (3-wire - phase);
- 4-pole - 380 V (3-phase / 1 zero).
The rated current limits the use of certain types of cables - and it's sure to keep in mind when selecting automation. Consequently, buying switch for switch board, check what types of wires involved in the construction of the general scheme.
Preliminary calculation of nominal avtovyklyuchatelya based on data on total power consumers, the presence of some electrical inrush current, the current strength and the calculated demand factor.
In no case does not proceed from the maximum voltage in the network, otherwise it may happen next.
Assume the purchase of new appliances leads to an overload and continuous knockout machine. You may want to increase its capacity and replace it with new, whose rated current value is higher.
As a result, at the time of inclusion in a network of several powerful devices machine does not work, but overheat wires, causing a short circuit occurs (fused insulation happen fire).
If the section of the cable does not meet the load, it is necessary to reduce (or, alternatively, renew communications). But it is impossible to select the circuit breaker, focusing on the maximum load - only by cable (+)
The chain should be built in such a way that the weakest link is the name of the circuit breaker (not wire), which is designed to protect against overload.
Whether BTX important
Lettering time-current characteristic is preceded by the digital marking, defining the nominal current.
To understand the essence of BTX, we explain the formula:
k = l / lnwhere
- l - the current in the network;
- ln - rated current value;
- k - multiplicity.
Category depends on the multiplicity:
- B – 3
- C – 5
- D – 10
Schedule compliance clearly reflected in the figure:
Three zones, painted in different colors to indicate the category of BTX: red - category B, the blue - category C, green - category D (+)
machine operating speed is entirely dependent on the multiplicity: the larger it is, the faster the shutdown. For home use using the categories listed, but in addition they can meet with the categories avtovyklyuchateli BTX G, K, L, Z.
B16 circuit breaker with a current of 150 A is activated immediately, whereas D16 - only after heating of the plate, after a few minutes. The most common category C is used in the home and in the workplace, in networks with medium and low starting currents. Category B refers to high-speed, it is involved in the schemes of old networks.
Note that in the response speed and the ambient temperature influences. Dependence of the following: the higher the temperature parameter, the less current is needed for responding machine.
Experienced electricians and in assembly of electrical switchboards consider this match and try to leave some free space inside the panel that there was no overheating due to the work of a large number of devices.
Do not forget about the rule of selectivity: of all the safety devices that are embedded in the chain, the first must operate one that is closer to the overload point. If automatic neighbor has not responded, and the next load (assuming entrances) - the device parameters are chosen correctly.
Polarity, PKS and the stall prevention class
The number of poles in modern avtovyklyuchateley can vary from 1 to 4, wherein the 1- and 2-pole single-phase circuit device service, and 3- and 4-pole - three phase.
PKS - is marginal (nominal) switching (breaking) capacity. Its rate denotes the value of the maximum short-circuit current (SCC), in which the machine may still work.
SCC must not exceed the PCB, or a guarantee of protection is removed. If the automatic device several times to provide protection against short-circuit current, its resources are likely to be exhausted and needs to be replaced.
The most commonly used home devices with SCC of 4.5 kA, but there are modifications 6 kA and 10 kA. Recent relevant for industrial use (+)
And the last feature - a class of current limit. The label may be indicated 1, 2, or Class 3, in some cases this would not be present. If not, the device belongs to class 1 current limit. Each class represents a certain speed automatic response to the occurrence of SCC.
Quality and cost depend on the class, as the greater the figure - the more expensive device.
Automata time something like this:
- grade 3 - 3 ms;
- 2 class - 5 (6) ms;
- 1 class - about 10 ms.
Most modern switches refers to the 3rd class.
After you choose the appropriate circuit breaker, you are ready to install or replace.
Each element represents a unit which occupies a number of places equal to the number of poles (in the figure - banana samples, i.e., Rank 1). The size of one "cell" - 1.75 cm, two - 3.5 cm, etc. For more information about selecting switches and the characteristics of different models presented in this article.
Replacing the circuit breaker panel
If you open the cover of the electrical panel, you will see that all the modules are fixed on a metal strip, which is called the DIN-rail. Insert width - 3.5 cm, each module occupies 1.75 cm.
Step 1: Turn off the power before you perform any replacement. Replace the second to be the right machine, not counting the input of the automatic device
Step 2: Be sure to use the indicator to make sure there is no voltage in the mains have been repaired branch
Step 3: Remove the comb powering the entire group of existing ordinary machines. To this end, we weaken the screws located on top of the devices
Step 4: At the bottom of the fixture devices pulls, i.e. We translate it into the "open"
Step 5: If the "trigger" springs spontaneously comes back, stick a screwdriver or similar device
Step 6: Gently try to remove the device separated from the group to the din rail, lightly shaking it to the installation site
Step 7: Now, taking the lower part of the machine with your fingers, pull it up
Step 8: Freed from the spoiled device place ready to install a new circuit breaker
The group of circuit breakers in the panel
Checking voltage indicator screwdriver
Dismantling of the total for all of the comb machines
Exemption from the bottom fixation
Fixing the fixture if necessary
Preparing to remove the offending device
Extract from the group spoiled automaton
Make room for the installation of a new machine
To install the required following tools:
- screwdriver - cross-shaped and straight;
- for cable cutting tool, for example, wire cutters;
- Screwdriver indicator;
- a stripper for stripping;
- It crimper only for multi-core cable.
The first thing you should always do before any manipulation of the electrical panel, - de-energize it and make sure that during operation no one accidentally plug in the power. A safety net should be used indicator screwdriver and verify the absence of voltage.
Next, take the acquired pre-breaker and attach it to a DIN-rail so that it stood on a par with similar devices. If the edges of the remaining space, the module is better to fix the special limiters - metal brackets on the screws.
Installation does not require special fasteners, as the latch is located directly on the device, enough to lean it to the rail and a little push. To remove the faulty device will have to loosen the lock with a screwdriver
Connecting elements with multiple poles is the difference:
- 2-position - left-hand side: top - phase, the bottom - a phase circuit; right side: the top and bottom - nil;
- 3-position - the upper part - in order of phase, lower - phase circuit in the corresponding order;
- 4-pole - as a 3-pole, but the rightmost module - zero.
As you can see, the main principle is to connect that input is connected to the upper terminals, the output - to the bottom. The wires are usually displayed in the panel. For convenience, they are grouped by means of cable ties.
It is important to distribute the cable connection space. For single-pole devices: phase running with RCD or input device, is connected to the upper terminal circuit phase - the bottom (+)
Reaching the ends of the wires to the appropriate terminals, arrange them freely and without tension, and remove excess wire cutters. Building with a knife or stripper Remove some of the insulation - the length of the exposed wire -component of about 1 cm.
If you are using the tools at hand to avoid damaging the cable in the transverse direction, so as not to provoke the audience.
Stretching wires in the shield, try not to bend, do as many twists and wrinkles, as well as not to stretch, as string
Joining phase can be equipped with the help of the comb - special tires with the required number of poles. Instead, comb also use homemade jumper wire from PV3.
Two wires in one terminal can not be placed, so it is necessary to compress the tip NSHVI.
Stranded conductors necessary to compress - attach NSHVI tip. A handy tool is not suitable, it is better use the special tool resembling pliers, - Crimper
Prepared wires inserted into specially designed openings.
After the wire stripped and inserted into the terminals, they must be fixed by gently tightening the fastener with a screwdriver
Setting ends mandatory testing system: a voltage is applied, connect all devices in a chain and via indicator screwdriver check the presence of the upper and lower voltage terminals. Instead of a screwdriver, you can use a multimeter.
According to the rules, the device must mark to indicate his membership in a particular chain. Similar marking must be present on the protective shield cover.
Step 1: The process of installing a new machine in place of the spoiled includes several standard phases. First, on the vacated site set Machine
Step 2: Then, the whole group of automatic devices connects the feed comb
Step 3: Now a group automata collected, attach the discharge wire and include supply voltage
If the machine group was united homemade jumper wire from the segment, using the same method to connect
Installing a new circuit-breaker
Connecting uniting comb
Connecting an escape wire
Homemade jumper instead of a comb
Instructions for connecting the bipolar machine
Now try to understand connecting dvuhpolyusovogo machine to 220V household electrical circuit This means that the input will be attended by 2 wires - phase and neutral.
The wire needed for connection, has a core section 3 of 2.5 mm (VVGngP 3 * 2.5), and hence the maximum allowable continuous current - 25 A.
The working elements of the device
We chose a two-pole automatic protection device, which looks like this:
We require four pins, two of which are located in the upper part (inbound), two - at the bottom (exhaust). Fastening will occur by means of fixing screws, fixing the retaining plates
On the surface of the body have a clue - wiring diagram of the machine.
Labeling, we have determined that the machine corresponds to the section of wires - C40. This means that the current is 40 A current limiting device responding
The place of fixing device is a metal plate - DIN-rake.
If you look on the back side, you can see a clip with which the machine in one motion is fixed on DIN-rail
We dealt with constituent parts, go to the instructions.
Step by step photo instructions on connecting
Turning off the mains voltage, we check his absence with a multimeter. Prepare the wires that are double insulated. Under a layer of external protection lurk three wires of different colors. Compliance with the following colors: black - phase, blue - zero, yellow - earth.
We only need 2 wires - phase and zero, and the third (ground) will go separately. 1 cm remove the insulation and inserted bare wire ends in the terminals
The left should be the phase of the right - zero. Please note that a portion of the insulation does not come under contact - when heating cable can oplavitsya and cause damage to the device. Carefully tighten the screws, and move on to the ground.
For fixing use ground passing contact, which is fixed on DIN-rail in the same way as does the circuit breaker. Insert the third wire and pinched
The next step - connecting flue wires that are attached to the lower terminals.
Likewise, we remove the insulation insert the ends into the terminals and clamped them gently not to damage the housing. Following fix the grounding wire
Connection completed. It remains to apply the voltage to transfer the control lever in the active position and check the operation.
Occurred off: what to do
Inexperienced users when triggered circuit breaker and light switched off hurry to restore the appliance, so just open the cover and includes the device. However, this is not quite the right decision, it is better to find a pre-tripping cause.
The first thing to do - to make a check-connected residential units and devices, paying attention to the appearance of the sockets and plugs, the presence or absence of a smell of burnt plastic. Too hot forks should be alerted.
One of the common causes - increasing the energy load. If you are running a washing machine and a microwave, and protection tripped, it will result in an overload operating when the vacuum cleaner. one solution - to evenly distribute the load, that is, include powerful devices at a time.
If multiple devices are constantly responding only one properly, check all instruments relevant to a given circuit (burned out light bulb, short-circuited). The reason may lie in the wiring - in this case, be sure to invite electrician
If the number of units has not increased, the load is not changed, and the shutdown occurred - perhaps to blame the high temperature. With increasing temperature standards in the shield machine can also work.
And the last reason - out of the standing of the circuit breaker. After several responding to the increased current series, TKZ, arc quenching it becomes unfit for use, which can be determined by their appearance. If the terminals are charred or plastic oplavilsya, you must replace the unit.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The videos provide information that will help you to understand the device and connecting the circuit breaker.
Part 1. How to choose a circuit breaker - learning theory:
Part 2. Briefed on competent selection of machine:
Single-step assembly process of the switch box:
Useful advice from a professional:
As you can see, for the connection of the circuit breaker, it is necessary to choose the right device, follow a specific order of installation and follow safety measures.
If you doubt their own abilities or can not find the cause of permanent protection trips, be sure to consult a qualified electrician.
You attempt to install a circuit breaker? Or, do not agree with the above material, or have questions on the subject? Looking forward to your comments - block for communication is located below.