Tomatoes are considered one of the most popular vegetables, so it is difficult to find a vegetable garden on which it is not. However, not every owner can boast of a generous harvest and large fruits. The main part of the problem of growing tomatoes is non-compliance with the rules of agricultural technology.
To get a rich harvest you need to take care of plants properly, because to grow a vegetable in different regions, not all varieties will do.
Contentsgrowing tomatoes and getting a rich harvest of fruits
What actions are included in the agricultural technology of growing tomatoes
Many gardeners amateurs considerthen the whole care of tomato beds is watering and weeding. In fact, with such scant attention, even the most prolific and disease-resistant hybrids will not yield high yields. Let's try to understand in more detail the generally accepted rules of tomato cultivation.
Agricultural cultivation of tomatoes consists of the following items:
- selection of seeds( in particular varieties) - certain types of tomatoes are suitable for each region;
- seed preparation for disembarkation( soaking for the purpose of decontamination and growth stimulation);
- creation of conditions for growing seedlings( lighting, temperature, watering, feeding);
- seedling picking;
- selection of beds and preparation of the soil;
- transplanting seedlings to the beds;
- disease prevention;
- weeding and loosening the soil;
- formation of bushes and pasynkovanie, the garter of tall plants( , even if the tomato is short, should not recede from these rules);
agro-engineering. In addition to the main stages, uses additional activities that contribute to the better development of the crop:
- mulching of the bed;
- treatment of seedlings with growth promoters;
- temporary shelter to protect against spring frost( film or agrofibre);
- planting in the vicinity of crops, repelling pests.
What kind of soil does
tomatoes love? Tomatoes can grow on almost any soil, the question is the amount of preparatory work.
The best cultivation results are on nutrient friable soils with good moisture and breathability .Such qualities are, for example, loam. The medium should be neutral or slightly acidic, but not acidic.
Before planting, you need to check the pH of the using laboratory tests or litmus paper. If the value exceeds the value of 5.5-6.5, then treatment should be carried out to adjust the acidity. To do this, on the surface of the soil is sprayed dolomite flour or crushed lime, which is then gently mixed with a rake with the ground.
The soil for tomatoes must be fertile, enriched with potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, zinc and other trace elements.
When fertilizing at the stage of preparation of the site for planting seedlings are used as organic fertilizers, and complex mineral. However, it is worth considering that to get involved in nutrient mixtures is not worth , you can burn out young shoots or provoke an intensive growth of green to the detriment of the formation of fruits.
Predecessors can deplete the soil so much that it is unlikely that tomato will get large fruit. The same applies to the rules of crop rotation, planting crops in the same area is not recommended.
How to prepare the soil for tomatoes
Depending on the degree of nutritional value of the soil and its structure, the optimum fertilizer options are chosen.
In the greenhouse
You should be preparing the soil in the greenhouse since autumn. For a start, it is worth to get rid of all vegetable garbage, with which pests and pathogens successfully winter with it.
To obtain biohumus, it is recommended immediately after harvesting to plant siderates( for example, mustard).By winter, they grow up, and they can be cut. Assess the results of labor will turn out in the spring, the soil will be improved, cleared of weeds and enriched with nutrients.
If disease outbreaks were noticed during the season, the soil will need to be changed. For this, a 20-30 cm layer is completely removed and taken out of the greenhouse. All surfaces of the structure must be treated with fungicides. Additionally use sulfur checker.
The should be enriched with healthy manure with manure, compost or mineral fertilizers. The best composition of soil mixture for the greenhouse includes the following components:
- fertile garden soil;
- river coarse sand;
- rotted manure.
In the spring, the greenhouse surfaces need to be cleaned again, and the is treated with a special solution( for example, Baikal-EM) for disinfection, and the bed is watered with boiling water to warm the earth.
Superphosphate( 30 g.), Ammonium nitrate( 20 g.) And potassium sulphate( 15 g.) Are introduced into the soil 2 weeks before planting. Fresh manure is not used in spring, it provokes the growth of foliage, slowing the formation of fruits.
In the open field
A garden bed in the open field is also prepared in autumn. To do this, you should remove all plant debris and dig up the ground with the depth of the tool on the spade bayonet. Simultaneously with the digging of the , organic matter ( compost, manure) at the rate of 6-8 kg per 1 m2 is introduced.
In spring, the beds are dug up again and 1-2 weeks before transplanting, is treated with ( for disinfection).To keep the soil cool, it is covered before planting with a film.
During planting, a nutrient mixture is poured into each well: humus, compost, peat, wood ash.
Tomato growing rules in order to get a good crop
During the growing season, tomatoes need to be fed several times, then you can significantly increase the yield.
In the open ground , the first portion is injected one week after the seedlings are planted. A solution of 10 liters of water, Art.lNitrophosphate and 500 ml of liquid mullein. About 0.5 liters is spent on each bush.
The second time lure is introduced during the flowering period. At this stage, a solution of 10 liters of water, 500 ml of liquid chicken manure, Art.lsuperphosphate, tsppotassium sulfate.
After 10 days, the plant can be fed with a solution based on Agricola Vegeta or Signor Tomato. After another 10-14 days, the beds are enriched with 10 liters of water, 1 tbsp.lpotassium humate( or sodium).
In the greenhouse , the first top-dressing is brought into the wells when planting seedlings, the hole is filled with compost, humus and wood ash.
The second portion of the nutrient mixture is introduced after 2-3 weeks. In a bucket of water, fertilizers are diluted: nitrogen( 25 gr.), Potash( 15 gr.), Phosphate( 40 gr.).Under each bush pour in 1 liter of the working solution.
The following dressing is introduced during the mass flowering period. From nutritional mixtures suitable composition based on water( 10 liters), liquid mullein( 500 ml) and potassium sulfate( 15 g.).Under each bush pours 1-1.5 liters of fluid.
Subsequent procedures are carried out with an interval of 10-14 days( nitrophosphate, potassium humate and other means are used).
Formation of an
The main stem comes from the root, from below are sheets, in the axils of which stepchildren are formed. Thanks to them, the plant forks, taking on most of the nutrients.
The whole process proceeds to the detriment of the formation of ovaries and fruits due to lack of nutrition. Therefore, every 5 days, you must remove stepchildren, and form a tomato with a certain number of stems.
This procedure is performed regardless of the place of cultivation, be it open ground or greenhouse.
Proper watering of
. Irrigation in open beds is done 1-2 times a week .In hot, dry weather, regular irrigation increases up to 3 to 4 times .However, the decisive factor is the degree of soil moisture. Increased moisture content provokes the development of fungal infections, so you should not get involved in irrigation.
In the greenhouse, the irrigation rates are regulated depending on the humidity of the air and the soil. As a rule, procedures are carried out using a drip or underground irrigation system.
Loosening and mulching
To enrich the soil with oxygen and prevent the formation of a crust in greenhouses and open ground, loosening is carried out, which is often combined with weeding.
The first procedure is carried out after the first irrigation with immersion into the ground at a depth of 8-10 cm. Subsequent loosening provides for a depth of 3-4 cm. The frequency of events is 3-4 times per season of , but until the bushes grow. After full formation, extra passages between plants can injure them.
In the greenhouse, the first loosening is also performed after watering. Subsequent procedures are performed by every 2 weeks by until rows close together.
The thickness of the interlayer should be within 6-7 cm. ( after the material has settled).Also used as mulch are: burlap, newsprint, shredded tree bark, dried cut grass, etc.
Secrets of growing tomatoes and producing a rich harvest of
fruits Each experienced gardener has his own secrets that guarantee high yields, even under adverse weather conditions. Among the effective and interesting are the following tips.
- To increase the yield during the flowering period of the second and third brushes, it is recommended that spray the plant with a solution based on boric acid( low concentration).Boron promotes the germination of pollen, the formation of ovaries and fruiting.
- Most tomatoes are self-pollinating. But under adverse conditions, the process of pollination is carried out poorly, so the plant will not interfere with human assistance. To do this, you need to slightly shake the bush with an every 3–6 days of .
- Mulching of beds with tomatoes prevents drying of the earth and the formation of a crust on the surface of the soil. In addition, mulch reduces the growth rate of weeds - the main enemy of vegetable crops.
- Autumn soil preparation provides an increase in yield, if compost is used as fertilizer, manure in combination with peat.
- Masking for many gardeners remains an undeveloped measure, so getting the fruit with the characteristics described on the seed label is far from all. Removal of useless shoots redirects the flow of food and energy to the formation of large tomatoes. In addition, they have time to mature before the end of the season.
In general, agricultural technology is not complicated, although it has some peculiarities, but it is quite possible to increase the yield. After gaining experience in growing tomatoes, you can reasonably make your own adjustments and practices to the care rules, and then share with them on the forums.