- №1.The composition of warm plaster
- №2.Advantages and disadvantages of warm plaster
- №3.Types of warm plaster fillers
- №4.Calculation of the thickness of the warm plaster
- №5.Manufacturers of warm plaster
- №6.Cooking warm plaster do it yourself
warm plaster It cost a little to change the composition of conventional cement-sand plaster, as a completely new material appeared - warm plaster. Manufacturers attribute unique qualities to it and declare that the material can be used as an independent thermal insulation. So what is this, is the true or another tricky marketing ploy? How to choose a warm plaster for the facade and interior work, how to apply it, and in what cases can the material really be used as a full-fledged heat insulator?
№1.The composition of warm plaster
Warm plaster called due to its low thermal conductivity compared with conventional plaster compositions. Similar results were achieved by replacing ordinary sand with special heat insulating additives.
The composition of warm plaster includes such components of :
- binder , which is the basis of the mixture. This may be cement mortar, gypsum or lime. The material affects the scope of plaster: gypsum and lime composition is suitable only for interior work, and cement - are universal;
- filler, on which the insulation functions are assigned. Polystyrene, vermiculite, sawdust, perlite sand, foamed glass and other additives can be used;
- polymeric water-repellent and air-releasing additives , as well as antiseptics, plasticizers and other substances that improve the quality and performance properties of plaster.
Usually, the material is supplied by as an dry blend, and it is sufficient to dilute it with water before applying. The craftsmen prepare warm plaster on their own, but the composition “works” in any case according to one principle: thermal insulation additives together with air bubbles create a powerful barrier to cold. Tests show that a layer of warm plaster of 5 cm is equivalent in thermal insulation to a wall of two bricks.
The coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material is about 0.063 W / m * 0С.This indicator is slightly worse than that of foam, extruded polystyrene foam and even mineral wool, which introduces some features in its application. In regions with cold winters, warm plaster cannot be used as an independent thermal insulation - it is usually applied as an additional layer of insulation and plays a crucial role in eliminating the “cold bridges” that occur during installation of tiled and rolled insulation. In areas with mild winters, warm plaster can even be used as the only insulating material, but much depends on the thickness and material of the walls. In the future, check it all on the calculations.
№2.Advantages and disadvantages of warm plaster
Warm plaster has become widespread due to its weighty advantages :
- multifunctionality. The material can be used as the main insulation, as well as additional insulation, which allows you to reduce the layer of the core or get rid of the notorious "cold bridges".In addition, there is no need to pre-align the walls;
- high adhesion to most materials, includingto a tree;
- less weight than conventional plaster;
- high strength of the applied layer of plaster;
- resistance to temperature extremes, frost, rodents, mold;
- ease of application. Anyone will be able to handle it, since this is actually about ordinary plastering work;
- good sound insulation quality;
- environmental friendliness. An exception is the composition with the addition of polystyrene, which can not be called completely environmentally friendly;
- fire resistance. Warm plaster, made on the basis of vermiculite, foamed glass and perlite, belongs to the class of non-combustible materials( NG).Plaster with the addition of polystyrene belongs to class G1, i.e.at high external temperatures may start to burn from the inside.
Now about the disadvantages of :
- are low thermal insulation qualities, therefore, warm plaster cannot be perceived as a full-fledged insulating material, but this is not a minus, but rather a material specificity;
- high weight compared with other heaters. If you plan to apply a thick layer of plaster( about 5 cm), care should be taken to strengthen the foundation;
- is relatively high in water absorption, so extra protection is needed. However, warm plaster and so does not apply to the finishing coatings and on top of it necessarily requires the use of decorative material. It should be chosen from those that have waterproof properties;
- if the layer of plaster is thick( 2.5-3 cm or more), it is better to additionally reinforce it with a metal grid.
Comparison of the basic properties of warm plaster and other insulation
№3.Types of warm plaster fillers
The type and type of filler greatly influences the properties and the use of warm plaster. The following materials can be used:
- sawdust .The composition of warm sawdust plaster, in addition to directly sawdust, also includes clay, paper and cement. The use of such “tender” and sensitive to negative environmental factors components does not allow the composition to be used for facade insulation, but such warm plaster is excellent for interior work, especially since it can be applied even on a wooden base. Internal insulation will increase the efficiency of home insulation;
- crushed perlite is obtained from obsidian, which, during high-temperature processing, expands to form a mass of air bubbles inside, which increases the insulating properties of the material. The only negative is increased hygroscopicity, so this plaster needs reliable waterproofing;
- swollen vermiculite is obtained from mica, the material can withstand a wide range of temperatures, has antiseptic properties, is lightweight, is absolutely resistant to fire, can be used for exterior and interior decoration, but is afraid of moisture, as well as requires enhanced protection;
- balls of foam glass are made from foamed silica sand. This is the most preferred material for filling warm plaster, as it is not afraid of moisture, fire, has good thermal insulation qualities, can be used for facade and interior work, does not shrink;
- as mineral fillers, in addition to vermiculite, perlite and foam glass, also use expanded clay powder and pumice powder. These materials can not boast of high moisture resistance and are inferior to analogues in many other qualities, therefore, they are used infrequently;
- Expanded polystyrene is used in warm plaster with cement, lime and some other additives. These are relatively inexpensive formulations for universal use, but because of the flammability of polystyrene foam, they are not used as often. In addition, the surface of the plaster is too soft, therefore, requires mandatory finishing.
№4.Calculation of the thickness of
warm plaster To determine whether it is possible to use warm plaster as an independent insulation, it is necessary to perform a simple calculation, taking into account the region of the house location, thickness and wall construction material:
- calculation begins with determining the value of the standardized heat transfer resistance of the exterior walls of the house. This is a tabular value, predetermined by regulatory documents( for Russia - SNiP 23-02-2003).For Moscow, according to the table, this value is 3.28 m2 * 0С / W, for Krasnodar - 2.44 m2 * 0С / W;
Normalized heat transfer resistance for cities of Russia
- is determined by heat transfer resistance of the walls of the house , for which we need to divide the wall thickness by the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material. Make a calculation for two houses. One is located in Moscow and is built of ceramic bricks, the wall thickness is 0.5 m, the thermal conductivity coefficient from the table is 0.58 W / m 0 C, so the heat transfer resistance is 0.86 m2 * 0 C / W.The second house is located in Krasnodar and built of D600 foam block, wall thickness 0.4 m, thermal conductivity coefficient from the table - 0.22 W / m 0 C, heat transfer resistance - 1.82 m2 * 0 C / W;
Heat conductivity coefficients of the main wall materials
- calculation additional insulation .For a house in Moscow it is( 3.28-0.86) = 2.42 W / m0С.For the house in Krasnodar( 2,44-1,82) = 0,62 W / m0S;
- calculation of the warm plaster layer, its thermal conductivity coefficient is 0.063 W / m * 0С( maybe a little more - depends on the composition and the manufacturer).For a house in Moscow, 0.063 * 2.42 = 0.15 m, for a house in Krasnodar, 0.063 * 0.62 = 0.04 m. Since it is better not to apply warm plaster with a layer of more than 5 cm, and its weight is decent,for a Moscow house, it is better to look for another option of warming, and warm plaster can be used in addition. For the house in Krasnodar warm plaster can be used as an independent heater.
A more accurate calculation can be carried out if we take into account the heat transfer resistance of all decorative wall materials, as well as take into account the number and size of windows and the mass of other parameters. It is easier to do this in special construction calculators, but it is possible to understand whether warm plaster should be regarded as an independent insulation from the above calculation.
Despite assurances from the manufacturer and calculations proving the effectiveness of warm plaster, it is not very often used as the main insulation in residential buildings. It is usually insulated garages, cottages, used to eliminate cold bridges, for the treatment of window and door openings. It is better to use insulation outside, but if there is no such possibility, it can be applied inside as well, so that it complements the external insulation.
№5.Manufacturers of warm plaster
Manufacturers of warm plaster are not too many, but among the proven compounds worth noting:
- Warm Umka plasterW / m * 0С.The composition can be mounted without a mesh due to basalt fibers in the composition. The manufacturer says and the ability to make a layer of 10 cm, but with such thickness it is better not to experiment. UMKA UB-212 has a slightly lower thermal insulation quality and is suitable for bezmayachnogo thin layer deposition. UMKA UF-2 - finishing decorative plaster, which has a pleasant "side" effect - heat preservation, however, the thermal conductivity here is 0.13 W / m * 0С;
- warm plaster Knauf is made with the addition of polystyrene foam and hydrophobic substances, can be applied with a layer up to 3 cm;
- warm plaster "Bear" is made with foam glass filler, which ensures vapor permeability and fire resistance of the composition. Heat conductivity coefficient 0,065 W / m * 0С;
- warm Haakliff plaster is positioned by the manufacturer as an assistant in the insulation, allowing to reduce the thickness of the walls and the main insulation. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of 0.09 W / m * 0C, and the composition includes a filler of its own production, which, according to the company, does not burn, has minimal water absorption, does not require a protective layer, has a high noise insulation and is completely environmentally friendly;
- Warmmix Warm Plaster is made on the basis of cement and foam glass, has a good reputation, thermal conductivity coefficient is not more than 0.065 W / m * 0С.
№6.Preparing a warm plaster with your own hands
Finished plaster is sold in the form of a powder that must be diluted with water. Proportions are indicated on the package. The main thing is to prepare the solution at once from the whole powder in the package - it is undesirable to divide the mixture, since then it will be much more difficult to achieve the necessary consistency and, consequently, performance. After thorough mixing, the mass is left to ripen for 5 minutes, after which it is possible to proceed with the application.
You can save and to make warm plaster with your own hands .The most versatile and inexpensive solution is obtained using perlite or vermiculite. It is necessary to mix 4 parts of vermiculite or perlite and 1 part of dry cement. Thoroughly mixed mixture is diluted with a solution of water with a plasticizer. The latter can be purchased at the store, and you can replace the PVA glue at the rate of 50-60 g of adhesive per 10 liters of plaster. The mixture is diluted with a water-adhesive composition and is constantly stirred for uniformity. The solution should have a thick consistency. After cooking, it is allowed to infuse for 15-20 minutes, and you can begin to apply plaster.
№7.Putting warm plaster
The process of applying warm plaster is simple and easy to do with your own hands:
- preparing the required amount of solution;
- wall is cleaned and primed for better adhesion, but many builders simply moisten the surface with plain water;
- is better to conduct the plaster on the beacons, although some neglect this rule. An aluminum profile is used as beacons, which is fixed with a putty; the use of prepared plaster is allowed. The evenness of the exposed beacons is checked at the building level;
- modern ready-made compositions of warm plasters allow you to do without additional reinforcement with a mesh, but when applying a thick layer of insulation and at the corners using the mesh is desirable;
- process of applying warm plaster does not differ in originality and is identical to the application of conventional plaster. The mortar is put on a trowel with a spatula, after which it is laid on the wall with a rubbing motion from the bottom up between the beacons. The surface is aligned with the rule;
- within 2 hours after application, the solution remains plastic, so the flaws are easy to fix. During this period, beacons are removed, the gaps are rubbed with the same solution. If desired, the surface can be treated with a decorative spatula or a structural roller to achieve an interesting effect. If a smooth surface is needed, then after the plaster has dried, it is necessary to apply a thin leveling layer and smooth it with a plastic float;
- thickness of one layer should not be more than 2 cm, otherwise the plaster will begin to fall off. If it is necessary to apply it in several layers, then after installing the first one, you need to wait at least 4 hours. The surface dries completely after 48 hours, then you can proceed to its final finishing. If it is necessary to process a large area of the wall, then it is better to use a machine method of applying plaster.
Warm plaster is today used for warming the basement of a house, for warming walls outside and inside, for warming facades and ceilings, as well as for sealing cracks and cracks, for processing slopes of windows. With proper preparation, application and calculation of the composition fully meets expectations.