Oikeiden viljely ja hoito savoy kaali avoimen kentän

Savoy cabbage was bred by Italian breeders at the end of the 18th century and became widespread in Europe in the 21st century. With proper care, its cultivation is not difficult.

Contents

  • Feature savoy cabbage
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Varieties
    • Early varieties
    • Mid-
    • Late
  • Preparation of seeds for growing
  • Sowing
  • fertilizing seedlings
  • Hardening
  • Preparing soil
  • Transplant seedlings in open ground
  • Pests
  • Disease Control and Prevention
  • Cleaning and Storage

Characteristic of savoy cabbage

This vegetable is a head of cabbage with bright green soft, soft leaves..The heading is not dense, has no coarse streaks. Delicate and savory taste is well suited for the preparation of salads and meatballs. Do not use for pickling and salting.

In the first year of growth a small rosette of weighing from 0.5 kg to 1.2 kg of is formed on a massive stem. The following year, the head grows up to 3 kg, the sheets become soft. The taste becomes more pronounced.

The stem throws inflorescences with seeds, which are subsequently used to grow seedlings. With proper storage can be used as seed, up to 5 years.

The weight of the head of the Savoy cabbage can reach 3 kg.

. The advantages of the

. Savoy cabbage has valuable dietary properties.

Contains:

  • crude protein - 1.7–4%;
  • vitamin C - 2–90 mg;
  • vitamin P, 4–3 mg;
  • vitamin A - 0.3–0.7 mg;
  • sugar - 4-7%;
  • mineral salts - 0.85%.

Savoy cabbage is frost-resistant , has a high resistance to diseases and the effects of pests. Easily tolerates the lack of moisture.

Disadvantages of

Among the disadvantages of savoy cabbage are the following:

  • this vegetable should not be eaten with for ulcer, gastritis, duodenal disease, thyroid disease;
  • causes increased gas formation.
Savoy cabbage should not be eaten for gastrointestinal diseases

Varieties

Early varieties

  • Jubilee 2170;
  • Vienna - early 1346;
  • Julius F1.

Mid-season

  • Melissa F1;
  • Sphere;

Late

  • Verosa F1, Ovas F1;
  • Mora F1.

Preparing Seeds for Growing

Before planting, seeds must be properly prepared.
Seeds of savoy cabbage

For 20 minutes, is poured with hot water( not less than +60 degrees), then immersed in very cold water for 3 minutes and then soaked for 14 hours in trace elements.

After soaking, put the seeds in the refrigerator for a period of 22 to 24 hours. This will increase the frost resistance and seed germination will be maintained for 5 years.

Sowing

Planted seeds in early March .For planting seeds, it is necessary to prepare a special soil. In wooden boxes in the same proportions mix sod land with sand and peat. The prepared soil is shed by a weak solution of manganese.

It is not recommended to use garden soil to grow cabbage. There may be infections that can damage crops.

Sow seeds at a distance of 1 cm .The width of the aisle not less than 3 cm , the depth of the grooves 1 cm .Grooves covered with earth. The boxes on top are covered with film or glass.

It is necessary to maintain the temperature in the room not lower than 18 degrees. Before the appearance of the first shoots, the earth should be watered well. After the emergence of the seedlings, open the drawers and reduce the temperature in the room to 15 degrees during the day and 8 degrees at night.

Sprouting seedlings from seed

On day 7, thinning should be done so that the distance between the sprouts is 2 cm. In order for the seedlings to grow strong, it needs a lot of light. In the light of seedlings should be at least 14 hours. You can use an ultraviolet lamp for this.

Watering should be done daily with a small amount of water so that the soil is always wet.

Water should be slightly warm. After watering, you need to loosen the ground so that there is no stagnation of water. After 2 weeks, the seedlings should dive. Shorten 1/3 roots and transplanted into peat cups.

Top dressing of seedlings

Initially, top dressing should be done, when two sheets appear on the seedlings. The solution is prepared as follows:

  • water - 1 liter;
  • complex fertilizer - 0.5 tsp.

Spray leaflets with this solution. After two weeks of feeding again.

The first top dressing is made after the appearance of the first two leaflets

. For top dressing it is necessary: ​​

  • water - 1 liter;
  • superphosphate - 4 grams;
  • nitrate - 3-4 grams;
  • potash fertilizer - 4–5 grams.
Before dressing the soil should be pre-watered to prevent burns.

Hardening

14 days before planting saplings into the soil, it is necessary to harden. Hardening is performed as follows:

  1. On the first and second day, open the window leaf for 4–6 hours;
  2. Expose seedlings to a loggia or a glazed veranda for 8 days, shading from sun on a light day. At night, seedlings must be brought into the room;
  3. 4 days before transplantation, seedlings can be left on the loggia for 24 hours.

7 days prior to disembarkation, it is necessary for to stop watering .2 hours before disembarking the seedlings should be watered abundantly.

Hardening of seedlings takes place 2 weeks before planting in the ground.

. Preparation of the soil.

. The soil for cabbage sprouting has been prepared since autumn .It is necessary to first perform a deep digging and wait until weed rises. After destroying the weeds, make a liming and dig the site a second time.

In spring, a mullein or rotted compost is applied to the soil at the rate of 3-4 kilograms per 1 square meter.meter, 35–40 grams of mineral fertilizer, 150–200 grams of wood ash and dig beds 20 cm deep.

Transplanting seedlings into open ground

Transplantation into open ground is performed:

  1. When there are 5–6 leaves on the seedlings.
  2. Transplantation is carried out in the evening;
  3. Seedling height from 18 to 20 cm;
  4. A well-developed root system;
  5. The seedlings color is bright green.

Seedlings planted at intervals of 35–40 cm in the row 35–40 cm .Aisle width 45-50 cm .Groove well shed water. In depth, the groove should be identical to the size of the pot in which the seedlings previously grew. Ground up seedlings before the first leaflet.

It is necessary to choose a well-lit area

For growing cabbage, is suitable for growing a well-lit area of ​​land , where cucumber, onions, tomatoes and potatoes were previously grown.

Clay soil is not suitable.

7 days after transplantation, it is necessary to perform loosening to a depth of 7 cm. .Subsequent loosening is carried out every week to a depth of 15 cm. Hilling should be performed 30 days after transplantation.

Re-hilling is performed when the leaves begin to close. In the process of growth, the cabbage must be fed with a solution of cow manure or fertilizer. To protect the cabbage from insects, it is recommended to sprinkle it with ashes.

Pests

Savoy cabbage pests include:

  • cruciferous flea;
  • spring cabbage fly;
  • scoops and butterflies;
  • bugs;
  • aphid;
  • wire;
  • slugs.
Defeat of savoy cabbage with flea cones

Diseases and Prevention

The most common diseases are:

  • black leg;
  • mosaic;
  • powdery mildew;
  • bel;
  • fomoz;
  • black spot.

In case of disease with mosaic and black spot , it is necessary to remove the diseased specimen from the garden and spill the soil with a steep solution of potassium permanganate. If is infected with fungus, cabbage should be treated with copper sulphate or bordeaux mixture.

Cleaning and storage of

. Early varieties are harvested in July.
Savoy cabbage harvesting starts in July.

Early varieties are used to make salads, cutlets and cabbage rolls are made. Early varieties do not store.

Late variety cleaned at the end of October. Storage is left for cabbages weighing over 500 grams. The leg is shortened, 3 top leaves are left on the head. The cut cabbages are poured with crushed chalk and spread in a dry room on racks for 2–3 days. After that, the cabbages are hung individually in a grid under the ceiling or placed in boxes so that the cabbages do not touch each other. The temperature in the room should be from 0 to +3 degrees. Humidity up to 95%.To extend the shelf life is required tempera from -1 to -3 degrees.

Observing such simple rules of planting and care is not difficult to get a high yield.

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