In almost every garden, peppers are grown together with other popular vegetables. Despite abundant fruiting, there is a risk of reduction or loss of the crop due to damage by harmful microorganisms or diseases. Prevent a problem by arming yourself with knowledge that will help you recognize the first signs of disease. In this article we will learn why the leaves may fall off the peppers, who is to blame for this and what can be done and how to deal with the scourge.
Table of contents
- Main diseases of bell peppers and their treatment at home and in the greenhouse
- Fusarium and sclerocinia on the seedlings of leavesPeppers and their treatment at home and in the greenhouse
When growing peppers, special attention is paid to preventive measures. Regular care and inspection of the bushes is necessary for the timely detection of pests or diseases. Affected plants can die for 1-2 weeks, if the cause is not identified in time and treatment is not done. Abundant greens and moist environment create favorable conditions for the development of various diseases or insect invasion.Gardeners put the issue of pest and pepper disease control in second place after the problem of wilting of seedlings. Therefore, you should not ignore the first signs of damage to the plant or fruit!
Fungal disease develops mainly at the stage of shoots growth, therefore it is dangerous for seedlings and adult plants grown in greenhouse conditions.
The cause is pathogens of various kinds that persist in seeds, soil, and crop residue. To provoke the formation of black legs can be too dense planting of seedlings and poor-quality aeration, which is more often observed in greenhouses.
Signs describing a fungal disease:
- color change of the lower part of the stem to brown;
- rotting in the darkened area;
- drying of the whole bush.
When detecting the first signs of a black leg, the following recommendations should be followed:
If the black leg has destroyed all the seedlings, then it is impossible to reuse the soil for growing new seedlings. In it harmful microorganisms remain, therefore shoots will die with time.
- at the very beginning of the development of the disease, water the beds with a weak solution of potassium permanganate;
- plow the ground around the bushes;
- spud pepper root neck;
- if the surface of the soil is too wet, sprinkle the beds with river sand( ashes, activated carbon);
- if the disease struck the seedlings, you should ventilate the room, reduce the amount of watering.
The disease is caused by the development of the fungus Botrytis cinerea. A characteristic feature is the formation of wet brown spots in the lower part of the stem, in the zone of contact with the ground. After a short period of time, a grayish raid appears on the affected area. The active phase of the development of fungal disease occurs in conditions of high humidity in combination with air temperatures above 20 ° C.
If during the examination the first signs of the disease were identified, it is necessary to treat the beds with medical preparations:
- Acrobat Ordan;
- Previcur or other.
The infected plants should be removed from the plantation or transplanted into a separate container.
Lightning bacterial wilting
The disease-causing bacteria in lightning wilt penetrate the vascular system of the stem, thereby blocking the supply of nutrients. In addition to starvation, the plant is poisoned by toxic substances secreted by bacteria, which leads to the rapid death of the culture. A distinctive feature of the disease is yellowing spots on the foliage, indicating the drying of the plant, as well as the white substance secreted by incision of the stem.
If signs of wilting are found, it is recommended to remove the affected plant from the garden. The rest of the bushes to process special preparations containing copper.
Refers to fungal diseases( the fungus Phytophthora infestans), capable of destroying the crop of pepper. At an early stage of development, there are signs similar to the black leg. After 2 weeks, brown spots spread throughout the plant, including fruit. In dry weather, leaves quickly dry out, shrink. The process of decay is accelerated at high humidity, so do not hesitate to process.
When identifying the first signs, it is necessary to immediately treat the beds using special preparations:
- Gamair( for irrigation - 1 tabl. Per 5 l of water, for spraying - 2 tablets per 1 l of water);
- Alirin-B( for irrigation - 2 tab. Per bucket of water, for spraying - 2 tab. Per 1 l of water);
- Ridomil Gold( for spraying 10 g. Funds for 2 liters of water);
- Fitosporin-M( for spraying 10 grams of powder per 5 liters of water).
On larger plantations it is more rational to use more powerful drugs: Bravo, Quadris.
The defeat of the pepper with Kladosporia: why does it arise and how to spray?
The disease is caused by the development of the fungus Fulvia fulva, often affects greenhouse plants grown in conditions of high humidity. Brown spot is tolerated by spores that fall on the soil, garden tools, clothing, and greenhouse surfaces.
Symptoms of Cladosporiosis:
- brown spots appeared on the outside of the leaves;
- a gray scurf with a velvety effect appears on the outside of the foliage;
- rotting of the stem and fruits.
When the first signs are detected, the treatment should be started immediately:
- reduce the intensity of watering the beds;
- ensure good ventilation of the greenhouse;
- treat affected plants with special preparations( Barrier, Barrier).
Fusarium and sclerocynia on the leaves of seedlings.
. Diseases are caused by a fungus( Fusarium) that affects the stem vessels. As a result of the blockage of the ducts in the stem, the access of nutrients and moisture is blocked, the plant begins to die from toxin poisoning. An abundance of moisture( both in the air and in the soil) can provoke the development of a fungal disease.In susceptible to Fusarium cultures, the first signs of the disease are observed at the stage of bud formation.
- pepper leaves begin to curl, fade;
- even with good care greens turn yellow;
- the stem at the root part becomes brown;
- rot development on roots, fruits.
Since Fusarium is an incurable disease, prevention plays an important role in the agricultural practices of pepper.
Preventive measures at home against Fusarium:
- , before seeding the seed material, it must be treated with Fundazole( 100 ml of the drug for 10 grams of seeds);
- periodically water the soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate;
- after harvesting the beds carefully choose the remnants of the crop.
When detecting the first signs of fusarium, it is recommended to treat the beds with Fundazole or Topsin-M( 0.2%). Drugs are not able to overcome the disease, they only suspend the development process.
Black bacterial spot disease
From the moment of emergence of a seedling over a ground, a plant can attack black bacterial spot. A characteristic sign of the disease are dark spots spreading along the stem and leaves. On the border with the green part you can see a yellow border.
Prevention is standard, including the correct choice of variety and the procedure for disinfecting soil and seed. It is hardly possible to save the affected plant, so it is important to immediately remove the diseased bushes to prevent the spread of the disease. The place of excavation must be sanitized.
Bacterial pepper cancer and how to fight it
The disease refers to bacterial, the development is promoted by increased humidity and warm weather, as well as thickening of the beds. A characteristic feature is considered to be dark spots( dots) spreading across the plant, which subsequently merge with each other, forming a large crust. With , the patch of spots has a lighter color, which helps to determine the diagnosis. . Small holes may appear.
When signs are detected, the culture should be sprayed with copper sulphate or preparations containing copper. Affected bushes should be removed from the bed.
Fighting tobacco mosaic
Tobacco mosaic is a viral disease characterized by the penetration of the virus into cells and the destruction of chlorophyll. As a result of cell death, a marble pattern is formed on the surface of the sheet, with beige and emerald inclusions.
Disinfection of soil and seedlings before planting, as well as the right choice of variety, will help prevent the disease.The virus remains in the ground for 5 years, so you need to carefully remove plant residues from the plot at the end of the season.
Pepper pests and how to deal with them
Besides diseases, pests can destroy a crop. One of the most dangerous is aphid. Feeding on pepper juice, it is able to destroy a bush in a few days, in which leaves and flowers will begin to fall. It spreads quickly on beds, so it’s not worth delaying with insecticide treatment. In order to keep the working solution prepared from Karbofos or Keltan longer on green, you need to supplement it with chopped soap.
aphids. A lot of trouble is caused to gardeners by a spider mite. Located on the bottom of the leaves, it sucks the juice from the pepper. Immediately after the discovery of the parasite, it is necessary to treat the beds with infusion prepared from a glass of chopped onion( garlic), dandelion leaves and 1 tbsp.lsoap. All ingredients after adding a bucket of water insist for several hours.
aphids Among other pests, slugs are naked. They damage greens and fruits, causing rotting to begin. You can get rid of them by spraying the plants with Strela( 50 grams of powder for a bucket of water).
Identified holes in the leaves indicate the invasion of the Colorado potato beetle. The pest and its larvae are incredibly voracious, so it’s important not to lose time and collect insects from the bushes. After collecting, spray the pepper with the Commodore( 1 ml per bucket of water).
The Medvedka likes to eat leaves too. The arrangement of traps and spraying the smell of kerosene in places of its accumulation helps in fighting it.
Treating peppers from pests and diseases with home remedies at home
You can avoid problems with growing bell peppers if you follow the basic rules for home prevention.
- When choosing a seed or seedling, preference should be given to disease resistant varieties.
- It is recommended to store seeds in a dry ventilated area.
- Before planting, the soil should be treated in order to destroy various pathogens and larvae.
- Before planting, seeds are soaked in a solution of copper sulphate, a weak solution of potassium permanganate or special preparations.
- Every day you need to inspect the beds in order to early identify foci. If necessary, spray or treat plants selected folk methods.
- To seedlings should be planted with respect to distance in order to avoid thickening.
- When watering, monitor soil moisture levels. Excessive moisture provokes the development of fungal diseases.
Armed with knowledge gardeners easier to protect the crop from pests and diseases. One has only to comply with the systematic care of the culture. And then healthy bushes will grow even on the windowsill in the apartment.